Fashion Media Part 2 (Chapters 17,18,19)

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Eastern Europe (1947-1960)
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pro-soviet, soviet occupation, vulnerable to occupation because of need for repair (physically and economically)
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Western Europe (1947-1960)
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pro-western, parliamentary government, capitalist economies *Western Germany’s democratic government was a success
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Marshall Plan of 1948
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aid provided by USA that eventually caused industrial production in Western Europe to surpass that of pre-war levels
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Northern Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
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Western Europe, USA, Canada population explosion, a lot of people move to the cities
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Middle East & Asia (1947-1960)
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religious conflict between Jews and Arabs lead to Palestine and Israel independence from European imperialism in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Indonesia, China is under communist rule
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Soviet Union (1947-1960)
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maintained control over Eastern Europe (namely Hungary)
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United States (1947-1960)
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Cold War, McCarthyism, Silent Generation, Beginning of Social Protest, Civil Rights
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Cold War (1947-1960)
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Truman’s atomic bomb, fear of Soviet Union’s atomic bomb, develop hydrogen bomb in response and Soviet Union has it 3 years later (arms race), 1950-1953 defending South Korea against communist North Korea (+China)
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McCarthyism (1947-1960)
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fear that communist agents were undermining the US government from the inside spread by Senator Joseph McCarthy
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Silent Generation (1947-1960)
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the postwar generation that were young veterans of WWII and the Korean War known to be studious, earnest, and humorless
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Beginning of Social Protest (1947-1960)
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beatniks: originally a literary movement, a group eventually adopted eccentric habits of wearing beards, pony tails, dirty sneakers, and peasant blouses; experimenting with drugs and far off religions
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Civil Rights (1947-1960)
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overturned: \”separate but equal\”, only a limited amount of progress by 1960, segregation became illegal, but was slow to be put into practice
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Influences on Fashion From the Silent Generation (1947-1960)
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baby boom: the generation that resulted when women of the silent generation returned to home-making instead of paid jobs, many families move to the suburbs which results in commercial centers or \”malls\”
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Influences on Fashion From the Young (1947-1960)
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more emphasis on family so teens were at home longer which allowed for an expansion of the teen market and adolescent influence on the garment industry
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Teddy Boys (1947-1960)
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working-class British teens who wore longer shaped jackets, high lapels, cuffed sleeves, waistcoats, and narrow trousers (zoot suit-esque) with brightly colored socks and narrow neckties significance: 1. first outfit to be promoted by young for young 2. first fashion to be among lower class 3. first fashion to be outward evidence of a lifestyle cult
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winkle pickers
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shoes with very pointed toes
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DA
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duck-tailed shape of hair at back of head
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Feminine Version of Teddy boys
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grey jackets, black sweaters, black skirts, dark stockings, high heels with a pointed toe
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Impact of Television (1947-1960)
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spread of many trends to young people, white bucks (Pat Boone), slicked back hair (Kookie), pompadours (Elvis Presley), coon hats (Davy Crocket), Lucille Ball’s maternity clothes, gowns and cocktail dresses worn by singers
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white bucks
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white buckskin shoes (Pat Boone)
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Internationalism (1947-1960)
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quick transportation made traveling easier and cheaper >> brought back fashions from other countries and were more receptive to imported goods
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Fabric Revolution (1947-1960)
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Pre-WWII: silk, wool, cotton, linen, rayon, acetate, nylon Post-WWII: modacrylics, acrylics, polyesters, triacetate, spandex *easier to care for because of more casual lifestyle drip dry fabrics, wash-and-wear fabrics (eventually replaced by permanent press)>> cotton-polyester blend
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Changing Couture (1947-1960): originals
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garments shown and sold by couture houses
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Christian Dior
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revived couture in 1947 with show of \”New Look\”, Piquet >> Lelong
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Cristobal Balenciaga
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Spanish born, opened in 1937, master of sculptural forms and shapes, a major force until he closed his house suddenly in 1968
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Coco Chanel
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reopened in 1954 and died in 1971
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American Mass Market (1947-1960)
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created custom-made clothes but worked for department stores: Mainbocher, Charles James, Sophie and Castillo high-priced ready-to-wear: Claire McCardell, Norman Norell, Pauline Trigere, Arnold Scaasi, and James Galanos *originate>manufacture>distribute
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knock-offs
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garments created by designers who designed low-priced clothing that were copies of high-priced items, because importing garments was so expensive (Chanel suit =$3500), department stores would be licensed to create line-for-line copies that were sold at lower prices
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New Centers of Design (1947-1960)
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Pre-War: Paris, New York 1950s: Florence, Rome, London
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Costume for Women (1947-1960): Styles
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Styles: 1. lengthened skirts 2. rounded, soft curve for shoulder line 3. very full skirts 4. very slim skirts 5. small waistline for skirts and dresses, stressed curves
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Costume for Women (1947-1960): Garments
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Garments: -bras were meant for \”uplifting,\” came in strapless varieties (both short and extended \”Merry Widow\” with boning) -girdles/foundation garments: waist cinches -full and permanently stiffened petticoats (nylon plain-weave) -necklines were plain, round, or square; some had peter-pan style collars -sleeves were close-fitting; cap sleeves gained popularity -suits had narrow skirts and close fitting jackets (at waistline) where they had a peplum or rounded, padded hip -bridal gowns were usually floor length -wide skirts were preferred for evening but sometimes narrow-skirted styles had puffs of fabric at the hips or fish tails -most bodices were strapless with boning -coats: fitted bodice areas and full skirts (usually belted) or full from shoulders; kimono or raglan sleeves -sweaters and cardigans gained popularity -narrow pants fit the leg closely and ended at the ankle -many types of shoes with varying heel heights
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Summer Jacket Dresses (1947-1960)
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sleeveless with small straps or halter top
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bolero (1947-1960)
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cropped jacket
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coat dresses (1947-1960)
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full skirts and buttoned down the front
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shirtwaist dresses (1947-1960)
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full skirts
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maternity dresses (1947-1960)
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two pieces – loose tops and narrow skirt with stretchy panel
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ballerina length (1947-1960)
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evening dresses that were the same length as daytime dresses; popular among high school and college students
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shorties/toppers (1947-1960)
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jackets that ended above the waist to accommodate wide skirts
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shrugs (1947-1960)
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were bolero-like cardigans
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houseboy pants (1947-1960)
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pants that ended at the calf
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pedal pushers (1947-1960)
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pants that ended mid-calf
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bikini (1947-1960)
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two-piece bathing suit (Jacques Heim)
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nylons (1947-1960)
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sheer stockings
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sneakers (1947-1960)
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canvas tennis shoes
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Signs of Silhouette Changes: 1954-1960
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a-line/chemise styles: Balenciaga(’54), Dior(’55); unfitted look trapeze dress: Yves St. Laurent for Dior(’58)
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Survival of New Look Styles (1947-1960)
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\”Merry Widow\”>> bustier
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Costume for Men (1947-1960)
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-Esquire introduced the Bold Look (October 1948) -broad shoulders, wide lapel, double-breasted, longer than pre-war years -less padding in shoulders by the 50s with single breasted -era of the gray flannel suit -continental suit -evening wear: tuxedos or dinner jackets -coats had more natural shoulders and slender cuts -\”Ivy League Style\” -chinos -flat top
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The Bold Look
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Esquire introduced the Bold Look (October 1948) >> a continuation of the English drape cut with more emphasis on shirt, suit, coordination
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Era of the gray flannel suit (1950s)
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novel and then film (Gregory Peck)
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Continental suit (1950s)
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closer fit, rounded, cut away fronts
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\”Ivy League Style\” (1947-1960)
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crew neck sweater, button down shirt, belt with buckle at the back, and chinos
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chinos (1947-1960)
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khaki-colored, twill-weave, cotton fabric
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flat top (1947-1960)
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when the hair was cut flat on top
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Costume for Children (1947-1960)
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-\”look-alike\” outfits were common: miniature flannel suits for boys and similar patterns as mothers for daughters -Infants: pants with gripper-snap fasteners (some with reinforced knees), girls wore loose yoked dresses and boys in rompers of short pants -Girls: styles echoed those of women’s in all aspects(princess-lines, full skirts, etc.) with short hair -Boys: suits with button-down shirts or polos with hair in a crew cut
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fad
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a style of intense popularity worn by a large number of people for a very short time
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poodle skirts
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full-circle felt skirts with a poodle appliqué; worn with saddle shoes, socks, a white shirt and scarf, was a fad
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Themes (1947-1960)
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-relationship between costume and the work of individual designers -production and acquisition of textiles and apparel -social group memberships -changes in patterns of social behavior -economics -communication -technology -fashion
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Man: 1947-1950
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the prewar, full shoulder line, double-breasted suits with somewhat longer jackets and cuffed pants return
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Man: 1950-1960
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lines slimmer, based on Edwardian styles of the Teddy Boys. Suits are often made in gray wool flannel. Some colored shirts begin to appear
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Woman: 1947-1955
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As war restrictions end, the New Look appears with rounded shoulders, narrow waist, and longer skirts, either very full or very narrow and straight
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Woman: 1955-1960
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first move toward different silhouettes as less-fitted garments, chemise, trapeze, and A-line garments appear in Paris
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1960s
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-FDA approval of the pill -first lady wears a line for line copy of Chanel suit>> made in USA -Balenciaga= less fitted >>Dior jumped on board -A-line that is less fitted (transitional look = empire waistline; New Look until 60s) takes hold for the style of the time -French couture is really struggling>>have to create ready-to-wear lines
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mods (1960s)
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vespa scooters, tailor made suits, METH
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pop art (1960s)
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against the establishment, color
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Jean Shrimpton
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worlds first super model
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hippie (1970s)
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centered around music scene: revolting against lifestyles of their parents(members of silent generation)/constraints of society, Woodstock changes rock-n-roll
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punks (1970s)
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micro-minis, fishnets, altered clothing (staining, pinning, tearing), black eye make-up
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Silhouette changes (1970s)
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more fluid look, casual fit, easier lines, mold to body rather than stand away(60s) >> show shape of woman’s curves
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Emanuel Ungaro
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French, trained as a tailor, Balenciaga> partner (pereg) then became independent (first collection: 1965); sculpted clothes, heavy fabrics
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Zandra Rhodes
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London based; inspired by punk subculture; caftan with her original designs printed on it
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Sonia Rykiel
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started by commissioning an italian designer to make the sweater of her dreams; eventually goes out on her own and is named \”queen of knit\”
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Halston
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darling of jet-set crowd of NY; elegant, traditional, simple, wearable; matte-jersey; simple silhouettes
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Oscar de la Renta
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Dominican > USA; apprentice at Balenciaga > Lanvin > Arden NY(’63); launches own ready-to-wear(’65); married editor-in-chief of French Vogue >> blew up; dressed many of the first ladies and other female celebrities; attention to detail; makes lots of fabric appear light
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Diane Von Furstenberg
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no formal fashion training; understood the needs of the modern, liberated woman; credited with jersey wrap-dress
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Europe (1960-1980)
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European Economic Community(EEC) was formed in the mid 1960s >> abolished tariffs affecting trade among themselves
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The Soviet Union (1960-1980)
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launches first satellite in 1957, maintained control over satellite counties in Eastern Europe >> 1968 invade Czechoslovakia to prevent freedom of press and expression(to promote Czechoslovak Communist Party)
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The Middle East (1960-1980)
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Egyptian and Syrian troops invade Israel (1973-1974), Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries(OPEC) puts brief embargo on nations supportive of Israel(USA), Camp-David Accords = treaty between Israel and Egypt (with help from USA)
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Africa and the end of Colonialism (1960-1980)
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1957: Gold Coast is first African state to be given independence(=Ghana) mid 1960s: Belgium and France free their colonies(Algeria)
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Japan (1960-1980)
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industrial expansionism >> brand new production plants, US gives technological information to help, low wages, high savings, weak trade unions, demanding schools, and lifetime employment, high technological advances and manufacturing standards lead to satellite car plans in USA in 90s, Kenzo goes to Paris in 1965
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The United States (1960-1980)
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-Kennedy is president -civil rights -Vietnam -China -energy -environment -change in Family Life and Role of Women -Social Protest
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Impact of Social Change on Fashion (1960-1980)
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-haute couture behan to expand by adding lines for men and pret-a-porter(ready-to-wear) -1962: pop art symposium at MOMA, designer John Weitz opens a boutique for men -style tribe -street styles
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Kenzo
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came to Paris as a couture designer in the 60s; opened his first ready-to-wear shop in 1970
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Street Styles (1960-1980)
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styles that originated among the young who often congregated in groups on the street
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Style Tribe (1960-1980)
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groups that favored styles that diverged from mainstream fashion (i.e. hippies, punks, mods)
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The Mods (1960-1980)
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rockers: rough and tough, rode motorcycles and wore black leather jackets mods: getting stoned, self-expression, poetry; elegance, long hair, granny glasses, Edwardian finery (young britons) 1965: American sportswear manufacturer for men – McGregor- introduces \”mod\” clothes to US market 1967: some type of anti-mod backlash
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The Hippies (1960-1980)
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hippies: long hair, beards, love beads, long skirts, gypsy-like costumes; clothing from thrift shops 1968: American designer Ken Scott shows hippie/gypsy look August 1969: Woodstock Music and Art Fair Peacock Revolution: fancifully colored and styled garments aimed at men that ranged from evening wear to underwear
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Peacock Revolution (1960-1980)
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fancifully colored and styled garments aimed at men that ranged from evening wear to underwear
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Anti-War Protestors (1960-1980)
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importance of blue jeans: solidarity with working people, became a mode of self-expression: added patches, embroidery, and painted messages
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Punk Styles (1960-1980)
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punk: messy, baggy, ripped-up clothes; girls: micro-minis, fishnet stockings; holes, tears, stains, piercings, heavy/dark eye make-up, hair-dye 1977: punk fashions introduced and british designer Zhanda Rhodes incorporates king tut punk styles into her clothes
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The Women’s Movement (1960-1980)
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feminist believes women’s clothes were a means of limiting their freedoms>> burned bras outside Miss America Pageant
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Civil Rights Movement (1960-1980)
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many African-americans adopt styles that reflect their interest in their heritage, appearance of black models(60s)
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dashikis (1960-1980)
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collarless, wide shirts with kimono type sleeves and caftans
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kente cloth (1960-1980)
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complex, elaborate, multicolored, woven designs made on narrow strip-looms by Ashanti men in Ghana; textiles made in traditional designs for dashikis and other garments
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afro (1960-1980)
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full, fluffy hairstyle that took advantage of the nature curl of many African-americans hair; widely adopted by both men and women
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corn-row braids (1960-1980)
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traditional African way of arranging the hair in myriad of small braids
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The White house Influences Styles (1960-1980)
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media coverage allows political figures to become styles icons, JFK didn’t wear a hat to inauguration >> hat purchasing declined Jackie O: bouffant hairstyles, pillbox hats, a-line skirts, low-slung pumps, empire-style evening dresses, wrap around sunglasses
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Political Events (1960-1980)
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Vietname war >> jeans, military inspired dress, Nixon plans to go to China(’72) >> Chinese-influenced styles begin appearing (clothing, textiles, accessories, design motifs, and adaptations)
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The Space Age
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1964: Andre Courreges shows his \”Space Age collection;\” models wore helmets and lines were precise and non-ornamental with many geometric shapes, Velcro appears, plastic (jewelry), vinyl
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op art (1960-1980)
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\”optical art\”, visual illusions through geometric patterns; translated readily to fabric
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pop art (1960-1980)
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\”popular art\”; glorified representations of ordinary objects, Saint Laurent puts pop-art influences designs on the plain black dresses 1965: Saint Laurent’s Mondrian Dress: dress covered in geometric shapes, lines, and primary colors; inspired by the paintings of abstract dutch painter Piet Mondrian 1970: discovery of King Tut leads to an increase in Egyptian-inspired designs
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wearable art (1960-1980)
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the origin of a combination of clothing and fiber art; antecedents in decoration of textiles used for clothing by hippies; these artists would use techniques such as: crocheting, knitting, embroidery, dying techniques, and painting; each garment was unique
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Ethnic Looks (1960-1980)
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inspirations included: Native American dress, Easter European folk, African styles
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Changes in the Fashion Industry (1960-1980)
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-increasing variety in fashion segments -clothing for both men and women was becoming increasingly diversified(styles, uses) -prior to the 60s it was possible to identify one common and strong silhouette for each era of fashion >> no longer as obvious 60s: loose, unfitted; short hemlines; miniskirts 70s: midi-skirt(longuette), which was projected to replace mini-skirts, was rejected
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trickle-down theory
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the idea that the upper-class individuals initiate styles which are then imitated by the next lower class within society
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bottom-up theory
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the fact that popular styles seemed to originate with the less affluent individuals(60s) and with style tribes/subcultures
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Attempts to Curve Fashion Changes (1960-1980)
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offices set dress codes (usually against pantsuits on women), restaurants would not accept women in pantsuits, schools were expelling kids based on hair length or skirt length, those who adopted African-style of dress were made fun of/humiliated
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Changes in Fashion Design (1960-1980)
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after couture designers became established they would expand towards ready-to-wear mid 1960s: Courreges and Saint Laurent design lines of ready-to-wear 1957: Cardin opens menswear boutique late ’60s: franchised boutiques (had rights to sell merchandise or was owned by designer)
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pret-a-porter
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French term for \”ready-to-wear\”
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designer jeans (1960-1980)
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denim jeans that were produced by \”well-known\” designers; they would prominently display the name of the designer or a logo on the outside
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licensing (1960-1980)
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the practice of using a designers name on a variety of products while protecting it legally
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Designers of Men’s Clothing (1960-1980)
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1957: Cardin begins to design for men 1965: John Weitz opens a boutique for men
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Costume for Women (1960-1980)
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-shortened skirts, straight/unfitted or princess style with a-line waist, revival of empire waist -pants were more widely acceptable for all occasions -jeans gained popularity -pantsuits were common and increased in popularity as fashion industry continued to redesign them
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skimmer (1960-1980)
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sleeveless, princess-line style
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miniskirt (1960-1980)
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skirt that was as short as two inches above the knee
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micro mini (1960-1980)
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any skirt shorter than a miniskirt
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maxi (1960-1980)
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full-length, unfitted skirt
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midi (1960-1980)
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skirt that ended at mid-calf
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Costume for Women (1960-1974)
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-underwear: bra, underpants, slips, girdles -pantyhose, body stockings, body suits, leotard -hippies and radical feminists often rejects the use of bra, use of girdles slowed
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pantyhose (1960-1974)
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alternative to nylon stockings; part hosiery part underwear
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bodystockings (1960-1974)
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body-length, knitted, stretch underwear
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body suits (1960-1974)
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similar garments to body stockings but ended at the top of the leg; some were shoulder to toe; worn with upper-section visible to replace blouse
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leotard (1960-1974)
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two-piece, knitted, body-hugging garment (Jules Leotard)
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Women’s Garments (1960-1974)
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-suits redesigned to be more loosely fitted >> exemplified by Chanel: collarless, cardigan style jacks and A-line skirt -chemises of late 50s (rather soft, draped appearance) were replaced by dresses with harder lines (mid 60s) -(mid 1960s): matching pants and jacked were introduced for daytime, business and evening wear >> double knit polyester fabrics (inexpensive) or wool double knits (expensive) -(late 1960s): pantsuits become more popular than skirted suits, short dresses were preferred, long evening dresses made a comeback -blouses became less fitted, turtlenecks gained popularity -matching cardigan and pullover sweater sets were fashionable
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Notable Dress Silhouettes (1960-1974)
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-empire waistline -A-line shapes -dresses cut straight and loose from shoulder to hem -dresses falling straight from yoke at shoulder to hem -dresses unfitted through torso and with a flounce joined to hem at knee
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granny dresses (1960-1974)
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long, daytime dresses
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paper dresses
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(1966-1968) Scott Paper Company produced some paper dresses as a promotion and it caught on for a brief period of time; A-line, unfitted style
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palazzo pajamas (1960-1974)
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pantsuits of decorative fabrics with full-legged trousers, made in soft fabrics
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Women’s Sportswear (1960-1974)
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-skirts of all lengths and shapes were available; most common were waistbandless A-line styles that were mini in length -(early 1960s): knitted stretch pants with narrow legs and blouson tops
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hip huggers (1960-1974)
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wide, flared or bell-bottom legs, fitted smoothly across the hip, and was made with facing rather than a waistband
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hot-pants
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very short pants (early 70s)
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poorboy sweaters (1960-1974)
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tightly-fitting, rib-knit sweaters that looked as if they had shrunk
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Women’s Outdoor Garments (1960-1974)
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coats were straight and loose with an easy fit and rounded shoulders, available in all lengths, capes and ponchos were available too
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Women’s Clothing For Active Sports (1960-1974)
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leotards were used for dancers and aerobic exercises, leg warmers, bathing suits were two and one piece, unitard
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leg-warmers (1960-1974)
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loose-fitting footless stockings used by dancers to keep their legs warm during warm-up sessions; worn on street as well (fad)
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monokini
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Rudi Fernreich (1964) topless bathing suits
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unitard (1960-1974)
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ski suits that were one piece jumpsuits (1968 olympics)
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Women’s Sleepwear (1960-1974)
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short-legged pajamas and short nightshirts, nightgowns and \”shorties\” (nightgowns that were short with matching underwear)
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Women’s Accessories (1960-1974)
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bouffant hairstyles (early 60s) >> long and straight (mid 60s and 70s), geometric haircuts (Vidal Sassoon), hats had large crowns and barely any brim (Jackie O. increased popularity of the pillbox hat), seam-less stockings, pantyhose gained popularity, shoes began to more closely resemble styles of today, pierced ears gained popularity
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Introduction of the Midi: 1970-1974
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-fashion industry fails to impose radical change (like chemise in 50s) -1971: New York Times declares that women can wear any length skirt they want -1973: fashion reporter for New York Times says midi is getting a warm reception -1974: Paris couture houses start showing midis -1978: all lengths were being shows
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Costume for Women (1974-1980)
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-bras were created with synthetic fabrics to remove seam lines and proved a more natural looks -pantyhose control tops took place of girdles -1973: \”classical revival\”; dresses were belted (to provide a clear defined waistline) with soft lines -1975: skirts were long and flared gradually, fabrics were soft, drape-able, and knitted, DVF invents cotton-knit wrap dress, pantsuits became more widespread -1977: John Malloy warns against pantsuits in his book Dress For Success -menswear inspired suits: tailored jacket and skirt with soft tie at neck of blouse -discos replaced elaborate formal dances >> clothing was much more casual -most coats ended below the knee, late 1970s down or fiber-filled coats gained popularity for winter
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Women’s Sportswear (1974-1980)
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-1976: jeans moved away from bell-bottom and had narrower legs -1978: pleated/gathered at waistband, tapered toward ankle and then cuffed or rolled -1975: skirts were fuller and covered the knee -skirts that wrapped around the body and tied into place and swirl skirts -blouses were soft, often knit; shoulder lines were natural; somewhere between blouse and sweater (ribbed knits) -Vogue declared sweater as a wardrobe staple: round-necks over blouses, thigh-length with belt -1977: Issey Miyake combines oversized sweater and leggings
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swirl skirt (1974-1980)
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bias cut strips of multicolored fabrics that were from India (part of the ethnic period)
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Women’s Outdoor Garments (1974-1980)
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as the tie-belt trend grew, they were incorporated into trench-coats and raincoats
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Women’s Clothing for Active Sports (1974-1980)
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1975: Rudi Fernreich designs the thong 1976: fitted jumpsuit is very popular on the ski slopes 1977: suit that appeared to be one-piece but could be zipped apart
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Women’s Sleepwear (1974-1980)
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robes in kimono styles were popular
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Women’s Accessories (1974-1980)
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hair had a more natural look, ends of 70s frizzy curls were popular, wedge, Farrah Fawcett-Majors in Charlie’s Angels, slender more graceful shoes, quilted handbags of Chanel, diamonds by the yard, make-up was still aimed at a natural look 1973: narrow rectangular handbags 1976: large tote bags 1979: large, soft satchels
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Diamond by the Yard (1974-1980)
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Elsa Peretti’s string of gold chain with diamonds
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Costume For Men (1960-1980)
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-boxers (now in printed fabrics), briefs, t-shirts -wide lapels and three piece suits make a comeback -men had more interest in fashion: evidenced by esquire and other magazines -Nehru jackets
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Nehru jackets (1960-1980)
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a jacket based on a traditional Indian jacket that buttoned all the way to the neck and has a small, stand-up collar (named for Indian PM Jawaharlal Nehru)
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Men’s Sportswear (1960-1980)
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-sweaters grew larger and looser over time -body shirts: shirts cut and seamed to follow body lines -leisure shirts were out of style by the end of the decade -tuxedos can now be found in burgundy, green, and brown
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Men’s Outdoor Garments (1960-1980)
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-coats came in a variety of lengths but as women’s skirts grew shorter so did men’s coats -men commonly wore shorter coats -tapered slacks were replaced with bell-bottoms -jeans were fashionable dress instead of work clothes -safari jackets made a comeback
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Men’s Sleepwear (1960-1980)
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pajamas in either short or long pants with colors; velour robes
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Men’s Accessories (1960-1980)
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young men had very long hair, moderately long hair with facial hair for most everyone else, wide ties were popular (Ralph Lauren)
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Costume for Children (1960-1980)
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-dressed in the \”classic\” fashions of the times but some adult trends were addressed and transformed -Girls: A-line dresses, ponchos, leisure suits with bell-bottoms, parkas, and jeans -\”go-go\” boots: calf length, thick-heeled, white boots -Boys: wore mini versions of their fathers: three piece suits, sport jackets with pants or shorts
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Important Dates (1980-2013)
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1980: Reagan elected president 1981: Lady Diana Spencer marries Prince Charles 1984: HIV is connected to AIDS by researchers; leading cause of death in NYC amend men 25-44 >> female designers found more investment for labels because investors were avoiding designers who they thought were at high risk for contracting the disease 1988: George H.W. Bush is elected president 1989: Berlin Wall falls 1990: East and West Germany reunite 1990: Iraq invades Kuwait 1991: Persian Gulf War; Operation Desert Storm 1991: government of Soviet Union collapses 1992: Clinton is elected, reelected in 1996 1993: WTC bombed by terrorists killing 5 and injuring 1000+ 1995: OKC federal building bombed 2000: George W. Bush elected president; reelected in 2004 2001: terrorists attacks on WTC, war in Afghanistan 2002: European Union adopts EURO 2003: invasion of Iraq; capture of Hussein 2007: mortgage crisis; dollar weakens 2008: Obama is elected; reelected in 2012
question

The Goths (1980-2013)
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importance of makeup: dark eyes, light skin
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The Preppies (1980-2013)
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originated in late 1970s and early 1980s, based on styles worn at prep schools(polos, deck shoes, D-ring belts), somewhat conservative but adopted by all ages, Ralph Lauren, J. Crew
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Grunge (1980-2013)
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late 1980s and early 1990s, Olsons, Johnny Depp, etc., ripped up jeans, cut-offs, oversize tops
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Emo (1980-2013)
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\”deeply emotional\”, tight jeans and t-shirts; make-up for both males and females scene: emo but of the younger generation and more plugged into technology and social media
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Hip-Hop (1980-2013)
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became popularized
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Power Dressing (1980s)
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-John T. Malloy’s Dress for Success: tips for dressing for your profession,\”dress for the job you want, not the one you already have\”, inspired more adaptation of menswear for women >>pantsuits
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Fashion Scenes (1980s)
answer

-London and Italy emerge as fashion scenes -Italy: Valentino, Dolce & Gabana, Versace -France: Gaultier, Lacrois, Lagerfeld, Azzedine Alaia, Ghesquiere, Mugler, Rykiel -GB: Westwood, McCartney, McQueen, Zandra Rhodes, Galiano, Hussein Chalayan -Belgium/Germany: Martin Margiela, Jil Sander, Dries Van Noten, Ann Demeulmeester, Walter Van Bierdonck -Japan: Kawakubo, Miyake, Kenzo, Hanse Mori, Yamamoto -USA: Tom Ford, Marc Jacobs, Zac Posen, Donna Karan, Isaac Mizrahi, Michael Kors
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Who owns fashion?
answer

-LVMH -Kering -Chanel SA -Prada Group -Richemont -Limited Brands -Aeffe Group -Fifth & Pacific -Gap Inc. -Puig Group
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fashionistas (1980-2013)
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fashionable, affluent adult followers of certain fashion designers
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Postmodernism (1980-2013)
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-rejection of authority -cultural or ethnic groups with irreconcilable differences -the appropriation or juxtaposition of elements from different styles -the use of symbols without reference to their traditional meanings
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The Elements of the Fashion System (1980-2013)
answer

-Luxury Fashion: haute-couture and innovative/expensive ready-to-wear; Paris, NY, Milan, London, Tokyo -Industrial Fashion: fashion created by manufacturers which sell similar products to similar social groups in many different countries as well as by smaller companies that confine themselves to a particular country or continent -Street Styles: styles originated by urban subcultures or style tribes; spread by media attention
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Role of Haute Couture (80s & 90s)
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couture made a slight comeback with the oil-industry boom and the good economic times of the Reagan administration, designers were either classicists or saw fashion as something to have fun with, acquisition of houses by conglomerates
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Ready-to-Wear (1980-2013)
answer

-US: department stores organized sales floors according to designers and wearing ready-to-wear items was common -France: franchised boutiques; housed the pret-a-porter firms and fashion week -Italy: many companies with international reputations -London: diversified and innovative styles -Japan: center of very innovative styles; garnered a lot of attention for mens and women’s styles
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Changes in Manufacturing (1980-2013)
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-use of compute technology; assembly of clothes in third-world countries -GATT -NAFTA -US manufacturers tried to keep up by using sweatshops filled with immigrants
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General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
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regulated imports and mandated a gradual termination of all quotes for imports
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North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
answer

1994:the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) came into effect, creating one of the world’s largest free trade zones and laying the foundations for strong economic growth and rising prosperity for Canada, the United States, and Mexico.
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Changes in Merchandising (1980-2013)
answer

-small boutiques open to sell craft/creative fashions or specialized style orientations -vintage clothing -501 jeans -hidden rivets jeans -trend of \”new vintage jeans\” -new methods of selling: TV, internet, outlet stores -growing teen market: tweens -prominence of labels: more of a selling point (especially for men)
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vintage clothing (1980-2013)
answer

valued for quality, workmanship, trend, condition
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501 jeans (1980-2013)
answer

trade of used Levis jeans in overseas market
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hidden rivets jeans
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jeans with rivets hidden in pockets (1937-1960)
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Tweens
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ages 7-14, had more \”direct spending power\”, strongly depended on celebrities and have a tendency to change minds about trends very quickly
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retro
answer

\”retrospective\”, designers of the 80s looked back >> revival of bustles, crinolines, camisoles, petticoats, hobble skirts, drop-waist chemises, bustiers, toreador pants, sheath dresses
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Political and Social Elite (1980-2013)
answer

important families influence fashion >> Diana’s wedding dress was imitated often; Sara Fergouson inspired the revival of \”back-fullness\”, Jackie Kennedy and Nancy Reagan were criticized for how much money they spent on clothes
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yuppies (1980-2013)
answer

young, upwardly mobile professionals who worked in fields such as business or law and stove to acquire high-status possessions
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preppies (1980-2013)
answer

affluent students at Ivy League colleges who would become \”yuppies\” after graduation >> classic tweed blazers, conservative skirts/trousers, tailored blouses or shirts, high-quality leather shoes
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African American Style (1980-2013)
answer

-fade: hair style where hair was very short on sides and long on top -kente cloth: traditional/colorful African fabric -dreadlocks: long-hair arranged in long hanging twists
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Body-Piercing and Tattooing (1980-2013)
answer

clothing would simulate tattooing into dress>> participating in style temporarily (removable imitation tattoos), body jewelry: jewelry worn on tongue, nose, lips, eyebrows, navel, nipples, etc.
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Persistence of Blue Jeans and Importance of Denim (1980-2013)
answer

continued to be a staple, new techniques for dying and finish (faded or streaked or textured), \”pre-washed, stone-washing, acid-washed\”, cut offs: old jeans that were cut above the knee and worn as shorts
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The Media as Fashion Influences (1980-2013)
answer

-music groups: rock bands, hip-hop, musicians started designing -arts: costume exhibitions (MET) -demographic changes: baby boomers + jeans >> more casual attitude towards clothes -\”casual Friday\” -high tech fabrics: meant for active sports >> microfibers: nylon + polyester = water – resistant, soft fabrics; chameleon fabrics -Fashionable Fabrics: pashmina (cashmere) -Sports and Activewear: boundaries between non-sports clothing and sports clothing blurred; high tech footwear (sneakers) >> common ready-to-wear/couture designers designed lines for important sports-clothing companies
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Costume for Women (1980-1995)
answer

-shoulders were padded and sleeves were larger -skirts were short, dresses were tight, midriffs were shown -underwear: frilly, feminine, colorful, lace, ribbon-trimmed -garments: bright floral patterns, printed rayon (empire waists and buttoned down fronts), classic shirt-waist dresses, tight/short dresses made with spandex, delicate/sheer dresses over other garments and paired with harsh accessories, coordinated ensembles of dresses and jackets
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deconstructionists (1980-1995)
answer

designers who made clothes with seams on the outside, linings that were part of the exterior, un-hemmed fabric edges
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Women’s Outdoor Garments (1980-1995)
answer

long-down coats were replaced by short-down, causal jackets, coats were neat and slim, wrap and trench coats
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Women’s Sportswear (1980-1995)
answer

-pants and skirts: culottes (divided skirts) were worn through 80s, spandex used for stretch tights and leggings, pants were slender and then became wider with large cuffs -blouses, sweaters and other tops: sweatshirts were a big fashion item >> fabric was transformed into skirts, dresses, and evening wear -90s: most popular style was frilly white blouse with large sleeves that was often worn with slim, black pants
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Women’s Clothing for Active Sports (1980-1995)
answer

-swimming: high inverted V at sides of suit with a deep-v in the front or back -skiing: skin-tight, hooded suits and revival of styles of the 60s and 70s -tennis: knitted tops with white skirts or shorts
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Women’s Sleepwear (1980-1995)
answer

same as modern sleepwear
question

Women’s Accessories (1980-1995)
answer

hairstyles reflected diversity of fashion of the time; increased sales of hats due to warning against UV rays, lower heeled shoes as skirts were shortened, Doc Martens were popular (especially with skinheads and punks)
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Costume for Women (1995-2008)
answer

-two types of people: those who followed the trends of the time and those who wore the same classic styles year after year -almost any variation of any garment a consumer could want, they could find -minimalists -camo, animal fur, stripes, and leather were popular -asian influences increased, retro styles continue to emerge -baby-doll and trapeze dress had a revival (2008) -undergarments: lingerie was more popular and bras came in more varieties -daytime and evening garments: all necklines, often stain -maternity clothes much more fitted and often empire-waisted -tweed gained popularity and was used for daytime dresses, skirts, and suits -evening dresses ornamented with sequins and beading -skirts/pants came in any variety of styles and length
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minimalists (1995-2008)
answer

making styles in neutral or darker tones that had little ornamentation and good lines
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boho (1995-2008)
answer

a revival of the ideas that were part of the upscale hippie-influence clothes of the 1960s; vibrant colors, flawy fabrics, lots of patterns
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wifebeaters (1995-2008)
answer

tops cut like mens athletic shirts
question

hoodies (1995-2008)
answer

fitted, waist-length cardigan sweaters with attached hoods
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cargo pants and combat shorts (1995-2008)
answer

gained popularity after the invasion of Iraq
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capri (1995-2008)
answer

capri-length pants were essential
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Women’s Outerwear (1995-2008)
answer

cloth coats cut slender, trench coats popular, fur coats and outerwear trimmed with fur (real or synthetic)
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Women’s Accessories (1995-2008)
answer

-bed hair: tousled hair, messy ponytails, sometimes curled, hats varied -flats: shoes without heels (loafers, ballet slippers, moccasin), crocs: waterproof, no slip shoe with a perforated front and a sling-back
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Costume for Men (1980-2008)
answer

-peacock revolution inspired more choices for men -separates became more important as did brand names -1990: Time Magazine reports sack suit as staple -1996: suits had more structured lines -2000: dark, slim-cut, with a rumpled look -dress shirts came in a variety of patterns and colors
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Men’s Sportswear (1980-2008)
answer

-sports jackets had the same lines as suit jackets; often worn over a sweater or vest -made in linen for summer -pants were casual; jeans and slacks -sport shirts: t-shirts, polos, sweatshirts -1996: pleats were disappearing; dress trousers were tighter, unless they were hip-hop style; cargo pants were popular
question

Men’s Evening Dress (1980-2008)
answer

-tuxedos fit like suits; ruffled shirt gave way to sleeted shirt in 2000 -band collar: (madrian collar) a tuxedo shift collar that stood up
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Men’s Outdoor Garments (1980-2008)
answer

perfecto motorcycle jacket: black leather jacker made by Schott Brothers company; street fashion that became mainstream fashion
question

Men’s Clothing for Active Sports (1980-2008)
answer

-swimming: thong, bikini, briefs, boxer trunks, (and later) surfer/board shorts -skiing: tighter fabrics for unitards -snowboards: loosely fitted, well-insulated clothing
question

Men’s Sleepwear (1980-2008)
answer

robes grew in popularity
question

Men’s Accessories (1980-2008)
answer

-shorter hair was popular, product existed to give hair tousled look -hats reserved for cold weather with exception of baseball caps and trucker’s caps(hat that had a foam section at the grown and mesh around the rest) -loafers, sporty oxfords, boots, driving shoes, foam soled/suede-laced oxfords -unshaven look grew -soul patch: a small patch of hair centered below the lip; worn with goatee
question

Costume for Children (1980-2008)
answer

-silhouettes reflected those of adult styles; dressed like small adults -schools started mandating uniforms and strict dress-codes -Wheelys: (2000) shoes with wheels in soles that were comparable to a daily version of roller skates
question

1. In 1947 designer _______________________ created a style of dress that deviated sharply from the styles of the wartime period and came to be known as the New Look. a. Hubert de Givenchy b. Christian Dior c. Cristobal Balenciaga d. Pierre Balmain
answer

b. Christian Dior
question

2. The ____________________ were significant because they were the first group to begin a fashion movement that started among the lower classes, at the street level, and worked its way up to the upper classes. a. Teddy Boys b. Beatniks c. Silent Generation
answer

a. Teddy Boys
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3. The New Look led to the confining underclothing that had been seen since before 1920. a. True b. False
answer

a. True
question

4. The garment originally called the atom eventually came to be known as a. Pedal pushers b. A topper c. A girdle d. The bikini
answer

d. The bikini
question

5. The garments shown and sold by couture houses were classed originals. More than one original could be made of any style. a. True b. False
answer

a. True
question

6. The major style elements of the New Look and the changes that it brought were all of the following except: a. A dramatic drop in skirt lengths b. A shoulder-line with a round, soft curve c. A square, padded shoulder d. A small, nipped in waistline
answer

c. A square, padded shoulder
question

7. ____________________ is credited as the originator of the bikini. a. Jacques Heim b. Marc Bohan c. Pierre Cardin
answer

a. Jacques Heim
question

8. Spanish-born designer whose styles were often considered to be ahead of their time and was a favorite of Harper’s Bazaar editor Carmel Snow: a. Hubert de Givenchy b. Gustave Tassell c. Cristobal Balenciaga d. Marc Bohan
answer

c. Cristobal Balenciaga
question

9. Most French couture houses made major profits on their haute couture operations. a. True b. False
answer

b. False
question

10. The Textile Fiber Products Identification act of 1960 mandated that textile products sold in the American Ready-to Wear and the French Couture had to be sold with labels that identified the fiber content. a. True b. False
answer

b. False, identified textile fiber
question

11. In order to make high-fashion design available to American women, department stores such as Ohrbach’s, Macy’s, and Alexander’s in New York City bought designer original garments and by arrangement with the designer made relatively faithful copies that they sold at much lower prices than the originals could command. These copies were called: a. Knock-offs b. Modifications c. Line-for line copies
answer

c. Line-for line copies
question

12. The unfitted styles that became popular in the later 1950s and the better part of the 1960s were introduced as early as 1954 by: a. Cristobal Balenciaga b. Norman Norell c. James Galanos d. Jacques Fath
answer

a. Cristobal Balenciaga
question

13. The newly awakened young in the United States who appeared in the latter part of the 1950s were known as: a. The Silent Generation b. The Beatniks c. The Teddy Boys
answer

b. The Beatniks
question

14. The New Look was unique in that a dual silhouette for daytime garments consisting of both exceptionally full and narrow skirt coexisted. a. True b. False
answer

a. True
question

15. All of the following were true about stockings except: a. Long, sheer stockings were referred to as nylons b. Unseamed styles were more popular than seamed styles c. They were made of nylon d. Heels were reinforced with dark yarn
answer

b. Unseamed styles were more popular than seamed styles
question

16. Gabrielle \”Coco\” Chanel reopened her atelier promptly after the conclusion of World War II. a. True b. False
answer

b. False
question

17. The Silent Generation is defined as: a. The postwar generation of young veterans returning from World War II and the Korean War b. The advanced guard of the newly awakened young in the United States who appeared in the latter part of the 1950s c. The working class British adolescents who adopted styles in menswear that had a somewhat Edwardian flavor d. The group of young American adults who revolted against the values of adult society
answer

a. The postwar generation of young veterans returning from World War II and the Korean War
question

18. The baby boom of the 1940s and 1950s, together with Lucille Ball’s very public pregnancy on the I Love Lucy show, focused attention on maternity clothes. Even so, maternity clothes for advertisements were photographed on nonpregnant women. a. True b. False
answer

a. True
question

1. Mods?
answer

(1960-1980) mods: getting stoned, self-expression, poetry; elegance, long hair, granny glasses, Edwardian finery (young britons) 1965: American sportswear manufacturer for men – McGregor- introduces \”mod\” clothes to US market 1967: some type of anti-mod backlash
question

2. Rockers?
answer

(1960-1980) rockers: rough and tough, rode motorcycles and wore black leather jackets
question

3. Hippies?
answer

(1960-1980) hippies: long hair, beards, love beads, long skirts, gypsy-like costumes; clothing from thrift shops 1968: American designer Ken Scott shows hippie/gypsy look August 1969: Woodstock Music and Art Fair
question

4. Punks?
answer

(1960-1980) punk: messy, baggy, ripped-up clothes; girls: micro-minis, fishnet stockings; holes, tears, stains, piercings, heavy/dark eye make-up, hair-dye 1977: punk fashions introduced and british designer Zhanda Rhodes incorporates king tut punk styles into her clothes
question

5. Peacock Revolution (1960-1980) a. Wore messy, baggy, ripped up clothes with black eye makeup and hair painted green, yellow, and red. b. Were up for love, self-expression, poetry and getting stoned. Dressed in elegant styles with long hair, granny glasses, and Edwardian finery. c. Were rough and tough, rode motorcycles, and wore black leather jackets. d. Described men who dressed in fancifully colored and styled garments. e. Lifestyle stressed \”love\” and freedom from the constraints of \”straight\” society. Typical dress included long hair, beards, headbands, love beads, and gypsylike costume.
answer

d. Described men who dressed in fancifully colored and styled garments.
question

6. hot pants?
answer

very short pants (early 70s)
question

7. palazzo pajamas?
answer

(1960-1974) pantsuits of decorative fabrics with full-legged trousers, made in soft fabrics
question

8. hip huggers?
answer

(1960-1974) wide, flared or bell-bottom legs, fitted smoothly across the hip, and was made with facing rather than a waistband
question

9. Nehru suits?
answer

(1960-1980) a jacket based on a traditional Indian jacket that buttoned all the way to the neck and has a small, stand-up collar (named for Indian PM Jawaharlal Nehru)
question

10. Leisure suits a. Had wide, flaring or bell-bottom legs, fitted smoothly across the hip, and were often made with a facing rather than a waistband at the top. b. Suits designed for casual wear that typically had a top and pants made of matching fabric. The tops had shirt-like collars or were collarless. c. Pantsuits of decorative fabrics with full-legged trousers, made in soft fabrics. Popular for entertaining at home or formal occasions. d. Very short pants.
answer

b. Suits designed for casual wear that typically had a top and pants made of matching fabric. The tops had shirt-like collars or were collarless.
question

11. mini skirt?
answer

(1960-1980) skirt that was as short as two inches above the knee
question

12. micro mini?
answer

(1960-1980) any skirt shorter than a miniskirt
question

13. midi length skirt or dress?
answer

(1960-1980) skirt that ended at mid-calf
question

14. maxi length skirt or dress?
answer

(1960-1980) full-length, unfitted skirt
question

15. Granny dress a. Long daytime dresses popular in the 1970s b. Hem ending as much as two inches above the knee c. Hem ending at mid-calf d. The shortest of short skirts e. Full-length style dress of skirt
answer

a. Long daytime dresses popular in the 1970s
question

16. In the 1960s many of the French couture designers expanded their business to include prĂȘt-Ă -porter lines. a. True b. False
answer

a. True
question

17. All of the following are credited with the origination of bottom-up trends except _______. a. The Mods b. The Hippies c. The Space Race d. The Rockers
answer

c. The Space Race
question

18. Pierre Cardin was among the first internationally known designers to create a men’s line. a. True b. False
answer

a. True
question

19. British designer Zandra Rhodes incorporated _______________ styles into her 1977 collection. a. Mod b. Punk c. Hippie d. Rocker
answer

b. Punk
question

20. Designer most notably credited with popularizing the miniskirt. a. Mary Quant b. Paco Rabanne c. Zandra Rhodes d. Emilio Pucci
answer

a. Mary Quant
question

1. During the 1960s and 1970s the fashion industry began to diversify. By the 1980s we began to see movement away from a single predominant fashion ideal and a movement toward a variety of fashion segments. Some scholars believe this phenomenon can be explained by: a. Modernism b. Expansion into more international markets c. Postmodernism d. The decline of the Haute Couture
answer

c. Postmodernism
question

2. By the early 1980s the Haute Couture had begun to make a comeback as wealthy women from oil-producing countries provided a new clientele able to afford couture clothing. a. True b. False
answer

a. True
question

3. In the 1980s ___________________ emerged as a major fashion center a. Germany b. Japan c. Belgium d. Italy
answer

b. Japan
question

4. By 2000 it was evident that a new segment of the market called the _______________ market was playing an increasingly important role in retailing. This segment atered to clients aged 7 to 14. a. Teen b. Tween c. Kiddie Couture
answer

b. Tween
question

5. Deconstructionist garments were pieces of apparel with seams located on the inside, interior linings, and hemmed edges. a. True b. False
answer

b. False
question

6. Cosplay, a combination of the words costume and play, originated in ____________ but interest in the activity spread to other countries. a. France b. England c. Germany d. Japan
answer

d. Japan
question

7. Which former first lady, like Jackie Kennedy, was criticized for the amount of money she spent on clothing? a. Nancy Reagan b. Barbara Bush c. Hillary Clinton d. Laura Bush
answer

a. Nancy Reagan
question

8. The AIDS epidemic of the 1980s and 1990s cause financial investors to look more favorably upon investing in design businesses headed by female designers rather than male designers. a. True b. False
answer

a. True
question

9. In May 1984 Gentleman’s Quarterly noted, \” __________ fashion is different. These are clothes that conform to no fashion standards. They seek to abolish form. They hang loosely on the body in oversized, unusual silhouettes. The colors are almost always monochromatic or black.\” a. German b. Italian c. Belgium d. Japanese
answer

d. Japanese
question

10. ______________________ was the nickname applied to young, upwardly mobile professionals who worked in fields such as law and business. a. Preppies b. Goths c. Yuppies d. New Romantics
answer

c. Yuppies
question

11. Children’s clothing sales increased during the 1980s as a result of the baby boomers peak childbearing years falling during this time. a. True b. False
answer

a. True
question

12. Around 1985 __________________ produced a wide, puffy skirt with a light airy appearance nicknamed Le Pouf that was widely copied. a. Christian Lacroix b. John Galliano c. Sonia Rykiel d. JD Sander
answer

a. Christian Lacroix
question

13. In 1987 Thierry Mugler opened a new haute couture house a. True b. False
answer

b. False, 1992
question

14. _____________________ is the name that cashmere is called in the Kashmir region. a. Wool b. Mohair c. Pashmina d. Angora
answer

c. Pashmina
question

15. The black and white headscarf closely associated with the late Yassir Arafat and his Palestinian countrymen that was adopted as a fashion trend and worn as a neck scarf around 2007. a. Hijab b. Kente cloth c. Pashmina d. Kaffiyeh
answer

d. Kaffiyeh
question

16. By the 1980s and 1990s the Schott Brothers Perfecto motorcycle jacket was appearing in the haute couture shows and had made the full transformation from anti-establishment rebel fashion statement to mainstream fashion acceptability. a. True b. False
answer

a. True

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