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Family Therapies – Wingfield – 2014 Fall

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family myths
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“A collection of belief’s based on a distortion of historical reality and shared by all family members, which help shape the rules governing family functioning are known as:”
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self-actualization
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“An important concept is experiential family therapy–defined as the process of developing and fulfilling one’s inmate, positive potentialities.”
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unexpressed emotion
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Experiental family therapists believe ______ is/are the primary cause of dysfunction in families.
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facilitate emotional experiencing in family members
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Experiential family therapy is designed to:
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expanding experience
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Experiential therapy differs from most systems approaches with respect to its emphasis on _______ versus techniques that specifically facitlitate interaction
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restructuring of the family system
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The goals of experiential family therapy would NOT include:
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Disengagement
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Minuchin’s term for psychological isolation that results from overly rigid boundaries around individuals and subsystems in a family is _______.
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Milan and MRI
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“_____ therapists believe there is no one model of health or normality for families, therefore, they refrain from imposing any such model on their clients.”
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challenging cognitive constructions
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Structural therapists attempt to alter the family’s view of reality by:
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positive connotation
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The central intervention within the original Milan model consisted of either a ritual or a:
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Strategic Humanism
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“The current form of Haley/Madanes therapy is called ______, and still involves giving directives based on therapist hypotheses, though shifting the focus away from the power elements of family hierarchy.”
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structural/strategic
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“Jay Haley’s approach incorporates a functionalist viewpoint with his Ericksonian and cybernetic influences, thus combining aspects of the ______ and _______ approaches into his style of treating families.”
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positive connotation
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Selvini Palazzoli’s technique of ascribing helpful motives to family behaviors in order to promote family cohesions and avoid resistance to therapy is known as:
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triangles
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“According to the principles of which Bowenian construct, simply teaching a mother better techniques for disciplining her son will fail, because the intervention ignores the problem that she is overinvolved with the boy as a result of her husband’s emotional distance.”
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“None of these: reframing, circular questionsing, hierarchial restructuring, or paradoxical techniques”
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Both strategic and Milan systemic therapies aim to achieve personality change through:
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reopening cut-off family relationships
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“By training family members in 3 areas–teaching differentiation, avoiding triangulation, and _______, Bowen therapists can enable a single individual to transform the whole network of his or her family system.”
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general systems theory
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“A biological model of living systems as a whole entities which maintain themselves through continuous input and output from the environment, developed by Ludwig von Bertalanffy is known as:”
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positive feedback
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“According to communications theory, healthy families are able to adapt to changing circumstances through use of:”
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double bind
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Gregory Bateson and his colleagues at Palo Alto introduced this concept to describe the patterns of disturbed family communication which cause schizophrenia.
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Lyman Wynne
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“The family theory of the etiology of schizophrenia which focused on disturbed patterns of communication was founded by Gregory Bateson, Theodore Lidz, and _________.”
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structural family therapy
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“The notions of complementarity, structuralism, and general systems theory are all embraced by which family theory?”
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restructuring techniques
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“The techniques of structural family therapy fall into two general categories, joining and _______.”
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Nathan Ackerman
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This family therapist believed in the existence of an interpersonal unconscious in every family.
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increase the level of differentiation of self in family members
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The primary goal of Bowen family therapy is to:
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Schizophrenogenic
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“Frieda Fromm-Reichmann’s concept, “”_____ mother””, described a domineering, aggressive, rejecting, and insecure mother who was thought to provide the pathological parenting that produced schizophrenia.”
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shaping competence
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“_____ is another method of modifying interactions, which structural therapists use to help family members employ more functional alternatives already in their repertoire of skills.”
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“open, spontaneous experiencing”
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______ is considered more important by experiential therapists for healthy family functioning than either problem-solving skills or functional family structure.
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family sculpting
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“A non-verbal experiental technique, in which family members position themselves in a tableau that reveals significant aspects of their perceptions and feelings, is known as:”
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groups of individuals
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“Among experientialists, families are typically conceived of and treated as _______.”
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help family members notice when their parts have taken over
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An essential role of an IFS therapist is to:
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family connectedness
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“Carl Whitaker, Like Murray Bowen, believes that personal growth also requires:”
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co-therapists
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Experiential therapists typically use _____ to help minimize countertransference responses to family members in session.
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boundary making
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Internal family systems theorists use techniques such as ______ from structural family therapy to help people get their polarized parts to deal with each other while blocking the interference of other parts.
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softens the attacking spouse’s stance; engages the withdrawn spouse
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“Johnson and Greenberg have found that emotionally-focused couples therapy is more successful when the therapist first ______, and then _____, in that order.”
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Anorexia
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“Minuchin, Rosman, and Baker reported a 90% improvement rate in the results of their treatment study of structural family therapy in treating_____.”
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mystification
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R.D. Laing’s concept that many families distort their children’s experience by denying or relabeling it is known as:
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experiencing
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Research on emotionally-focused couples therapy has shown that greater _______ on the part of spouses results in more productive sessions and better treatment outcomes.
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achieve self-leadership
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The goal of internal family systems therapy is to:
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a parts detector
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“The IFS therapist uses ______ or sense of when people are and are not leading with their Selves, to help family members maintain Self-leadership as they interact.”
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internal family systems
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“The notion that the personality is subdivided has been proposed by Freud, the object relations theorists, and __________ theorists.”
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symptom relief
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The primary goals of family therapy included all EXCEPT which of the following?
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raise the level of anxiety in the family
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“Unlike Bowenians, experiential therapists will ______ then behave in alternately provocative and supportive ways in order to help families learn to express honest emotion.”
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existential encounter
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“Within experiential therapy, the ______ is believed to be the essential healing force in the psychotherapeutic process, whereby the therapist establishes caring, person-to-person relationships with each family member while modeling openness, honesty, and spontaneity.”
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“interrupt rigid patterns of conflict-avoidance, break families loose from their patterns of equilibrium, extend interactional sequences beyond the point where dysfunctional homeostasis is reinstated, all of the above”
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“In order to highlight and modify interactions in the family, structural therapists use intensity to:”
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taking sides
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“””unbalancing”” involves”
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an enactment
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An interaction stimulated in structural family therapy in order to observe and then change transactions which make up family structure is called:
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functionalists
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“Structural family therapists are ______, because they believe symptoms in one member are expressive of the entire family structure.”
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Joining
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“Structuralists believe that family must first accept the therapist, in a process called _____, which allows the therapist to increase stress and unbalance the family homeostasis, thus opening the way for structural transformation in the family.”
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differentiate individuals and subsystems by strengthening the boundaries around them
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The goal in structural family therapy when working with enmeshed families is to:
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a cross-generational coalition between mother and child
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“When parents are unable to resolve the conflicts between them, a common pattern is to continue to argue through the children. When father says mother is too permissive, she says he’s too strict. He may in turn withdraw, and she responds to the child with excessive concern and devotion. The structural term which best describes the resulting family structure is:”
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accommodation
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“When two people marry, they must learn to negotiate the nature of the boundary between them, as well as the boundary separating them from the outside. This structural requirement is known as____.”
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Joining
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A family therapist who begins a session by greeting individual family members by name and asking for each person’s view of the problem is demonstrating which strategy?
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“rigid, enmeshed, diffuse”
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Disengaged subsystems are surrounded by ______ boundaries while ______ subsystems have ________ boundaries.
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live observation
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In order to discern a family’s structure two things are necessary: A theoretical system that explains structure and:
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enactments
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Structural family therapists use _____ to observe and then change transactions that make up family structure.
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alter the family structure
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The primary treatment goal of structural family therapy is to:
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be loved
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“Madanes categorizes family problems according to 4 basic intentions of family members involved in them. They are: the desire to dominate and control, the desire to love and protect others, the desire to repent and forgive, and the desire to _____.”
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“therapeutic double-binds, paradox, directives (all of the above)”
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“The use of _____ is designed to block or change dysfunctional behavior using indirect, seemingly illogical means.”
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circular questioning
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“A method of interviewing developed by the Milan associates in which questions are asked to highlight differences among family members, is known as:”
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family ritual
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A technique used by the Milan group that prescribes a specific act for family members to perform–it is designed to change the family system’s rules.
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Strategic
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Action and insight are the primary vehicles of change in family therapy. The ______ school emphasizes behavioral change and eschews insight as a medium for change.
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reframing
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“The strategic technique of providing a new label for a family’s description of behavior, in order to make it more amenable to theapeutic change; for example, describing someone as “”lonely”” rather than “”depressed””.”
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MRI
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“All of these schools have for their goals of therapy both symptom resolution and transformation in the whole family system, EXCEPT which?”
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“failing to take action, though action is necessary. Denying that a problem exists.”
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“MRI therapists identify 3 categories of client solutions which tend to perpetuate or exacerbate their problems. They include attempting to solve something which isn’t really a problem, taking action to solve a problem but doing so at the wrong level, and _______.”
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black box concept
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“The idea that because the mind is so complex, it’s better to study people’s input and output (e.g. behavior and communication) than to speculate about what goes on in their minds is known as:”
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Strategic
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“Though many schools of family therapy believe that the real problem in families is some form of underlying family pathology, _______ family therapists deny that underlying dynamics are the cause of symptomatic behavior”
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interrupt dysfunctional feedback loops
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A primary goal of communications family therapy was to:
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second-order change
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Basic change in the structure and functioning of a system is known in general systems theory as:
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reframing
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Relabeling a family’s description of behavior to make it more amenable to therapeutic change is called:
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Cloe Madanes
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“The development and use of “”pretend techniques,”” paradoxical interventions in which family members are asked to pretend to engage in symptomatic behavior, is associated with which strategic/systemic therapist?”
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relationship experiments
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____ is a prominent technique in Bowen therapy designed to clarify emotional processes involved in altering key triangles. The technique is used in order to help family members become aware of systems processes and recognize their own roles in them – it was first developed for use with emotional pursuers and distancers.
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emotional cutoff
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A flight from a conflictual emotional attachment to one’s parents is known as:
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prescribing the symptom
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A paradoxical technique that forces a patient to either give up a symptom or admit that it is under voluntary control is known as:
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Laterborns
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“According to Sulloway’s research on the correlates of sibling position in families, _______ are more likely to question the status quo and are more open to experience.”
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ego strength
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“Bowen’s concept “”differentiation of self”” is more like, which of the following?”
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Gregory Bateson and Milton Erickson
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The strategic and systemic therapies have been most directly influenced by the ideas of:
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decrease
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“Unlike experiential therapists, Bowenians seek to _____ levels of anxiety in order to increase levels of differentiation of self in the family.”
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homeostasis
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A balanced steady state of equilibrium is known as:
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“Work with Genogram and Model how to take an “”I”” position”
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A Bowen therapist working with an individual family member in treatment is most likely to do which of the following?
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double bind
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A conflict created when a person receives contradictory messages on different levels of abstraction is known as a:
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symmetrical
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A relationship in which husband and wife both pursue careers and share housekeeping and childrearing responsiblities is ________.
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have parents who are highly differentiated
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“According to Bowen theory, more highly differentiated individuals will likely:”
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triangles
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“According to Bowen, _____ are the smallest stable unit of human relations.”
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It fails to appreciate the need for hierarchy and structure
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“According to the text, one problem with treating families as though they were groups like any other is that:”
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there is a chronic failure of spouses to achieve role reciprocity
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“According to Theodore Lidz, marital schism occurs when:”
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Cause an increase in symptoms/be absorbed by
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“An increase in chronic anxiety in the nuclear family system will tend to _______ less differentiated families, while it will _______ more highly differentiated families”
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Hierarchy
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Boundaries around the executive subsystem in the family are of particular importance because the family _________ is seen by structural therapists as crucial to the family’s well-being.
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negative feedback
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Communications family therapists hypothesized that normal families can maintain integrity in the face of environmental vagaries through ______.
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George Kelly
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Constructivism first found its way into psychotherapy in the work of:
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remain in emotional contact with family of origin
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“From a Bowenian perspective, optimal development in the family occurs when all members are relatively differentiated, anxiety is low, and parents _________.”
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Metapsychological
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“General systems theory, cybernetics, and social constructionism are ______ concepts.”
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Process/content
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Group-oriented therapists promoted communication by concentrating on ______ rather than _______.
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“1)They noticed when the patient got better, someone in the family got worse. 2) They realized the family continued to influence the course of treatment anyway.”
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Hospital clinicians began to acknowledge and include the family in an individual’s treatment when:
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emotional cutoff
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“In Bowen theory, the flight from a conflictual emotional attachment to one’s parents is known as:”
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multigenerational transmission process
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“In Bowen theory, this is a process wherin the projection of varying degrees of immaturity to different children in the same family occurs. This child who is most involved in the family emerges with the lowest level of differentiation, and passes on problems to succeeding generations.”
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family homeostasis
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“Jackson’s concept, _____, that families are units that resist change, became the defining metaphor of family therapy’s first three decades:”
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unfreezing
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“Kurt Lewin’s idea of _____ can be seen in action in Minuchin’s promotion of crisis in family lunch sessions, Norman Paul’s use of cross-confrontations, and Peggy Papp’s family choreography.”
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Pseudomutuality
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Lyman Wynne’s term for the facade of family harmony that characterized many schizophrenic families is:
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psychotic
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“Murray Bowen developed his ideas about family therapy while at the NIMH, studying _____ families. Based on his observations of these families’ intense clinging interdependence, he concluded that a lack of differentiation was responsible for all family pathology.”
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attitudes/behavior
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Narrative therapy differs from solution-focused therapy in being more focused on _____ than _____.
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Command
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“One of the major propositions put forth in Watzlawick et al.’s Pragmatics of Human Communication, what that all messages have a report and ________ function.”
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first order; second order
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“Superficial change in a system which itself stays invariant is termed _____, while basic change in the structure of a system called ____.”
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Can balance his or her needs for closeness and autonomy
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“The “”differentiated”” individual:”
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metacommunication
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The Bateson group may be best remembered for the concepts of the double bind and ________.
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emotional reactivity to one’s family of origin
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“The central premise of Bowen theory is that unresolved _______ must be resolved before one can differentiate a mature, healthy personality.”
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Jay Haley
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The concept of the family life cycle was introduced to the field by:
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“All of these: promote verbalization and understanding of unmet needs, promote individuation of family members, improve family relationships, all of the above”
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The goal of family group therapy was to:
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Systems Theory
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The greatest conceptual influence on the early development of family therapy was:
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families have a shared history
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The group therapy model was not entirely appropriate for familes for what reason?
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metacommunicate and withdraw from relationship. Both a and b
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The only means to effectively escape a double bind is to:
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differentiation of self
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“The phrase, “”where the id is, there the ego shall be,”” best fits which concept?”
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“released from the economic constraints of academia, family therapy become a profitable enterprise”
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The privatization of family therapy training had what effect on the field?
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family life cycle
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“The stages of a family’s life from separation from one’s parents to marriage, having children, growing older, retirement, and finally death, are known as the:”
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Cybernetics
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“The study of control processes in systems, particularly the analysis of the flow of information in closed systems, is known as:”
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Homeostasis
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The tendency of families to resist change in order to maintain a steady state is known as:
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lack of differentiation of self
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“This bowenians concept describes the level of emotional “”stuck-togetherness”” or fusion in the family”
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Murray Bowen
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This family therapist’s personal resolution of emotional reactivity in his family was as significant for his approach to family therapy as Freud’s self-analysis was for psychoanalysis.
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“””black box”” metaphor”
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Which is not a concept of von Bertalanffy’s general systems theory?
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family hierarchy
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“Which phenomena are not a focus of cybernetics, as applied to families?”
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“All of these: cultural biases, the society we are helping people fit into, and value systems “
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“With the exception of the feminist critique, what has been largely missing in family therapy has been an examination of:”
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John Elderkin Bell
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The first to apply group concepts to family treatment was
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similar
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People tend to marry spouses at _________ levels of differentiation.
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opening
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During which phase of structural family therapy does assessment occur?