FAD2230 Chapter 12

Flashcard maker : Jill Lopez
who has the highest divorce rates?
• U.S. and Russia have the highest divorce rates
Crude divorce rate:
number of divorces per 1000 people in a population
Refined divorce rate:
measure of divorce based on the number of divorces that occur out of 1000 married women
Crude and refined divorce rates 1940-2000:
rate has peaked in the late 1940’s after WWII and peaked again in 1980; rates have declined since then
Micro level divorce factors:
• Parental divorce
-Intergenerational transmission of divorce: parents whose parents divorced are more likely to get divorced
• Age at marriage
-Young age = more likely to divorce
• Parental status
-More kids = less chance of divorce
• Non-marital childbearing
• Sex of children
-Sons = less chance of divorce
• Race and ethnicity
• Education
• Income
• Degree of similarity between spouses
• Couple’s ages
Macro-structural factors:
• Level of socioeconomic development
• Religion
• Divorce laws
• Women’s status and employment
• Attitude towards divorce
Making divorce easier or harder statistics:
people are more likely to say make it harder or keep it the same
Views about divorce (ethnicity):
blacks are more likely than whites or Hispanics to want divorce to be more restrictive
Phases of separation:
• Pre-separation:
• Early separation:
• Mid-separation:
• Late-separation:
Phases of separation (specifics):
• *Pre-separation: beginning to think about separation*
• *Early separation: start to think logistically.*
-Who will be the one to move out? How will we work out financial matters? Etc.
• *Mid-separation: realities of daily living set in*
-Maintaining two households, arranging child visits etc.
• *Late-separation: learning to live as two single people*
-They usually file a legal separation document
Stations of divorce:
• Emotional divorce
• Legal divorce
-Terminating the marriage by contract
• Economic divorce
• Co-parental divorce
-Issues concerning children
-Where will they live? Who will make the decisions? Etc.
• Community divorce
• Psychic divorce
-Regaining psychological autonomy and beginning to feel whole again
Median income and percent in poverty (by family type):
• Married couples are least likely to be in poverty
• Single parent households have higher rates of poverty
payment by one partner to the other to support the more dependent spouse for a period of time
Legal custody:
legal authority to make important decisions
Sole legal custody:
legal custody granted solely to the parent with whom the child lives
Joint legal custody:
noncustodial parents (usually fathers) retain their legal rights with respect to their children
Physical custody:
custody arrangement that decides where the child will live
Sole physical custody:
arrangement where the child legally lives with one parent and \”visits\” the other parent
Joint physical custody:
children spend a substantial portion of time with both parents
-Conflicts with the child’s school schedule, etc.
Short-term effects:
• Parental conflict
• Loss of a parent
• Reduced standard of living
• Adjusting to transitions
Long-term effects:
• Age and sex of the child
-School age children have it most difficult
-Boys suffer more than girls
Marital endurance ethic:
over time, many sources of conflict decease
Marital work ethic:
Marital work ethic: spouses actively worked to solve problems
Personal happiness ethic:
finding alternative ways to improve their own happiness
High divorce rate
• 40-50% can have their marriages dissolve
• *Divorce rate is 50% for first marriages*
• *Divorce rate is 65% for second marriages*
Why are couples divorcing?
• Various factors can bind marriages and families together
-Economic interdependence
-Legal, social, moral constraints
• *Religious values*
• *The binding strength of these factors have lessened*
• *Economic factors have changed*
-Women are in the labor force
• *High expectations of marriage*
• *Changed nature of marriage itself*
*-We expect marriage to be mutually fulfilling*
• *Decreased social, legal, and moral constraints*
*-More socially acceptable to get a divorce*
*-Easier to get a divorce*
-Divorce used to be taboo, now churches run divorce programs to help divorcees
• *Intergenerational transmission of divorce*
*-Children of divorced parents will likely also divorce*
Other factors associated with divorce
• Remarried mates are more likely to divorce
• Cohabitation before marriage increases the likelihood of divorce
• Premarital pregnancy may increase the risk of divorce in a subsequent marriage
• Remaining childfree often increases the likelihood of divorce
-Children = increases commitment
• Race and ethnicity are differentially associated with the chances of divorce
-Different racial and ethnic groups have their own rates
Compared to marrieds, divorced people:
• Lower levels of life satisfaction
• More negative mood
• Poor physical health
• More depressed
• More inclined to suicide
Unhappy marriage =
more difficult than being divorced
• Emotional divorce
-Stop expressing affection towards each other
• Legal divorce
-Actual process of legal divorcing
-Discussing property, custody of children etc.
• Community divorce
-Embarrassed socially
• Psychic divorce
-Individuals detach themselves from \”we\” to \”me\”
• Economic divorce
-Saving money to be economically independent
Economic consequences of divorce for men and women:
• *Women are the losers…*
-Men’s and women’s unequal wages
-\”Equitable\” division of property in divorce
• Depends on how much the woman has worked during the marriage
• …but so are men (who earn less than 80% of the family’s income)
-More women are working
-Men having to pay child support
• Life stress perspective (impact on children)
-Divorce is associated with a series of stressful events for the child
• Constantly moving from home to home
• Switching schools
• Parental loss perspective (impact on children)
-Children go from having access to both parents to having access to only one parent
• Parental adjustment perspective (impact on children)
-Parent’s stress affects the child
• Financial stress might change their parenting style
• Economical hardship perspective
• Interparental conflict perspective (impact on children)
-Parental conflict negatively affects children
Which is worse for children, divorce or marital conflict?
*-High conflict marriage* that does not end divorce
• *Bad for children*
*-Low conflict marriage* that does end in divorce
• *Also bad for children*
• Children didn’t know there was a problem
• Bliss
• Joint custody vs. sole custody
*-Parents share custody vs. one parent hold the majority of custody*
• Legal
• Physical
• Where children reside
• Children in joint custody were far better off in the long run
• FL laws = \”joint custody needs to be strived for\”
• Study of 1400, comparing stable and dissolved marriages and their children, some for almost 40 years
-Found that 25% of the children of divorce had long term social, emotional or psychological problems, compared to 10% if those whose parents had not divorced
-75-80% coped reasonably well
-Large majority of children who go through divorce do okay

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