Exploring Psychology 9th Edition Chapter 1

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structuralism
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early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind. It proved unreliable, as it required smart, verbal people and results varied.
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functionalism
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early school of thought promoted by James and influenced by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
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behaviorism
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Introduced by John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner, the view that psychology should be 1) an objective science and 2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes
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humanistic psychology
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led by Carl Rogers and and Abraham Maslow, emphasized the growth potential of healthy people
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cognitive neuroscience
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the study of brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
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psychology
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the science of behavior and mental processes
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nature-nurture issue
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longstanding controversy over whether genetics or experience play a more crucial role in the development of psychological behaviors. The current trend is to see behaviors as an interaction between the two.
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natural selection
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the principle that traits contributing to reproduction and survival will be most likely passed on
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levels of analysis
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differing complementary views for analyzing any phenomenon
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biopsychosocial approach
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an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
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basic research
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pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
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applied research
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scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
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counseling psychology
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a branch of psychology that assist people with problems in living and in achieving greater well being
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clinical psychology
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a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
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psychiatry
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a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy
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positive psychology
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the scientific study of human functioning, with the goal of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive
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hindsight bias
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the tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that one would have foreseen it
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critical thinking
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thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions, but examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
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theory
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an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
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hypothesis
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a testable prediction
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operational definition
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a statement of the procedures used to define research variables
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replication
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repeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
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case study
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an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principals
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naturalistic observation
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observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
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survey
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a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
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population
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all those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn
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random sample
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a sample that fairly represents the population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
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correlation
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a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other
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correlation coefficient
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a statistical index of the relationship between two things
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experiment
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a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior
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experimental group
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in an experiment, the group exposed to the treatment
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control group
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in an experiment, the group not exposed to the treatment
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random assignment
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assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance
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double-blind procedure
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an experimental procedure in which both the the research participants and the the research staff are ignorant about who has received the treatment or placebo
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placebo effect
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experimental effects caused by expectations alone
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independent variable
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the experimental factor that is manipulated
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confounding variable
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a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect
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dependent variable
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the outcome factor
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culture
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behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group and transmitted from one generation to the next
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informed consent
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giving participants enough information about a study to enable them to decide whether they wish to participate
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debriefing
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postexperimental explanation of a study, including it’s purpose and any deceptions
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testing effect
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enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading information
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SQ3R
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a study method incorporating five steps: Survey, Question, Read, Retrieve, Review

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