Exploring Music Ch. 17-22

Flashcard maker : Margaret Bruce
octave
interval spanning 8 notes of the scale
half steps
the smallest interval used in Western music; divides the octave into 12 of these
whole step
two half steps
chromatic scale
made up of 12 half steps; used by Romantic-era composers to charge the music with emotion
diatonic scale
built on patterns of seven whole and half steps that form major and minor scales
sharp
#; a symbol that raises a pitch by a half step
flat
b; a symbol that lowers a tone by a half step
other scales used around the world include…
tritonic (three note patterns), pentatonic (five) and heptatonic (seven note patterns other than major and minor)
microtones
used by some world cultures; intervals smaller than half steps; used in scales from other cultures, like Indian ragas, that have extra-musical associations
key
a composition is set in the ___ of C major, so it is built around the central tone C, using harmonies formed by the C-major scale
tonality
basic harmonic principle at work in most Western music written from around 1600 to 1900
major scale
created by a specific pattern of whole (W) and half (H) steps (W-W-H-W-W-W-H); can be built with this pattern starting on any pitch
tonic
do; the ultimate point of rest
dominant
sol, represents the active harmony
minor scale
has a lowered third degree; very different mood and coloring; pattern is (W-H-W-W-H-W-W); may begin on any of the twelve tones of an octave
E to F and B to C
half steps; rest of the notes without sharps or flats are whole step
ragas
some music of India; the scale formations contain certain pitches that are heard only in one direction; have extra-musical associations, like w/certain emotions or seasons, etc.
tonic chord
built on the first scale tone; the home base to which active chords need to resolve; the three-note chord (triad) built on the first scale tone known as the I chord
active chords
the dominant on V and subdominant on IV (Amen); both resolved on chord I
transposition
when composers shift the pitch level of an entire work
modulation
when composers change the center, or key, during a work
composers change the key, or modulate, during a piece to…
create tension and drama
Baroque era
1600-1750 (ended with the death of Bach); a time of turbulent change in politics, science, and the arts; also a time of religious wars (Protestants vs. Catholics) and of exploration and colonization of the New World; era of absolute monarchy
the Baroque era saw the rise of…
middle-class culture, with music-making centered in the home, church, and at the universities; art portrayed scenes of burgeois life
collegium musicum
a group at the universities where music-making centered; still functions on many campuses today
in the New World, music served religion through…
the singing of psalms, important to both Protestants and Catholics
role of the artist
creative artists played a variety of roles in Baroque society; some famous painters were also ambassadors and friends of princes; composer also a priest; artists usually functioned under royal or princely patronage or were employed by a church or city administration; in all cases, artists were in direct contact with their public
monody
a new style introduced during the Baroque era; features a solo song with instrumental accompaniment
monody was developed by…
groups of writers and musicians (such as the Florentine Camerata) to recreate the musical-dramatic art of ancient Greece
figured bass
notated harmony with this; a shorthand that allowed the performer to supply the chords through improvisation
basso continuo
the bass part; often played by two instruments (harpsichord and cello, for example)
major-minor tonality system
established in the Baroque era; a shift to a simpler style based on a single-line melody and less complex harmonies; the thrust to the keynote, or tonic, became the most powerful force in music
equal temperment
tuning system established in the Baroque era; allowed instruments to play in any key without any unpleasant sounds
early Baroque music…
moved more freely
later Baroque style…
is characterized by regular rhythms and continuous melodic expansion
as musical instruments developed technically…
the level of virtuosity and playing techniques rose
doctrine of the affections
expressed during the Baroque period; the union of text and music
the professional singers and instrumentalists of the Baroque era included
women musicians
Florentine Camerata
a group of Florentine writers, artists, and musicians that first cultivated monody; name is derived from the Italian word for \”salon\”; were aristocratic humanists who aimed to resurrect the musical-dramatic art of ancient Greece; deduced that music must heighten the emotional power of the text; egnaged in excited discussions about le nuove musiche (the new music) which they proudly named \”the expressive style\”
opera
invented during the Baroque period; when the Camerata engaged in excited discussions about le nuove musiche, which they proudly named \”the expressive style\”; soon realived that this style could be applied not only to a short poem but also to an entire drama; most important new genre of the Baroque era; a large-scale drama that combines poetry, acting, scenery, and costumes with singing and instrumental music
Baroque musicians used
dissonance and dynamics for emotional intensity and color; rhythm and melody
castrato
a male singer who was castrated during boyhood in order to preserve the soprano or alto register of his voice for the rest of his life; after years of training had an incredibly agile voice of enormous range and lung power
Barbara Strozzi
a prolific Italian composer of secular and sacred music; a singer and participant in the famous literary academies of early 17th century Venice; noted singer and composer of cantatas, madrigals, and solo motets in the virtuosic new style (monody)
the principal components of opera include the…
orchestral overture (may introduce melodies from the aria), solo arias (lyrical songs which release through melody the emotional tension accumulated in the course of the action; usually highley emotional) and recitatives (speechlike declamations of the text, generally advance the plot and action), and ensemble numbers, including choruses; also sometimes has sinfonias, or interludes between scenes by the orchestra
librettist
writes the text of the opera
Claudio Monteverdi
early Baroque master; wrote operas based on mythology and Roman history; helped establish the love duet as a central component of opera
Henry Purcell
English composer; wrote Dido and Aeneas, based on The Aeneid, a Roman epic by Virgil about a man who is shipwrecked and meets Dido who falls in love with him, but he has to leave so she kills herself
secco and accompagnato
two styles of recitative that became standard; the first is accompanied only by continuo instruments and moves with great freedom (dry), the second is accompanied by the orchestra and thus moves more evenly
de capo aria
a formal convention that developed early in the genre’s history, a ternary form
tragedie lyrique
combined colorful, sumptuous dance scenes and spectacular choruses in tales of courtly love and heroic adventure; a French national style drawn from strong tradition of court ballet and classical tragedy
masque
English, a type of entertainment that combined vocal and instrumental music with poetry and dance; popular among aristocracy
George Frideric Handel
dominated late Baroque opera; music included lots on international features; dramatic works were opera seria, or serious Italian opera; later turned toward the oratorio, a music drama based on a religious subject, like Messiah in 1742
cantata
Italian; a vocal genre for solo singers and instrumental accompaniment based on lyric, dramatic, or narrative poetry
lyric
expresses personal emotion and allows the music to dominate the story
dramatic
writeen for performance in a play (ex: a comedy or tragedy)
narrative
tells a story, following characters through a plot
stile concitato
agitated style; first introduced by Monteverdi; later used by Strozzi

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