EXAM 3: Neurochemistry

question

Increased release induces epilepsy
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aspartate & glutamate
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Classified as an excitatory neurotransmitter
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aspartate & glutamate
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Classified as an inhibitory neurotransmitter
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GABA & glycine
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Classified as a peptide neurotransmitter
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endorphins & substance P
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Classified as a catecholamine (NOT acetylcholine!)
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dopamine, epinephrine & norepinephrine
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Made primarily in the brainstem substantial nigra
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dopamine
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Made by motor neurons
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acetylcholine
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Decreased release results in depression
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norepinephrine & serotonin
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Activation of receptor causes sedation
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GABA & glycine
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Reduced activity cause muscle weakness or paralysis
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acetycholine
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Transmits pain sensation from the periphery
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substance P
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Increased activity involved in schizophrenia
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dopamine
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Increased activity produced mania
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norepinephrine
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Plays a role in attention/alertness and learning/memory
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acetylcholine
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Valium and barbiturates bind to this receptor
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GABA
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Neurotransmitter is degraded in synaptic cleft
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acetylcholine
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Death of substantial nigra neurons that make dopamine
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Parkinson’s disease
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Death of forebrain neurons that make acetylcholine
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Alzheimer’s disease
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Death of motor neurons due to glutamate neurotoxicity
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ALS/ Lou Gehrig’s
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Autoimmune destruction of acetylcholine receptors
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myasthenia gravis
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Loss of function in the enzyme acetylcholinesterase would result in?
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inability to destroy and remove acetylcholine from the synaptic cleft
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When a neurotransmitter like GABA is acting in an inhibitory manner what is the likely result of the GABA acting on the post-synaptic cell?
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hyperpolorization of the post-synaptic cell membrane -because it causes entry of chloride and exit of potassium
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Which of the following neurotransmitters inhibits pain and is mimicked by morphine, heroin and methadone?
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endorphins
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Why can the effect of acetylcholine be stimulating or inhibiting?
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different post-synaptic cells will have different receptors
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Post-synaptic response due to excitatory neurotransmitter binding
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increased the probability of neurotransmitter release by causing an EPSP due to sodium entry into the post-synaptic neuron
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Post-synaptic response due to inhibitory neurotransmitter binding
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decreases the probability of neurotrasmitter release by causing an IPSP due to calcium entry or potassium exit through the post-synaptic neuron
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Ionotropic receptors
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allow ions to directly enter the post-synaptic receptor
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Second messenger-mediated receptors
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indirectly cause ion entry through a second receptor
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Why is it difficult to alter neurotransmitter levels without having significant side effects?
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-Adding a neurotransmitter will activate all receptors -drugs that block a specific neurotransmitter receptor subtype leads all brain regions with that receptor subtype will be affected -example: Parkinson’s and Schizophrenia
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Why is it so difficult to diagnose depression?
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-symptoms differ from person to person -stigma -asking the right questions
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Why is it so difficult to treat depression?
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-lower levels of serotonin and noradrenalin as well as dopamine contribute -takes time for drugs to work -people think they are better and suddenly stops taking meds

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