EXAM 3 ch 22,23,24,25,26

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The ideology of progressivism, insofar as it had one, generally
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mixed a liberal concern for the poor with a conservative wish to control social disorder.
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McClure’s magazine pioneered a new style of journalism featuring writers like Lincoln Steffens who
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presented carefully researched exposés of corporate and government abuses.
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Journalists who exposed corruption in government and industry were called
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muckrakers.
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A popular new way of thinking called pragmatism asked the question,
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“Does it work?”
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The belief that laws are to be interpreted according to experience and the needs of a changing society is best described as
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sociological jurisprudence.
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What was the subject of the Keating-Owen Act?
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child labor
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Margaret Sanger worked to provide women with information about
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birth control.
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What was the key difference between Alice Paul’s Congressional Union and the activities of the National American Woman Suffrage Association?
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The Congressional Union was more militant in its tactics.
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On the issue of racial discrimination, progressives generally
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ignored the question altogether.
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W.E.B. Du Bois
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called on the “talented tenth” to publicly oppose segregation, disenfranchisement, and discrimination.
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The new science called ________ gave respectability to the idea that new immigrants to the U.S. were biologically inferior.
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eugenics
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For the most part, how did progressives respond to an increase in the number of immigrants?
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They stressed Americanization programs.
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Based on the attitudes that progressives had toward immigration, alcohol consumption, prostitution, and racial discrimination, what can you conclude about who constituted the progressives?
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The progressives were a diverse group with sometimes conflicting positions.
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Why was Theodore Roosevelt’s intervention in the 1902 anthracite coal strike important?
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It showed that he would intervene on behalf of labor, as well as management.
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Theodore Roosevelt saw government’s role in implementing the “Square Deal” as
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mediation.
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What is an accurate comparison of the two competing brands of political progressivism in the 1912 presidential campaign (Theodore Roosevelt’s “New Nationalism” and Woodrow Wilson’s “New Freedom”)?
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The New Nationalism accepted concentrations of capital, labor, and government; the New Freedom stressed competitiveness among small business and reduced government power.
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Many historians consider it the most important reform of the early-twentieth century because it established the means for expanded federal action. It was
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the Sixteenth Amendment permitting graduated income taxes.
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In 1913 a compromise was reached regarding the regulation of banking and this compromise was codified in the
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Federal Reserve Act.
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In the nineteenth century, the primary revenue source for the federal government was
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Woodrow Wilson’s executive style was different than Theodore Roosevelt’s in that Wilson
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The “Brandeis Brief,” as innovated by Louis Brandeis in the case of Muller v. Oregon, was notable for what quality?
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It favored factual evidence over legal precedent.
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As a disciple of Emmeline Pankhurst, what was Alice Paul’s chief contribution to the woman suffrage movement?
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importing the militancy of the English woman suffrage movement to the United States
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In response to widespread racial discrimination, W.E.B. Du Bois
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called on the elite “talented tenth” of the African-American community to assume leadership in the struggle for civil rights.
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Woodrow Wilson’s executive style was different than Theodore Roosevelt’s in that Wilson
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shaped policy and legislation to a greater degree.
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Under the Roosevelt Corollary, the U.S.
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justified intervention in the internal affairs of Caribbean countries.
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Robert La Follette’s progressive program became synonymous with which state, which he governed from 1901 to 1906?
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Wisconsin
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Which progressive reform allowed citizens to vote directly to enact or repeal laws?
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the referendum
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With regard to race relations, President Roosevelt did all the following except
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exonerate black troops unjustly accused of “shooting up” Brownsville, Texas.
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Upton Sinclair’s novel The Jungle played a significant role in advancing what reform?
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regulation of the food industry
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What was the cornerstone of Woodrow Wilson’s New Freedom?
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opposing bigness in business and government alike
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The accomplishments of the Wilson administration included all the following except
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the racial integration of federal offices.
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Which of the following statements about eugenics is least accurate?
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It was a fringe movement that obtained little popular attention or support.
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Taft’s dollar diplomacy was intended to accomplish all of the following except
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promote American corporate interests overseas through the use of armed force.
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Dollar diplomacy failed in the Caribbean because
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it was linked closely with unpopular regimes, banks, and corporations.
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Taft’s efforts in dollar diplomacy in Asia resulted in which of the following?
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Southern Chinese provinces rebelling against foreign intrusion and overthrowing the monarchy.
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Wilson added which of the following to the principles of American diplomacy?
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a missionary commitment to spreading his system of beliefs across the world
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How did Wilson use missionary diplomacy to gain headway in Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic?
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He sent troops to protect U.S. interests.
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Wilson’s commitment to neutrality in the World War stemmed from his profound conviction that
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a neutral United States could lead the warring nations to a “peace without victory.”
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Why was the sinking of the Lusitania a turning point in America entering the war?
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Wilson issued an order to the attacker, Germany, which, if not followed, would lead the U.S. into entering the war.
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The inflammatory Zimmerman Telegram proposed that in the event of war between the U.S. and Germany
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Mexico would attack the U.S.
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Which event was most important in causing Woodrow Wilson to ask Congress for a declaration of war?
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the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare by Germany
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Why was Germany so maligned during discussions at Versailles?
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People felt Germany was to blame for everything.
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What did Wilson hope to achieve with the League of Nations?
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Countries bound to respect and protect each other and isolate aggressors.
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The Treaty of Versailles never received Senate ratification because
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Wilson refused to compromise with Republicans who opposed the treaty.
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Why were legislators like Henry Cabot Lodge opposed to Wilson’s proposal for a League of Nations?
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They wanted to preserve American sovereignty in foreign affairs.
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Why were Americans so concerned about radicalism following World War I?
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Terrorist activity and postwar strikes created chaos.
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Under the “Roosevelt Corollary” to the Monroe Doctrine, the United States
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claimed for itself the right to police the internal affairs of other American nations.
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As part of Roosevelt’s “gentlemen’s agreement,” what did Japan receive in return for a promise to block future Japanese immigration to the United States?
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an end to the segregation of Japanese students in San Francisco schools
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The Central Powers and their allies in World War I consisted of all the following except
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Russia
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Wilson’s initial commitment to neutrality in World War I stemmed from his conviction that the United States
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could lead the warring nations to a “peace without victory” if it remained neutral.
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Although Wilson suffered numerous setbacks in the negotiations that led to the Treaty of Versailles, he did succeed in
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creating a dozen new states on the basis of national self-determination.
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The roaring economy of the 1920s involved all of the following except
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a revolution in labor relations, marked by new growth in the size and influence of labor unions.
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Henry Ford’s great contribution to modern industrial culture was
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his commitment to standardization and assembly-line mass production.
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The advertising industry
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shifted during the 1920s from emphasizing products to stressing a consumer’s desires.
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Why did employers’ groups implement welfare capitalism as part of their American Plan (1921)?
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They sought to increase production.
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Changes in attitudes toward women in the 1920s
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resulted primarily from changes caused by World War I.
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Marcus Garvey called for African Americans to do all of the following except
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pursue racial integration.
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The renaissance in African American culture in Harlem resulted in
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All of these answers are correct.
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What legacy might Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association have had?
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It caused many African Americans to embrace black nationalism.
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What propelled the “culture wars” between traditionalists and proponents of modern city life?
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All of these answers are correct.
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The National Origins Acts of 1921 and 1924 cut down the number of immigrants by
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capping the total number and limiting the entry of immigrants.
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Which of the following groups generally supported the Prohibition movement?
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All of these answers are correct.
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There was renewed interest in the KKK because
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the Klan reflected the insecurities of the New Era.
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Speculation, which had taken over the stock market, was troubling to financial analysts because it
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was based on expectations that weren’t always realistic.
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The Great Crash
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damaged the economy and broke the unbounded optimism of the New Era.
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Overexpansion negatively affected business by the end of the 1920s because
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the demand for goods decreased, which meant that inventories climbed and companies lost money.
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Coolidge’s administration contributed to the economic problems by
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allowing big business to operate unchecked.
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Unemployment was a sign of a troubled economy because it showed that
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companies suffered from overexpansion, reduced demand, and weak management.
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All the following were factors contributing to the booming economy of the 1920s except
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shrinking personal debt.
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Developments in the 1920s economy included all the following except the
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growing strength, size, and influence of independent labor unions.
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Whose transatlantic solo flight made him one of the most renowned celebrities of the 1920s?
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Charles Lindbergh
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Marcus Garvey, Claude McKay, and Zora Neale Hurston were representative of the
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growing assertiveness and racial pride of black Americans.
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Traditionalists who resisted the changes of the 1920s were most likely to oppose
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religious pluralism.
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The immigrants coming to the United States in the immediate aftermath of World War I were least likely to come from which of the following regions?
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Northwestern Europe
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One of several factors that contributed to the bull market of the 1920s was the
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increased availability of money and credit.
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The Great Depression resulted from all the following factors except the
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inability of factories to produce enough goods to meet consumer demands.
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Radio bound the country together because
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people could listen to the same programs, no matter where they lived.
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Movie studios lured viewers into movie houses during the Great Depression by
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showing movies that preserved traditional values and middle-class morality.
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LULAC, or the League of United Latin American Citizens, aimed to do all of the following except
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include ethnic Mexicans.
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What was the most important effect of the Dust Bowl?
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It caused a flood of migrants from the Great Plains to the West.
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Roosevelt turned his attention to saving the banks first because
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the Brains Trust believed that it was the first step to economic solvency.
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The purpose of Roosevelt’s work programs was to
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get people working again as well as make a difference in the community.
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Roosevelt dealt with big business by
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instituting planning that would boost industrial activity and consumer spending.
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New Deal planning for agriculture and industry depended primarily on
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private interests.
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One of the reasons there was dissent from the New Deal was that
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All of these answers are correct.
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One of Roosevelt’s biggest pushes during the Second Hundred Days was to
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get more Americans working through the Works Progress Administration.
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The Social Security Act aimed to
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help those who could not help themselves, as well as retirees and those who lost their jobs.
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Roosevelt’s reelection in 1936 was due in large part to the fact that
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he stood up for those at the bottom of the economic ladder.
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While women experienced many benefits of the New Deal, government insisted that women
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needed to be protected more than they needed to be employed.
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One way that workers challenged the “business as usual” stance in industry in the 1930s was to
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organize “sit-down strikes” in the factories and refuse to work.
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Why did a black majority vote Democratic in the election of 1934?
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Despite discrimination, the New Deal helped many African Americans.
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Why did union membership grow so precipitously over the course of the 1930s?
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Government support for unions allowed organization of unskilled workers to flourish.
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The ultimate outcome of Roosevelt’s court-packing plan was that
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the plan was defeated, but the Supreme Court became more favorable to New Deal legislation.
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One economic tactic, advocated by economist John Maynard Keynes, that might have led the United States more quickly out of the Depression was
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for the government to increase spending and continue running deficits.
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The New Deal legacy included all of the following except
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bringing an end to the Great Depression.
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One of the most important results of the New Deal was that
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Americans knew that in hard times, the government would come to their aid.
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The Roosevelt coalition that took shape during the Great Depression tied all the following factions to the Democratic Party except
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big business.
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During the Great Depression, radio programs and movies tended to
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celebrate traditional values and middle-class morality.
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Migrants uprooted by the Dust Bowl generally sought economic opportunities in which state?
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California
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The defining characteristic of the New Deal was
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pragmatic experimentation.
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To preserve America’s banks, the government adopted all the following measures except
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nationalizing the banking system.
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Through the Good Neighbor policy the United States
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shifted to using its economic influence as a lever in the region.
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What fundamental issue divided internationalists and isolationists?
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how much to cooperate with and form alliances with other countries
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The aim of the Neutrality Act of 1935 was to
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prohibit the sale of arms by U.S. businesses to all belligerents in time of war.
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What were the cash-and-carry policy and lend-lease policy designed to achieve?
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to help the Allies while preserving official neutrality
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The Allies decided that Germany was the primary target because
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Germany posed a greater threat to its neighbors and beyond.
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One of the decisive battles in the Pacific was the
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Battle of Midway.
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Women’s roles during the war included all of the following except
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combat nurses.
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Many big corporations worked for the war cause by
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manufacturing planes, ships, and tanks.
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The War Labor Board had the power to make peace between business and labor by
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imposing arbitration in any labor dispute.
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For African Americans, World War II
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created an improved job situation more because of labor shortages than because of government action.
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What happened to the New Deal during the war?
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An anti-New Deal coalition moved to end many New Deal programs, and the president adapted to the new political environment.
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Why was Executive Order 8802 and its enforcement mechanism of the FEPC so important?
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It gave government support for equal hiring practices.
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The Allies were successful in their invasion of Normandy because
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Hitler thought they were arriving at a different location and delayed sending troops to Normandy.
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All of the following are true about the Big Three’s views on postwar Europe except
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Churchill was in favor of an international agency to preserve peace.
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The key agreements made at the Yalta Conference can be described as
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a series of compromises and concessions made by the United States to ensure Soviet cooperation.
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The Nye Committee of 1935 reached the conclusion that
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bankers and munitions makers had benefited handsomely from World War I and may have pushed the United States into that war.
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The policy of “appeasement” became infamous after British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain agreed to the Munich Pact in 1938; this pact allowed Nazi Germany to occupy what region?
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the Sudetenland
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By the end of the summer of 1940, Germany had conquered all the following countries except
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Britain.
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Which of the following statements about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor is false?
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It resulted in the destruction of almost all the Pacific Fleet’s vital aircraft carriers.
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Which of the following factors was not a reason why Axis victory seemed likely at summer’s end in 1942?
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Brutal occupation policies broke the will of conquered peoples who showed little willingness or ability to resist.
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An important source of friction among Churchill, Stalin, and Roosevelt was
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the slowness that Roosevelt and Churchill took before opening an effective second front against Germany.
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The wartime mobilization of the economy evidenced all the following features except
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a shift of industrial production from the Pacific to the Southeast.
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The primary goal of the Manhattan Project was to create a(n)
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atomic bomb before German scientists could do so.
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With regard to labor, World War II witnessed all the following developments except
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a revolution in attitudes about gender whereby most Americans rejected the idea that a woman’s primary responsibility was childrearing.
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At Tehran and Yalta, which issue most divided Churchill, Stalin, and Roosevelt and paved the way for future conflict?
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the postwar fate of Germany and the states neighboring the Soviet Union

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