Exam 2 Practice Question Pool

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From an athlete’s perspective, to help build team cohesion you should
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a and c (give teammates positive reinforcement and be responsible for yourself)
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Which of the following statements is FALSE?
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There is a negative relationship between cohesion and satisfaction.
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To help clarify team goals, it is suggested that the process include
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all of these
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The Group Environment Questionnaire was developed to distinguish between
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a and b (individual and group concerns and task and social concerns)
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According to the latest definition provided by Carron, Brawley, and Widmeyer, cohesion is seen to be
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multidimensional
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Which of the following statements best represents the relationship between cohesion and performance?
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the relationship is circular
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According to Kleinert, what specifically can sport psychologists do to enhance team functioning?
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all of these
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Social loafing is increased under which of the following conditions?
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A comparison against group standards is not possible.
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The phenomenon in which individual performance decreases as the number of people in the group increases is known as the
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Ringelmann effect
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Which of the following is part of the norming stage?
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all of these
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Having athletes eat together or live together is an example of which factor that is important in developing an effective team climate?
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proximity
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Based on the pendulum example of the Indiana basketball team, which of the following is a stage of group development?
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a and b (orientation and differentiation and conflict)
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Role clarity refers to
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understanding exactly what your role is for the team
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Of all the experimental games used by psychologists to study the effects of competition and cooperation, the most often-used game is
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prisoner’s dilemma
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Deutsch’s study on competition and cooperation found that
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a and c (Communication patterns differed significantly based on whether subjects were given cooperative or competitive instructions and students receiving cooperative instructions communicated openly and shared information)
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What happened to the two U.S. sailing teams that competed and cooperated with each other while training for the Olympics?
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a and d
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The team sports of basketball and football are examples of which of the following classification of games?
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cooperative means-competitive ends
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Cooperation within business and the military is facilitated by
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all of these
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In the field experiments by Sherif and Sherif, the only thing that worked to bring the campers back together was
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superordinate goals
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Which of the following is true?
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Competitors cause cooperators to compete.
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In Newin, Bloom, and Loughead’s (2008) study assessing the effectiveness of a team-building program, it was found that coaches
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all of these
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Both eligibility requirements and the number of athletes holding scholarships are examples of which antecedent of cohesion?
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environmental factors
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In setting up a team goal-setting program, which of the following guidelines should be followed?
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a and c (involve all team members in establishing goals and reward progress toward team goals)
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The questionnaire used most often in the early research on cohesion in sport was called the
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Sport Cohesiveness Questionnaire
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One effective method for establishing positive group norms is to
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enlist the formal and informal leaders of a team to set positive examples
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The key ingredient in Steiner’s model of productivity is
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the losses due to faulty group processes and their impact on actual productivity
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A team’s actual performance usually falls short of its potential productivity because of
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a and b (faulty group processes and motivation and coordination losses)
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Which of the following is an example of informal roles?
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all of these
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Research has indicated that social support can have a positive impact on which of the following?
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a and b (recovery from injury and coping with stress)
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According to Coakley, which of the following is characteristic of unstructured youth sport?
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a and b (personal involvement in the action is maximized and it provides opportunities to reaffirm friendships)
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Which of the following statements is true?
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Varsity athletes are no different from nonathletes in terms of eventual career success outside of competitive sport.
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One athlete looks forward to competition while another dreads the upcoming event. This is an example of
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the subjective competitive situation
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According to Pat Summitt (most successful female basketball coach), which of the following is NOT one of her \”Definite Dozen\” principles?
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Keep your eye on the prize
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The first experiment investigating the effects of competition on performance was conducted in 1898 by
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Triplett
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In a study by Spink and Carron on building cohesiveness in a fitness class, which of the following strategies was employed?
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all of these
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Which of the following statements about cohesion is true?
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a and b (higher normative expectations are associated with higher levels of cohesion and more sacrifices are made by players when cohesion is high)
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Which of the following is NOT an antecedent to cohesion according to Carron’s model?
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organizational factors
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Team climate can be defined as
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a representation of how an individual perceives the interrelationships among the team members
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In Asch’s experiment of line-comparison judgments, approximately _____ of the subjects conformed to the group norm.
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one-third
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Team building is considered part of which stage of team development?
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forming
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In his study of the effects of a 14-week program of cooperative games, Orlick found that
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a and b (youths exposed to cooperative games engaged in three times as much cooperative behavior during free play as did youths in the control group and games played by the control group tended to emphasize individualistic concerns)
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Which of the following is a competitive situation according to Martens’ definition of the objective competitive situation?
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a and c (a runner competing in a 100yd dash and a swimmer working out with her coach watching her
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\”Great leaders are made not born.\” This statement is an example of which approach to leadership?
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behavioral
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Which of the following results from smith and smoll’s studies on coaching behaviors is true?
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players for coaches who displayed high levels of general technical instruction evaluated their teammates and sport more positively
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In an interesting study (Schroeder, 2010), coaches who turned around losing programs and eventually won championships said the major change involved
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changing the team culture and emphasizing core values
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In their classic study of the coaching (leadership) behaviors of legendary basketball coach John Wooden, Tharp and Gallimore found that his most often-used coaching behavior was
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verbal instruction on what to do and how to do it
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The two major categories of behavior found with the use of the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire are
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consideration and initiating structure
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A recent study focusing on high performance sport administrators (Fletcher & Arnold, 2011) found which major theme that characterized their practices?
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all of these
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According to successful professional football coach Bill Parcells, which of the following is NOT a quality of successful leadership?
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trust
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When coaches obtain the necessary information from relevant players and then come to a decision, what type of decision style are they using?
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autocratic-consultative
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Which one of the following statements is true?
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Athletes high in internal locus of control prefer training and instruction coaching behaviors.
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According to Martens, which of the following statements is true?
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As group size increases, an autocratic leadership style becomes more effective.
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According to results obtained in studies using the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire, successful leaders tend to score
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high on both consideration and initiating structure
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According to Fiedler’s contingency model, a task-oriented leader would be most effective in which type of situation?
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either favorable or unfavorable
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According to a recent study (Horn et al., 2011), athletes who were amotivated preferred coaches who had what kind of leadership style?
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autocratic
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The interactional model of leadership targeted for sport is known as the
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a and c (multidimensional model of sport leadership and cognitive-mediational model of leadership)
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This leader takes a visionary position and inspires people to follow that position. This is characteristic of
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transformative leadership
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In a recent study comparing coaches and peer leaders, coaches tended to exhibit more
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a and c
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According to the multidimensional model of sport leadership, performance and satisfaction are a function of the degree of congruence among
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three types of leader behavior
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Which of the following is a guideline put forth based on 25 years of Smith and Smoll’s research?
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all of these
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Which of the following is NOT a stage in Martens’ model of competition?
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social comparison
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Cooperative reward structures are more effective in which of the following situations?
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during work on tasks that are complex and that involve problem solving
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Competition can produce better performance than performing alone. This increased performance has been shown to be due to
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all of these (increased effort, more enjoyment, increased muscle activity)
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Shields and Bredemeier introduced the terms competition and decompetition. Which of the following statements about competition (and competitors) is true?
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a and c ( Opponents are seen as partners and Fairness is more important than simply following the rules)
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Coakley defines cooperation as
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a social process through which performance is rewarded in terms of the collective achievements of the group
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Which of the following is a suggestion for enhancing peer relationships in sport?
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a and c ( Enable athletes to engage in shared decision making and Select peer leaders on criteria (such as leadership skills) other than athletic ability)
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One way athletes interpret whether they are being treated fairly is based on
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b and c ( the coach’s manner in communicating her views to the athletes and the degree of compatibility between the coach’s and athlete’s skill assessments of the athlete)
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Role clarity is a multidimensional concept including all of the following except
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perceived locus of causality
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Which of the following is NOT a defining characteristic of sport teams?
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specific leadership styles
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If a rookie tried to take charge and exert leadership in critical games despite the fact that there was a veteran leader on the team, this would be considered a violation of
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group norms
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Formal roles, in contrast to informal roles, are a set of behaviors that are required or expected of persons in a group and
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c and d ( are dictated by the nature and structure of an organization and include such roles as team captain, coach, and athletic trainer)
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The dimensions of the Multidimensional Sport Cohesion Instrument include
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a and b ( attraction to the group and unity of purpose)
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Task and affiliation motivation are examples of which antecedent of cohesion?
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personal factors
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Which of the following statements is true?
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The cohesion-performance relationship is positive for both interactive and coactive sports.
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Cohesion positively influences adherence in which of the following situations?
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both smaller and larger leader-participant ratios
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A sociogram can measure
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a and b ( friendship choices within the group and the presence or absence of cliques in groups)
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What are the two major categories of behavior from the Coaching Behavior Assessment System?
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reactive and spontaneous
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Which of the following is FALSE concerning findings from studies of the consequences of leadership behaviors?
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High levels of cohesion are related to autocratic coaching behaviors.
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The Leadership Scale for Sports identifies which coaching behaviors?
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a and b ( social support and democratic behavior)
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Regardless of age, athletes prefer coaches who
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a and b (give positive feedback and give technical instruction).

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