Exam 1 module quizzes

Sociology is based on a specific point of view called the ___________, which can be described as seeing general patterns in the lives of particular people
sociological perspective

According to sociologist C. Wright Mills, _______ is the main cause of poverty and other social patterns
society

why do most people marry someone similar to themselves
society guides our actions, thoughts, and feelings generally narrowing our choice to those similar to us

the text presents the formal definition of the discipline of sociology as _______
the systematic study of human society

what general conclusion did Emile Durkheim reach in his study of suicide
the risk of suicide is shaped by social forces

what is an example of sociological research shaping US public policy
many states have passed laws that increase women’s claims to marital property and enforce fathers obligations to provide support for women raising their children

Lenore Weitzman discovered that women who leave marriages typically experience ______
a dramatic loss of income

How can a degree in sociology benefit people working in criminal justice
it can help them devise and assess crime-prevention programs

a basic difference between clinical psychologists and clinical sociologists is the clinical sociologists focus on difficulties _____
in the individuals social relationships

in the metaphor for the game of life used in your text, _____ deal the cards and ______ plays the hands
society; people

what is an example of a latent function of social structure
college’s function as a “marriage-broker” bringing together young people of similar social backgrounds

the social-conflict theoretical approach highlights _______
social inequality

A sociologist following the ______ theoretical approach would be likely to ask the following questions: what are the major parts of society?
how are the parts linked?
what does each part do to help society work?
structural functional

Bodman researches the harmful effects of globalization of the economy for workers in the US. He is interested in the _____ of globalization
social dysfunctions; the part that disrupts the operation of society

the _______ theoretical approach operates on the micro-level of analysis
symbolic interaction

A ______ is a concept whose value changes from case to case
variable

______ refers to consistency in measurement
reliability

“doing” of sociology
conduction research to learn about the social world

Family, economy, gender and social classes are all _______, or examples of mental constructs that represent some part of the world in a simplified form
concepts

scientists often repeat concept called _____
replication

which of the following situations is an example of the research problem called “androcentricity”
a sociologists creates a survey to measure average work hours but does not include “housewife” as an occupational choice

male is to female
as androcentricity is to _____
gynocentricity

assumption that the whole campus has the same views as the male students
overgeneralizing

a researcher describes the man as the head of the household in a “man and wife” couple. Such statements are examples of the problem of ____
double standards

imagine you are planning to interview people in a cultural minority concerning the effects of generalization on their neighbor. What should you tell yourself
be careful with the terms you use

of special importance to sociologists is the fact that ____ have/has established formal guidelines for conducting research
american sociological association

jeremy wants to study the effects of neighborhood gentrification on the local hispanic population. which of the following should he keep in mind when interviewing?
hispanic cultures have strong family loyalties and may be uncomfortable revealing information about another family member

basic ethical requirement for sociologists carrying out research
be skillful and fair-minded in carrying out research

if a research project has the potential to harm subjects, an ethical researcher must ___
stop the research right away

in the animal kingdom, only humans rely on ___ to ensure their survival
culture

why did anthropologist Napoleon Chignon experience culture shock when he first encountered the Yanonmamo of South America
he was shaken to find out their culture was so different than his own

one result of high-technology communication, increasing international migration, and an expanding global economy has been ______
a decrease in the diversity of languages spoken around the world

what set of adjectives could be best used to describe the sociological concept of culture
learned, shared, intergenerational

the beliefs held by members of the catholic faith, the philosophy of confucianism, and the requirements for graduation from college are all examples of _______
nonmaterial culture

according to Robin Williams Jr people in the US hold a cultural value of equality but we believe not in equality of condition but rather equality of _______
opportunity

mores differ from folkways in that mores ______, whereas folkways ______
mores have more moral significance;
folkways are less important norms that apply to routine or casual interaction

in the text what is an example of an emerging value in the US
more people in the US think it is important to have time off from work to engage in leisure activities such as reading, traveling

technology is defined as __
knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their physical surroundings

what of the following is the foundation of the process of cultural transmission
language

which of the following sociologists highlighted the power of technology to shape society
Gerhard Lenski

in which type of society do people rely on hand tools to raise crops
horticulture society

carl studies the Aka and Pygmies of Central Africa, two societies that even today rely on simple tools to kill animals and collect vegetation for food. He studies _____ societies
hunting and gathering

using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery that produces material goods is the defining trait of ______
an industrial society

which of the following musical styles was the first to be clearly linked to the emergence of a youth culture in the US
rock-and-roll

In the past, US society tended to downplay multiculturalism and to define itself in terms of its european immigrants, especially those from ____
england

one way that cultural changes are through diffusion
the spread of objects and ideas from one society to another

which of the following categories of people provides the best example of counterculture
neo-nazis

Sociobiology takes a _____ approach to the study of culture
evolutionary

which theoretical approach would most likely guide a study of why there are fewer women than men in top corporate positions
feminist theory

which of the following statements illustrates the social conflict approach to culture
in a capitalist society people learn to define personal happiness in terms of material possessions

which of the following statements illustrates the use of structural-functional analysis of culture
all cultures around the world perform funeral rites and have some form of the family

the text explains that culture operates to ____
both to limit experience and enhance freedom

what pattern illustrates how culture can limit human experience
competition can isolate people from one another

what is evidence of the freedom culture provides to humanity
cultural diversity both within our society and around the world

As sociologists see it, what part does biology play in the development of human personality
people do not inherit a potential to develop certain traits and abilities, but nurture matters more than nature in personal development

what is the importance of socialization in early childhood
it develops human personality; without social interaction, development is greatly limited

the text presents evidence that social isolation of young people results in permanent loss of ____
language acquisition and other human development

the cases of isolated children described in the reading lead to what conclusion
social isolation beyond a year or so can lead to permanent developmental damage

Sigmund Freud believed that personality development is initially driven by _____
instinct or drives rooted in our biology

what concept comes closest to Freud’s term “superego”
culture

according to Mead, what is “self”
a combination of self-awareness and self-image

in which of Erik Erikson’s theory of personality development differs from others discussed in the chapter in what major way
it considers the entire life course

kohlberg;s theory of moral development
individuals move through three stages of moral reasoning: preconventional, conventional, and postconventional

researchers have a link between TV and ___
violence

what factor is the most important reason that it is difficult to determine the exact onset of adulthood
class matters (wealthy vs poor)

what statement about racial identity in the US is correct
an increasing number of people are identifying themselves as a mixed race

how does the mass media affect rural areas in the US
the mass media are national in scope so they bring rural and urban culture closer together

looking around the world and looking back in history, what do we learn about childhood
the length of this stage of the life course varies considerably by time and place

about when did the concept of adolescence emerge as a stage of life
with industrialization

how does typical health among today’s elderly people in the US differ from that found among elders in the past
they are healthier

which of the following does Erving Goffman consider to be a total institution
a mental hospital

what is the second part or phase of the resocialization process in a total institution such as prison
introducing a system of rewards and punishments to encourage specific behavior

ramón has been in prision and is now out how will he act
ramón will have extreme difficulty adjusting to independent living

in a total institution inmates have little ____
privacy

what of the following is the foundation of the process of cultural transmission
language

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