Ethics Midterm:T/F Essay

question

According to the divine command theory, right actions are those that are willed by God.
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True
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Embracing without question the moral beliefs of your culture can undermine your personal freedom.
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True
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Many great religious thinkers have relied on reason to understand the truths of morality.
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True
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Morality is both accessible and meaningful to us whether we are religious or not.
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True
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Religious believers have no need to do ethics.
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False
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The principle of impartiality demands that we treat equals equally.
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True
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There are never any good reasons for treating someone differently from the way we treat others.
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False
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We properly use the terms good, bad, blameworthy, and praiseworthy to refer to concepts or judgments of value.
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True
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A cultural relativist will agree with this statement: “It is morally right to smoke marijuana in Amsterdam because the culture approves of it.”
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True
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Cultural relativism applies only to cultures from different countries.
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False
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Emotivists believe that in morally disagreeing with one another, we are only experiencing a disagreement in attitudes.
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True
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Emotivists believe that moral judgments are about feelings rather than the truth or falsity of moral assertions.
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True
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Nothing is good or bad, according to emotivists.
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True
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One cannot be both an objectivist and a cultural relativist.
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True
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Social reformers are always right in the view of a cultural relativist.
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False
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Someone who is raised as an objectivist will likely hold that view as an adult, too.
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False
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The statement, “Shoplifting is wrong,” expresses only feelings of disapproval, according to emotivists.
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False
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This statement is morally sound for subjective relativists: “If we think that inflicting pain on an innocent child for no reason is right (that is, we approve of such an action), then the action is right.”
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True
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A typical moral argument consists of premises and a conclusion, with the conclusion being a nonmoral statement, or judgment.
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False
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An inductive argument is intended to provide probable, not decisive, support to the conclusion.
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True
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Hasty generalization is a fallacy of inductive reasoning.
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True
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Modus ponens is symbolized by: If p, then q; p; therefore, q.
answer

True
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The fallacy of arguing that a claim should be rejected solely because of the characteristics of the person who makes it is called argument to the person.
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True
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The fallacy of assigning two different meanings to the same term in an argument is known as faulty analogy.
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False
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The misrepresenting of someone’s claim or argument so it can be more easily refuted is called the fallacy of the straw man.
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True
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Very few arguments have implied premises.
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False
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A moral theory is equivalent to a moral code.
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False
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A moral theory that is internally inconsistent is not eligible for further evaluation.
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False
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Applying the moral criteria of adequacy is basically a subjective, arbitrary affair.
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False
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Considered moral judgments help shape moral theory, and a good theory sheds light on judgments and helps adjudicate conflicts among judgments and other moral statements.
answer

True
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Ethical egoism says that the morally right action is the one that produces the most favorable balance of good over evil for oneself.
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True
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One’s considered moral judgments can be mistaken.
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True
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Reflective equilibrium is reached in one’s moral experience when one’s emotions are in balance.
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False
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To a nonconsequentialist, telling a lie is wrong because it results in bad consequences.
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False
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A major problem with utilitarianism is that it does not promote human welfare.
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False
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Act-utilitarianism fails Criterion 2 (consistency with one’s moral experience).
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False
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An ethical egoist does whatever she or he desires to do or whatever gives her or him the most immediate pleasure.
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False
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Bentham and Mill had identical views on happiness.
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False
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Classic utilitarianism is hedonistic.
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True
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Psychological egoism is a dubious theory.
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True
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Self-interest is a pillar on which the economic system of capitalism is built.
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True
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Some defend moral commonsense by saying that it can be mistaken and that one’s intuitions can be tenuous or distorted, but that one should cast them aside only for good reasons.
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True
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To achieve happiness, one must pursue other aims, the pursuit of which yields happiness as a byproduct.
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True
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Utilitarianism reminds one that the consequences of actions must figure in our moral deliberations.
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True
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Utilitarianism reminds one that the consequences of one’s actions do indeed make a difference in one’s moral deliberations.
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True
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Utilitarianism seems to many people to be at odds with one’s commonsense notion of rights.
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True
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What matters most in act-utilitarianism is how much net happiness comes directly from performing an action, as opposed to following a rule that applies to such actions.
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True
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According to Kant, one must never, under any circumstances, treat a person as a means.
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False
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According to natural law theory, the general principles of right and wrong vary from person to person and from culture to culture.
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False
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Contrary to Kant, humanity seems to have no absolute duties.
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True
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In general, intention plays a larger role in natural law theory than it does in Kant’s categorical imperative.
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True
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Natural law theorists maintain that some actions are always wrong.
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True
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The doctrine of double effect says that performing a good action may be permissible even if it has bad effects, but performing a bad action for the purpose of achieving good effects is never permissible.
answer

True
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Caring is a vital and inescapable part of the moral life.
answer

True
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Critics of virtue ethics claim that appeals to virtues or virtuous character without reference to principles of duty cannot give us any useful guidance in deciding what to do.
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True
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Some argue against virtue ethics by pointing out that a person may possess all the proper virtues and still be unable to tell right from wrong actions.
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True
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Virtue ethics and utilitarianism are nearly identical theories.
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False
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Virtue ethics puts primary emphasis on being a good person and living a good life.
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True
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Virtue theorists and Kantian theorists agree that one must always act out of a sense of duty, not from such unstable motivations as compassion or loyalty.
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False
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Virtue theorists believe that right action is unimportant.
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False
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William Frankena says that virtues without principles are blind.
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True
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All parties to the debate believe that passive euthanasia is morally equivalent to active euthanasia.
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False
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An act-utilitarian might see euthanasia as morally permissible because it results in the greatest happiness for all concerned.
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True
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Many advocates of euthanasia contend that if a competent dying patient is in agony and asks to be put out of his or her misery (active voluntary euthanasia), rejecting his or her plea for mercy would be both cruel and wicked.
answer

True
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Many opinion polls have shown that most people favor some form of euthanasia or physician assistance in dying.
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True
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Moral permissibility is the same thing as legal permissibility.
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False
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Opponents of active euthanasia admit that modern medicine cannot relieve intense pain in dying patients.
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False
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Some kinds of killing are considered by most people to be morally permissible.
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True
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Some opponents of active voluntary euthanasia argue that lifting a moral or legal prohibition against this kind of mercy killing will dilute respect for life and encourage a slow slide from active voluntary euthanasia to active nonvoluntary euthanasia and then perhaps to involuntary euthanasia. This is a slippery-slope argument.
answer

True
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The strongest arguments for active voluntary euthanasia are built on two fundamental moral principles: Persons have (1) a right of self-determination and (2) an obligation to help someone in serious distress or peril (if they are in a position to help without great risk to themselves).
answer

True

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