Essentials of Oceanography: Chapter 3

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Ocean Provinces
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1) Continental margins 2) Deep ocean margins (abyssal plains) 3) Mid ocean ridge
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passive margins
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lack major tectonic activity since they are in the center of lithospheric plates
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active margins
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near lithospheric plate boundaries and have high degrees of tectonic activity. (There are transform and convergent active margins)
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Continental margin parts
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1) continental shelf- flat gradual slope 2) shelf break- point marking the beginning of a steeper slope 3) continental slope- slope where the deep ocean basins begin 4) Continental rise- transition zone between continental margin and abyssal plain, that contains lots of debris
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Graded bedding
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Form that debris in continental rise is in, with larger debris moving down to smaller
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turbidite deposits
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stacks of graded bedding
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deep sea fans
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deposits at the mouth of submarine canyons
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abyssal plains
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flat, deep, portions of ocean floor that make up deep ocean basins. They are formed by tiny particles slowly drifting to the ocean floor in a process called suspension settling
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seamounts and tablemounts
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volcanic peaks in the abyssal plains. seamounts being upside down ice cream cone and tablemounts being flat topped
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Pacific ring of fire
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contains majority of earths volcanoes and large earthquakes because of its many convergent boundaries
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mid ocean ridge features
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rift valleys- this the area of separation of two divergent plates oceanic ridges- have prominent rift valley and steep rugged slopes. oceanic rises- slopes gentler and less rugged
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turbidity currents
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carve submarine canyons. They are underwater avalanches of muddy water mixed with rocks and other debris.
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hypsographic curve
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shows relationship between the height of the land and the depth of the oceans. shows 70.8% of earth covered by oceans, and 29.2% by land
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bathymetry
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study of ocean depths, finding topography of ocean floor
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Methods of bathymetry
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Sounding- rope/wire with heavy weight (standard unit was fathom) (85 BC) echo sounding- reflection of sound signals ( early 1900s) precision depth recorder- focused beams. (1950s) Modern methods: multibeam echo sounders- multiple frequencies of sound used simultaneously side-scan sonar- can be towed above seafloor Satellite measurements

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