Essay outlines – AP Gov and Politics

question

open primary (essay 1 part a)
answer

primary election in which any voter can cast a ballot in any party’s primary
question

caucus (essay 1 part a)
answer

a meeting or gathering of members of a political party where members deliberate and choose from the list of those seeking the presidential nomination
question

winner take all primary (essay 1 part b)
answer

-shortens the timeframe for candidates wrapping up the nomination -affects strategic decisions (allocation of funds) -advantages those with more prominence or better name recognition early in the process
question

How super delegates increase the power of party leaders (essay 1 part c)
answer

-party leaders are now assured a role in the nomination process, regardless of which candidate they support -Party leaders can cast the deciding vote in close nomination contests -Superdelegates are unpledged and therefore can change their minds on candidates as the process unfolds
question

Reasons why campaign strategies differ (essay 1 part d)
answer

-the electorate in the primary election is different from the electorate in the general election -a candidate’s opponents in the primary are fellow partisans, whereas opponents in the general election are from other parties -there are differences in financing, media coverage, and current events leading up to the general election
question

winner take all feature of the electoral college (essay 2 part a)
answer

the candidate who gets the most votes (or a majority, a plurality, more than any other candidate) wins all of state’s electoral votes.
question

How it affects presidential candidates run their campaigns (essay 2 part b)
answer

-Resource allocation or focus on competitive states, swing states, and large states where candidates spend their time or money or buy media -issues (an issue may swing a bloc of votes in a state) -choice of vice-president (regional balance)
question

Why winner take all hinders third party at the state level (essay 2 part c)
answer

-third party candidates may get a lot of popular votes but no electoral votes unless they carry a state -the difficulty of winning electoral votes hampers the ability to raise funds and gain other campaign resources
question

Why the electoral college has not been abolished (essay 2 part d)
answer

-history/tradition -would require constitutional amendment -no clear consensus on an alternative -collectively benefits small states -collectively benefits large states -competitive states like it -favors two-party system
question

How the media affects the formation of policy agenda (essay 3 part a)
answer

-media framing of issues -affects agenda setting by what it chooses to cover (priming/gatekeeping/watchdog)
question

How elections affect the formation of policy agenda (essay 3 part a)
answer

-election winners control agenda -initiative process -issues raised during campaigns
question

Description of congressional committees in the enactment of public policy (essay 3 part b)
answer

committee actions related to the enactment of public policy (gatekeeper/mark-up legislation/hold hearings)
question

Description of executive orders in the enactment of public policy (essay 3 part b)
answer

-presidents use executive orders to enact policy -Bypass congress
question

bureaucratic discretion in the implementation of public policy (essay 3 part c)
answer

bureaucrats have the ability to shape implementation of public policy
question

iron triangles in the implementation of public policy (essay 3 part c)
answer

interest group(s)/congressional committees(s) pressure bureaucracy to implement policy that benefits them
question

How veto power affects congressional decision making (essay 4 part a)
answer

-results in congressional interaction with the president/executive branch during the legislative process (bargaining, negotiation, compromising, consulting) -Prevents or discourages congressional action if the president makes a statement of clear opposition or threatens a veto
question

how power to issue executive orders affects congressional decision making (essay 4 part a)
answer

-Congress acts in response to or anticipates executive orders (countermands, preempts, compromises) -Congress avoids taking action on controversial issues
question

how power as commander in chief affects congressional decision making (essay 4 part a)
answer

-Congress engages in oversight activities -Congress clarifies its role associated with the power to declare war (war powers act) -Congress controls military spending and thus can improve, modify, or reject funding
question

how power of legislative oversight affects presidential decision making (essay 4 part b)
answer

-Presidents minimize the number or extent of actions that might draw congressional scrutiny
question

how senate advice and consent power affects presidential decision making (essay 4 part b)
answer

-Presidents weigh the implications of making controversial or ideological nominations or appointments -presidents use recess appointments, avoiding congressional confirmation battles -Presidents executive agreements to avoid the need to have treaties ratified
question

how budgetary power affects presidential decision making (essay 4 part b)
answer

-presidents consider budget items or programs that are important to members of Congress -presidents consult with members of Congress during the budget process -presidents sign budgets that include provisions they oppose rather than veto the budget -Presidents postpone agenda items because of difficulty in getting congressional budgetary approval
question

Primary conflict over the decision to go to war (essay 7 part a)
answer

the president is commander-in-chief and Congress has the power to declare war
question

Provisions of the War Powers resolutions meant to limit presidential power over war making (essay 7 part b)
answer

-president must notify Congress within 48 hours of sending troops into combat -president must consult with Congress whenever feasible -Conflicts are limited to 60 days unless Congress takes action -Congress can extend time from the initial 60 days or can withdraw troops after 60 days with adequate notification to the president
question

Other formal powers Congress has over war making (essay 7 part c)
answer

-passing laws -appropriations (any mention of “funding”) -Confirmation of nominees -impeachement -treaty ratification Congressional oversight (hearings or investigations)

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member