Indian Youth and Social Media Essay
In the 1950s and 1960s, United States, UAE, Switzerland were internationally pre-eminent in economy and technology. After 30 years the economic landscape has changed considerably and indeed continues to change with amazing rapidity. Situation of strategic economic equality has come to exist in the triad regions of North America, Western Europe and the Pacific Rim (including India and China).
India is considered as a developing country having population of more than a billion, second highest in the world opened up the economy in the early nineties following a major crisis that led by a foreign exchange crunch that dragged the economy close to defaulting on loans. The response was a slew of domestic and external sector policy measures partly prompted by the immediate needs and partly by the demand of the multilateral organisations. Soon the economies of India would be much larger and become a powerful force in the global economy.
More over India is growing at the rate of eight to nine percent per annum where as most of the developed countries including US, Canada, Japan and countries of EU and UK are gradually developing until last year. The economies of India have achieved tremendous growth almost each year becoming two of the hottest emerging markets in the world. The changes in India are potentially more dramatic. India is beginning to make the transition from imitator to innovator. The gross domestic product (GDP) of India is $1100 B (2007) or RS. 55000 B.
It is approximately two percent of the GDP of the world i. e. $55000. The new policy regime radically pushed forward in favour of a more open and market oriented economy. Major measures initiated as a part of the liberalisation and globalisation strategy in the early nineties included scrapping of the industrial licensing regime, reduction in the number of areas reserved for the public sector, amendment of the monopolies and the restrictive trade practices act, start of the privatisation programme, reduction in tariff rates and change over to market determined exchange rates.
Over the years there has been a steady liberalisation of the current account transactions, more and more sectors opened up for foreign direct investments and portfolio investments facilitating entry of foreign investors in telecom, roads, ports, airports, insurance and other major sectors. Recently all over the world the recession of 2008-09 was created by financial institutions and they were the worst hit. However, the cascading impact can be seen in all the economies of the country.
The foreign direct investments have gone down drastically because of funds crunch. Lack of foreign investments has dried the resource pool and many projects had to be scrapped. It had direct impact on trade and productivity which declined in the absence of financial resources and led to massive lay offs adding to the unemployment rate. Many manufacturing economies have seen a fall in exports following the change in inventory cycle. Domestic demand was constrained by credit crunch and stringent economic policies.
Oil and essential commodities will be playing major role in deciding the recovery model of many economies. The unemployment rate is expected to go down with reopening of the international trade and boost to production once the economies align back to the revised inventory cycle. A strong recovery is expected in the developing countries as compared to the developed nations. It is expected that conditions for international trade will be challenging keeping in view that most of the exports are driven by developed nations.
International policy responses were largely successful but needed an international coordination to bring the recovery on full swing. Global recession also hit Indian economy during the last quarter of 2008. Many private sectors particularly in IT, export field etc has a massive trade with other countries is dumped during recession and employees were dropped out from their job. But soon it has started regaining its ground and has successfully controlled its inflation crisis. It stated that Government of India is maintaining a good economy balance to regain the country progress.
As Indian industry has become more globally competitive major India businesses anticipated much higher allocations for marketing and advertising campaigns in order to persist within the globalized Indian economy. Some estimate that the advertising industry has been one of the fastest developing industries in India as much as 25-30%. Another result of globalization has been a huge increase in salaries of senior managers, accountants, lawyers and public relations personnel working for MNCs or their local competitors. For the IT-literate, job opportunities have been plenty, and there are also openings to live and earn abroad.
Indian consumers associate India’s headway with the accessibility of the latest automobile models and consumer goods. The local accessibility of imported European cosmetics and fashions, imported drinks and confectioneries have all become meaningful to those who have enough disposable income to buy such items. Industrialists with interests in ports, shipping, international warehousing and other presence of international trade and commerce may also see globalization as favorable to their sectors of the economy. Globalization makes the country increasingly interconnected.
It paid a greater access to developing countries like India faces new challenges like growing inequality across and within nations, volatility in financial market and environmental deteriorations. Indian market and technology transfer hold out improved productivity and higher living standard of people. Globalisation leads to Change among people across the world which is considered as growth, both intellectual and emotional. It creates a space for better experience, services and ambience. India’s services sector and industrial sectors paved a great path for the economy renaissance and demands globalization culture.
This can raise the poor from poverty, nourish a worldwide middle class, and even spread democracy. Globalization is one of the major reasons for the improved economical growth in India which increases the living standard of people and the country. Recent survey reports suggest that salary hikes in different countries are different. Comparison of salary hikes in India and other countries in the world are mentioned below. Japan remains the lowest with just half percent hike in salary. it is approximately one percent in Canada and two percent in New Zealand, Australia, Hong Kong and Singapore.
The US, of course, have achieved up to 2. 8 percent. Indonesia has achieved a salary hike up to nine percent and Vietnam is at the level of ten percent growth. However, India beats all countries in the world with eleven percent hike in salary which increases the economic status of different classes of people in India. It is leading even in the recession period. The revival in the economy and renewed hiring activity across sectors has contributed to this upward trend. Indian companies are likely to offer higher packages. Globalization indeed brings in new technology
Globalization is not a new development; its pace has increased with the advent of new technologies, especially in the area of telecommunications which increased the mobility of goods, services, labors, technology and capital throughout the world. Technology- driven globalization -“The world is flattening” Information Technology in India is knowledge-based and efficient utilization of skilled labor forces in this sector usually help an economy to achieve a rapid pace of economic growth. In India it helps many other sectors in the growth process of the economy including the services and manufacturing sectors.
The revolution in technology is accelerating globalization which made a good economy in India. “Technology determinism” is the force that will rule the economy and technologies such as writing or print or television or the computer “changed society. ” In its most extreme form, the entire form of society is seen as being determined by technology: new technologies transform society at every level, including institutions, social interaction and individuals. At the least a wide range of social and cultural phenomena are seen as shaped by technology. “Human factors” and social arrangements are seen as secondary.
In the resulting “network society,” the compression of space and time made possible by the new communication technology alters the speed and scope of decisions. What is common to most of these understandings of the new social order is their tendency to adopt an evolutionary and technologically determinist stance. The idea that technology, specifically information and communication technology is the most important cause of social change permeates to emphasize that technological change is itself shaped by the social circumstances within which it takes place.
Such a perspective prevents a purely technological interpretation and recognizes the embedded ness of technology in society and the variable outcomes of these technologies for different social groups. Technology and society are inextricably bound together, meaning that power, contestation, inequality, and hierarchy inscribe new technologies. New media holds out a possibility of on-demand access to content any time, anywhere, on any digital device, as well as interactive user feedback, creative participation and community formation around the media content.
Another important promise of New Media is the “democratization” of the creation, publishing, distribution and consumption of media content. When it comes to having an internet connection at home, 86 % of homes in metros have internet connection while it is 79% in mini metros. The figures would also keep increasing with each passing day. The explosion of digital-technology advances during the past 15 years and places the phenomenon in its global context.
Just consider that the Web, search engines, digital photography, iPods, e-mail, PDAs, the browser, file sharing, Wi-Fi, and a dozen other cutting-edge technologies have not only come to dominate economics and the workplace but have also helped reshape the political world — all in less than a generation. Computer-based homework or telework offers the freedom of self-regulated work and a reintegration of work and personal life. Informatisation is the process through which new communication technologies are used in India as a means of furthering socio-economic development.
While India as a nation once stood far behind many other countries in its degree of Informatisation, the information strategy is today engaged in developing enthusiastically. Information Technology in India can be best described in regards to the working procedure of techno polis. A techno polis is a geographically concentrated high-tech complex characterized by a large number of entrepreneurial spin-off companies. A spin-off is a new company that is created by individuals who leave a parent organization, and work with a technology that the entrepreneurs bring with them from the parent organization.
Thus, a high-technology industry is one that is at the cutting edge of technology, an industry whose core working strategy changes rapidly. The common theme is that everything in the digital future will be different, but it is not clear whether people relations will also be different. Although the optimistic commentators on the digital revolution promise freedom, empowerment, and wealth, rarely do they show interest in the relationship between technology and social relation.
The revolution in information technology is creating a global economy, the product of an interaction between the rise in informational networks and the process of capitalist restructuring. A main contribution for globalization is Computer networking is the centralizing technology that will cause the development of this global intelligence because people use communication technologies to interact on a global scale. Electric and electronic media tend to bring people together into a larger group consciousness that is reminiscent of preliterate tribal zed oral culture.
Globalization simultaneously brings people together into a large consumer culture and potentially exposes individuals to different cultures. The computer network in India had evolved into the Internet by 1989, when the total number of users worldwide began to increase Compared to other communication channels like postal mail or long-distance telephone calls, email via the Internet is quicker, cheaper, and better in other ways which is the boom of networking different people across the world for various purpose like trade, social relationship, education etc.
The early 1990s saw a very rapid rate of adoption of the Internet, including the World Wide Web, especially after the development of MOSAIC, which is a software technology that made the Internet much more user-friendly. The Internet is the ultimate online textbook. Internet makes a significant contribution to the quality of life in developing nations. Government of India is now committed to the Internet, and we examine changing government roles, primarily the adoption of an ambitious Action Plan in India and are designed to elevate India to the level of information technology (IT) to superpower.
Internet is increasing efficiency of conventional organizations and processes, such as in substituting for mail and fax. Internet progress in a nation depends upon determining factors including the availability of telecommunication infrastructure; networking technicians and trained, demanding users; networking and end-user hardware; and an interested, supportive government. Telecommunication infrastructure is an important element in Internet growth. One reason that the Information Technology and Internet was adopted so rapidly was the widespread prior adoption of personal computers.
This spread of the Internet in the 1990s throughout India meant that computers were increasingly used for communication, rather than as only number-crunchers, a radical change from the early functions of mainframe computers. Both networking leaders and technicians and demanding users are required for internet technology. Network leaders and technicians are on the supply side, but the Internet also needs trained and demanding users. Education and literacy rates are high in urban areas (particularly in India) and so the absolute numbers of potential users are also increased.
The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) estimated that 3. 7 million PCs were installed in India in 1996 and increased more today. Whether a computer is purchased by an organization for employees or by a family for the home, the cost is large relative to budgets in developing nations and hard currency is required. The economy growth of India influenced the living status of people to be more comfortable, stylish and wide. At present, the Internet is confined to large cities in the country.
It will be many years before PCs are affordable to average Indian, bulk of urban residents will depend upon public access facilities… And it suggests that Internet access might be provided by upgrading the 600,000 privately run public telephone offices in the country today. The internet is beginning to have a revolutionary effect on the 700 million people who live in villages in India. Around 2006 – Broadband usage in India is growing 20% per month, according to the Internet Service Providers Association of India (ISPAI).
Language is a major issue in achieving widespread network utilization. The Indian constitution recognizes 14 languages, but an estimated 179 languages and 544 dialects are used. While 30 percent of the population speaks Hindi, foreign language in the south, Bengal, and other regions; roughly 5 percent of the population in South Asia speaks English. This translates into nearly 50 million potential Indian users. Since English speakers are generally well educated and able to afford a computer and Internet account or access at a public venue and is therefore used on most websites.
The number of educated, middle-class people in this nation is large relative to the number of Internet users. .So the usage of new media is rapidly increasing among people in India. In the global, networked society, the dominant form of work becomes information- and knowledge-based work. At the same time, leisure, education, family relationships, and personal identities are seen as molded by the pressures exerted and opportunities arising from the new technical forces. Technology has increased significantly and is affecting the lives of several youngsters across the world.
In the advanced technology the criteria of faster, more complex and superior is highly attracted and adapted by the younger generation. So the manufacturing sector started to target the youth more prominently. This is the age of ever-converging technology and communication. The Internet has become the primary communication tool for teens and they depend on it, as an educational resource, online entertainment activities and social networking. Youths today prefer to have mobile phones and desktop pc’s, spend more time online and are engaged in Indian ways of social networking.