ESL Praxis Practice

Universal Grammar
Chomsky-no dialect or language is more complex or sophisticated than the other. We are all born with the capacity to learn any language w/o formal instruction

LAD
Language Aquisition Device

Generative Grammar
set of rules that could be used to produce language

Deep Structure
our ideas, what we mean-derive meaning from social context

Surface Structure
what we say or write-literal meaning of words

Natural Order Hypothesis
Krashen- grammatical structures aquired in a predictable order, independent of the order grammar is taught

Stages of SLA
Krashen-Pre-production (silent period), early production, speech emergence, intermediate fluency, advanced fluency

Monitor Hypothesis
Krashen-learning is a concious process and used to monitor spoken or written output

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central-block">Input Hypothesis/Comprehensible Input
Krashen-i+1, language input slightly above current level yields optimal growth

Affective Filter
Krashen-mental block can be produced by negative factors such as anxiety, low motivation, self confidence

Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Vygotsky-distance between developmental level and level of potential development. Area between independent performance and assisted performance

Communicative Competence
learner’s abiity to apply and use grammatical uses, form correct utterances and know how and when to use them appropriately

Language Interference
effect of L1 on production of L2

Negative Transfer
interference of previous learning inprocess of learning something new

Interlanguage
language system “inbetween” L1 & L2 that student develops while learning the L2 but is neither L1 or L2

SUP
Social underlying proficiency (conversational language)

CUP
Common underlying proficiency – commonalities between L1 & L2, skills, ideas, concepts that students learn in L1 transfer to L2

BICS
Cummins-Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills – social setting language skills

CALP
Cummins-Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency – languatge needed to acquire academic skills and concepts

Cummins Quadrant
A-cognitively undemanding/context embedded; B-cognitively demanding/context embedded; C-cognitively undemanding/context reduced; D-cognitively demanding/context reduced

Phoneme
class of speech sounds, ie. /t/

Allophone
one of a phones that make up a phoneme, ie. /t/ -> [t], [th], [ſ]

Monothong
one part vowel

Diphthong
two part vowels consisting of a vowel and a glide in same syllable

Reduced Vowel
occurs in unstressed word or syllable -schwa most common

Phonology
organization of speech sounds

Homophone
two words pronounced the same but different meaning, ie. carrot & carat

Homonym
two words spelled the same but that mean different things, ie. left & left

Contrastive
change of meaning by replacing one sound (phoneme) with another

Non-Contrastive
change in sound (phoneme) does not change the meaning

Minimal Pair
two words w/ different meanings that are pronounced the same except for one sound that differs, ie. team & teen

Palatization
when a consonant becomes like a neighboring sound, ie. [d]->[dЗ], did you eat

Digraph
single sound represented by two letters, ie. siNG -> ŋ

Consonant Digraph
ch, sh, th, wh

Consonant Blend
two or more consonants together and each sound is heard, ie. “blend”

Intonation
pattern of pitch movement across a sentence, the meaning of the sentence can depend in part on the intonation, it also helps mark boundaries of a syntactic unit

Graphophonics
sound relationship between the orthography and phonology of a language

Morphology
study of word formation

Morphemes
smallest linguistic unit that can have meaning or grammatical function – 1 word = 1 morph

Affix
added pieces to a word (prefix, suffix) – change meaning or syntactic function to what attaches to

Bound Morpheme
has to be attached to something else for it to mean something

Free Morpheme
can stand alone and mean something

Syntax
how words combine to form phrases and ultimately sentences

Subject
position immediately before verb

Object
position immediately after verb (direct object)

Prepositions
used to express thing involvedin action, possesor, spatial relations, ie. with, in, or into, for, before, without, over, under

Adverbs
express manner, attutude, jusdgment of speaker, frequency, time, place, cause, or degree (answer how, when, where, how much), ie. quickLY, fast, often

Determiners
to express definiteness, indefiniteness, quantity, ie. THE book, A table, EVERY day

Prepositional Phrase
preposition + noun phrase

Clause
a group of words containing a subject and a verb

Indefinite Pronouns
refer to unspecified people of things, many express some idea of quantity, ie. all, seceral, few, none, nobody, somebody

Progressive Form
used to indicate continuity of action vs. its completion, ie. I am singing (-ing verbs), can be used with all 6 tenses

Present Perfect
express an action or make a statement about something occuring @ an indefinite time in the past or something that’s occured in the past and continues into the present-have or has + past participle, ie. I have watched/he has watched

Past Perfect
express action or make a statement about something completed in the past BEFORE some other past action or event-had + past participle, ie. I had watched

Future Perfect
express action or make statement about something that will be completed in the future before some other future action or event-will have or shall have + past participle, ie. I will have watched

Auxilary Verb
be, do, have, will ,shall

Modals
verbs that 1) don’t take -s in 3rd person; 2) use “not” to make modals negative, even in simple present and simple past; 3) cannot be used in the past or future tenses, ie. can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will, would

Demonstrative Adjectives
used to emphasize which items are being singled out and/ or distance from speaker. They are never used alone. ie, which, what, this, these, that, those

Articles
to identify or number the nouns they modify – a, an, the

Comparitive Adjectives
adding -er or “more”, ie. careful, more careful

Superlative Adjectives
requires -est or “most”, ie. most careful (the highest of the comparison levels)

Gerunds
verb forms ending in -ing and used as nouns, ie. SKIING is a wonderful sport

Indicative
mood where speaker wishes to make a statement or a question, ie. “He IS leaving tomorrow.” “DOES this plane FLY to London?

Imperative
mood where speaker makes a command or request

Subjunctive
uses different form of the past and present to express matters of urgency, formality, possibility, or speculation, ie. “If I WERE…”

Active Voice
if the subject performs an action, ie. She sold a box of candy.

Passive Voice
f the subject receives an action, ie. She was sold a box of candy.

Independent Clause
expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself in a sentence

Subordinate Clause
part of a sentence but doesn’t express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself

Predicate
what is said about the subject, always contains a verb

Relative Clause
cannot stand alone, conains a subject and a verb; begins with a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, that, or which) or a relative adverb (whre, when, why); functions as an adjective (answers, “What kind?”, “How many?”, “Which one?”

Indefinite Articles
a, an

Definite Article
the

Determiners
in front of nouns to indicate if referring to something specific or something or a particular type. 3 types: definite articles (a, an, the); demonstratives (this, that, these, those); possessives (my, your, his, her, its, our, their)

Modifiers
words, phrases or clauses that provide description in setences

Idioms
commonly used phrases that are not literal but figurative, ie. “To kick the bucket.”

Semantics
study of meaning

Register
variety of language used for a particular purpose or setting

Metacognitive
awareness of own knowledge and ability ot understan, control and manipulate our cognitive processes

Metalinguistic
Code Switching

Paralinguistics
aspects of spoken communication that do not involve words, ie. body language, gestures, pitch

Code Switching
switching between two languages when speaking

Cognates
words that have similar spelling, pronunciation and often meaning in two languages, ie. florist/florista

Phonics
teaching what sounds correspond to what letters and how to blend the sounds together to learn to pronunciate an unknown word

Frontloading
providing lots of information and comprehensible input (realia, videos, etc.) before starting a unit

Constructivism
reflecting on our experiences, we construct our understanding. LEarning is the process of adjusting our mental o=models fornew experiences. WE call upon and build on prior knowledge

Behaviorism
acquisition of new behavior; conditioning through environmental stimuli (Skinner, Pavlov)

Formative Assessment
happens during instruction and gives teachers information on whether they need to adjust their teaching and the students learning. Helps ensure students achieve targeted standards. Students are involved in assessing their own learning and helping others.

Summative Assessment
givent o determine what known @ a pint in time, ie. state assessments, end of unit tests

Performance Based Assessments
demonstrate knowledge, skills, process by which problems are solved, ie, group projects where students need to plan, research, synthesize information and present; portfolios; essays

Formal Assessments
Data driven -> standardized tests

Informal Assessments
aka Authentic Assessments – content and performance driven, ie. writing samples, homework, journals

Content Based Assessments
assess what has been learned in the content area

Language Experience Approach
based on activities and stories developed from the learner’s personal experiences. The Stories are written down by the teacher and are read together with student until s/he associates the written form wth teh spoken form (top down approach)

Top-Down Reading Approach
reading for meaning

Bottom-Up Approach
emphasizes written text. Go from smallest to biggest linguistic units Identify letters ->words->sentence->paragraph->text

Strategy Based Instruction
students are giventhe opportunity ot understand what they can learn and how they can learn the language more effectively and efficiently->make aware of what strategies they can use and who/when to use them

Form Focused Instruction
focus on formal aspects of language (teaching grammar, spelling, intonation…)

Performance Based Instruction
what and why students must learn – performance tasks are directly related to standards.

Proficiency Based Instruction
focus on listening, speaking, reading and writing -student centered, focus on what students need, know, and can do, taking into consideration different learning styles and diveloping skills and other strategies

Production Based Instruction
based on the output of language

Content Based Instruction
acquire language while using context of subject matter

Multiple Intelligences
Gardner-bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, logical-mathematical, linguistic, musical, spatial

Grammar Based ESL
focused on language structure, function and vocabulary

Communication baed ESL
focused on using language in a meaningful context

Content Based ESL
developing language skills and grade level content learning

Sheltered Instruction/Structured Immersion
teach grade level material in English and in a comprehensible and engaging manner while developing language skills. Contains language and content objectives, modified curriculum, supplemantary materials, alternative assessment

SIOP
Shelterd Instruction Observation Protocol

Sheltered Classroom
can be gradespecific or an ESL class. COntent is taught by integrating langauage and content objectives in the same lesson. content is scaffolded to provide comprehensible input and modified grade level curriculum. The goal is to make content accessible while working on their English skills

Pull-Out ESL
students taken from regular class in small groups and the work on a specific skill

Push-In ESL
whole group instruction in regular class, the ESL teacher is in the regular classroom along with classroom teacher

CALLA- Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach
integrates content area instruction with languge development activities and explicit instruction in learning strategies. Develops CALP skills in English through cognitively demanding activities and comprehension is assisted by contextual support. Scaffolded instruction guides acquisition of conent

Newcomer Program
programs designed to meet the needs of incoming ELL’s with low English literacy skills and limited schooling in their L1. The goal is to acquire beginning Enlish skills and core academic skills and acculturate to school system

Transitional Bilingual Program
receive instruction in L1 for at most 3 years, the goal is to transition studens out into all English classrooms. Provides support in learning core subjects while learning English. L1 not developed nor attention given to its maintenace once mainstreamed. AKA – early exit bilingual program

Developmental Bilingual Program
continued L1 support for academics through elementary. About 40% of academic instruction in L1. Student is English proficient when mainstreamed. AKA-late-exit bilingual program

Two-Way/Dual Immersion
goal to develop speaking, reading, writing, proficiency in both L1 & L2. CLass is made up of 1/2 English speakers and 1/2 speakers of another common language. Instruciton goes up to 50/50 in each language.

Kagan Strategies
collaborative learning activities

Acculturation
process by which an individual adapts to a new culture

Aspiration
pronunciation accompanied by breathing out

Affective Filter
controls how much input the learner comes into contact with and how much that’s converted into learning. Affected by anxiety, etc.

Circumlocution
the use of more words than necessary to express something, especially to avoid saying it directly

Consonant Clusters
group of consonants which have no intervening vowel, ie. /spl/ + /ts/ for “splits”

Ethnocentrism
belief that one’s culture is superior

LEP
Limited English PRoficient

NABe
National Association of Bilingual Education

Nasalization
to make a sound nasal by lowering the soft palate so that air flows through the nose

Proxemics
study of distance individuals maintain between each other in social interactions and how this separation is significant

Psycholinguistic
studyo f langauge acquisition and use in relation to the psychological factors controlling its use and recognition

Semiotics
study of signs and symbols of all kinds, what they mean, and how they relate to the things or ideas they refer to

Silent Period
1st stage of SLA at preproduction stage-students may not communicate during this time except in nonverbal ways

Grammar Translation Method
focus on grammatical rules, syntactic structures, rote memorization of vocabulary and translation of literary texts

Direct Method
oral language focus-instruction is in the target language with no translation to assist. Focuses less on explicit instruciton of grammar rules and structures and more on the repetition and memorization of language patterns.

Audiolingual Method
Rapid means of learning a foreign language (used my military). Patterns of drills and dialogue designed to develop grammatical structures and vocabulary in a highly sequential manner. Language acquisition as the memorization and recall of language patterns

Communicative Language Teaching
language as a tool for communicating information and ideas through teaching. Create realistic context for SLA in classroom, focus on functional language usage and ability to express self

Total Physical Response (TPR)
coordination of speech and action. Oral commands in target language and students physically carry them out.

Natural Approach
i +1 is applied- communication activities, contextualized acquisition opportunities presented, active demonstrations to convey meaning by associating words and phrases with objects and actions. Comprehension before production, indirect error corretion

Community Language Learning
students choose waht they want to learn, the teacher serves as a counselor. SAid to ease affective situations

Silent Way
presents learners with simple linguistic situations that they were to observe and then describe in the target language, focusing especially on actions they witnessed. Teacher is silent after sets up classroom situations. Learners have to work with what they know to absorb learning

Suggestopedia
relaxed environment (dim lights, soft music) students listen to dialogues then practice them STudents may “become” a character in the target langauge. Designed to place as much language teaching emphasis on learner personality and motication as taht typically placed on intellect

Lau v. Nichols
equal vs. equitable treatment for LEP students. Supreme Court ruled that schools were to provide LEP students with support to learn English and content

TESOL
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages-organization that puts out a journal, national/international conferences, and sets language learning standards for English learners

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