Please enter something

EPC 420 Educational Psychology

question

What does adolescence mean?
answer

Comes from the Latin verb adoloscere which means “to grow” or “to grow to maturity.”
question

When is adolescence?
answer

Adolescence is the period of growth that begins at puberty and continues through to maturity.
question

When is early adolescence?
answer

Early adolescence is often considered to be from 12 to 14 years of age
question

When is middle adolescence?
answer

Middle adolescence is from 15 to 16 years of age
question

When is late adolescence?
answer

Late adolescence generally covers the years from 17 to 19
question

What are the seven behaviors teenagers are most likely to exhibit?
answer

Secretive Irritable Boastful Depressed Rebellious Defiant Devious
question

Why are teenagers secretive?
answer

Teenagers are secretive because they are fearful of ridicule
question

Why are teenagers irritable?
answer

Teenagers are irritable because they resent interference from those who can’t really understand
question

Why are teenagers boastful?
answer

Teenagers are boastful because by blustering, maybe it will fool others into thinking they are in charge of themselves, or maybe even convince themselves that they are in charge
question

Why are teenagers depressed?
answer

Teenagers are depressed because much of the time nothing seems to work out right
question

Why are teenagers rebellious?
answer

Teenagers are rebellious because parents always seem to have a rule that either interfered with their rocky lives, or does not apply
question

Why are teenagers defiant?
answer

Teenagers are defiant because that’s the only way they know to get the parents to leave them alone
question

Why are teenagers devious?
answer

Teenagers are devious because direct confrontation is too unpleasant and may cause more pain in the short run than they believe is tolerable.
question

Who developed the Ecocultural Model?
answer

Thomas Weisner and Ronald Gallimore developed the Ecocultural Model
question

What is the Ecocultural Model?
answer

The Ecocultural Model states that to be successful, a change must affect all aspects of life, be meaningful, be self-sustainable in the local ecology, fit the competencies of the people involved, and diffuse on its own in its natural environment.
question

In which situations has the Ecocultural Model been successfully applied?
answer

The Ecocultural Model has been successfully applied in family communication, school reading programs, homework and educational goals, drug and alcohol rehab, emotional and physical abuse counseling, and medical procedures
question

How could teachers interpret the Ecocultural Model?
answer

Teachers can interpret the Ecocultural Model as “in order to be successful, a change (intervention, preventive measure, negotiation, instructional method, or management strategy) must: -affect all aspects of the instructional environment – be meaningful to the students – be self-sustainable in the classroom – fit the competencies of the teachers, aides, administrators, counselors, and students involved”
question

How must teachers introduce changes in routine or employ new strategies?
answer

According to the Ecocultural Model, teachers are actually performing an intervention when they introduce changes or employ new strategies. To do this successfully, teachers must consider and accommodate classroom culture and ecology: the participants, traditional routines, resources, change mechanisms, challenges, and existing support systems
question

What must teachers identify to successfully incorporate new strategies or techniques?
answer

It is important that teachers identify the cultures, participants, routines, and typical change mechanisms in the classroom and school.
question

How do specialists suggest teachers communicate with teens?
answer

Specialists suggest teachers communicate with teens by 1. listening to their stories 2. sharing related stories 3. making several suggestions 4. affirming their feelings 5. giving sincere compliments
question

What are the differences in achievement observed among students of culturally and ethnically diverse backgrounds and students of mainstream backgrounds attributed to?
answer

The differences in achievement observed among students of culturally and ethnically diverse backgrounds and students of mainstream backgrounds are attributed to the differences in the quality of instruction they have received in school. They may also have styles of learning that are at odds with traditional instructional practices
question

What are some strategies that have been demonstrated to promote achievement diverse adolescent populations?
answer

Get to know your students’ individual needs and strengths; share their concerns, hopes, and dreams Learn about and show an interest in your students’ home cultures to better comprehend their behavior in and out of the classroom Identify and dispel stereotypes Communicate high expectations for all ethnically, culturally, and linguistically diverse students Choose culturally relevant curriculum and instructional materials that recognize, incorporate, and reflect your students’ heritages and the contributions of various ethnic groups Establish truly bilingual classrooms by embracing dual-language strategies Use integrated, holistic approaches to language experiences for second-language learners instead of rote drill and practice Enhance language learning with computers and peer tutors
question

How can you make parents feel welcome at school?
answer

Start the school year with an opening conference Reach out to parents whose first language is not English Accommodate parents’ work schedules when creating parent-involvement opportunities or meetings Provide opportunities for parents to visit the school, observe classes, and give feedback. Learn about the various ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic backgrounds of the students and how to communicate with diverse families
question

How can teachers connect instruction to the home?
answer

Assign homework projects that engage each teen’s parents and family and make learning more meaningful for the student Keep parents informed of their adolescent’s performance and school activities by means of e-mails, website postings, phone calls, etc Provide clear, practical information on home-teaching techniques for parents of teens who need extra help at home
question

How do some adolescents use boredom?
answer

Adolescents may use boredom as a protective device when they aren’t feeling capable of dealing with certain situations. When adolescents are feeling sensitive to the opinions of others and don’t yet feel adept at a particular social, physical, or intellectual skill, they may claim boredom as a way of salvaging self-esteem and elevating themselves above others. Essentially, by claiming boredom they escape the situation giving themselves time to develop a skill while saving face.
question

What does development appear to depend on?
answer

Development appears to depend on many different things such as type of task, training, experience, social interactions, cultural background, and physical growth
question

How is development defined?
answer

Development is often defined as the process of how and why people grow, adapt, and change in their physical, socioemotional, language, and cognitive abilities
question

How is cognitive defined?
answer

Cognitive relates to the process of acquiring knowledge by the use of reasoning, intuition, and perception.
question

How is cognitive development defined?
answer

Cognitive development is defined as “how people change from birth through adulthood in their knowledge, learning, thinking, and reasoning.”
question

What did Jean Piaget study?
answer

Piaget studied how a child’s interaction with the environment lead to the development of cognitive abilities and structure.
question

What was Piaget’s new approach for studying children?
answer

Piaget’s new approach to studying children was observation and interview techniques
question

What were Piaget’s four stages that a child’s intellectual abilities progressed through?
answer

Piaget concluded that a child’s intellectual abilities progressed through four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational
question

What is a scheme?
answer

A child developed a pattern of thinking or behavior called a scheme, which he or she used to learn about and act in the world
question

What has recent replications of Piaget’s experiments revealed?
answer

Twentieth century replications of Piaget’s experiments tended to confirm the general sequence of stages up to formal operations, which only 40% of teens reach by high school graduation, meaning some people never attain formal operations, children can be taught tasks well below the age at which the abilities usually appear without instruction, and experience can have a strong influence on the pace of development.
question

How have neo-Piagetian researchers revised Piaget’s theory?
answer

Neo-Piagetian researches have revised Piaget’s theory to include the following beliefs: children’s abilities to operate at a certain stage depend on the specific task, training and experience can accelerate a child’s development, and culture has an impact on development
question

What does Vygotsky’s social-cognitive theory stress?
answer

Vygotsky’s social-cognitive theory stresses the importance of culture and language. Vygostsky believed that culture makes language possible and language makes thought possible. Therefore, cognitive development depends on the social and cultural context each child experiences
question

What does development specifically depend on according to Vygotsky?
answer

Specifically, development depends on the culture’s sign systems: the language, writing systems, and counting system that children grow up with
question

What is the zone of proximal development?
answer

Vygostsky was interested in a child’s potential and maintained that every child has a sphere or a zone of present capabilities — a zone of proximal development (ZPD) — which indicated what he or she is capable of doing
question

What are some implications for teaching that come from Vygotsky’s work?
answer

Promoting such language-related activities as cooperating learning and tutoring in schools Supporting learning and problem solving by providing materials and help that allow students to grow in independence as learners (scaffolding) Employing challenging materials and methods
question

What does recent research in cognitive development indicate?
answer

Recent research in cognitive development indicates that children’s cognitive abilities vary depending on the task, day age, and individual developmental pace.
question

What is Erik Erikson’s proposed psychosocial lifespan model of development?
answer

Erikson studies how humans socialize and how this affects their sense of self. He maintained that personality develops in a predetermined order that builds upon each previous stage and that the ego develops as it successfully resolves social crises.
question

What does Erikson believe about the ego?
answer

Erikson emphasized the role of culture and society and the conflicts that can take place within the ego. These conflicts involve establishing a sense of trust in others, developing a sense of identity in society, and preparing for the future.
question

According to Erikson, which stage was crucial for developing a person’s identity?
answer

The adolescent stage was emphasized and believed to be crucial for developing a person’s identity
question

What are four types of studies researches use to learn how the brain works?
answer

Case studies of individuals with brain injuries Surgical studies with animals Brain-imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging Gross electrical recordings
question

What is neuroplasticity?
answer

Neuroplasticity is the brain’s ability to adapt and change with learning, memory, and experience
question

How is a memory formed?
answer

A memory is physically formed in the brain when brain cells repeatedly send signals to other brain cells in a similar pattern. Eventually, a connection is established. If several links to other brain cells are also established, then all cells will simultaneously send signals whenever one cell is stimulated
question

How are complex memories stores?
answer

Complex memories are not usually located in one place in the brain, instead they are created and stored in networks in many parts of the brain
question

How does a young child’s brain make connections?
answer

A young child’s brain makes connections at an incredible pace as the child interacts with the environment. The richer the environment, the greater the number of interconnections: therefore, learning can take place faster and with greater understanding.
question

How does the process of making connections in the brain change around puberty?
answer

As a child approaches puberty, the rate of making new connections slows and the brain starts making the useful brain cell connections permanent and eliminating the nonuseful ones.
question

What is the frontal lobe?
answer

The frontal love is the executive control center of the brain that monitors higher-order thinking, directs problem solving, and focuses on information. This is where most of the working memory and our self-will are located, and this is where the brain regulates emotions
question

When is emotional control operational?
answer

The frontal lobe matures slowly and continues to mature into early adulthood. Consequently, emotional control is not fully operational during adolescence. This is one reason adolescents are more likely than adults to submit to their emotions and resort to high-risk behavior
question

What is working memory?
answer

Working memory is any information that is currently available for working on a problem. The amount of information available is dependent on the type of information.
question

How long is an adolescent’s attention span?
answer

Adolescents and adults have an attention span of 10 to 20 minutes
question

Why is adequate sleep important to the memory storage process?
answer

Adequate sleep is important to the memory stage process because most encoding takes place during REM and non REM sleep
question

What is encoding?
answer

Encoding involves selecting certain parts of information based on one’s perspective and forming a mental representation of it. The encoding process is slow and can proceed more easily when the brain is not preoccupied with outside stimuli
question

How do REM dreams benefit us?
answer

Resent research indicates that REM dreams allow us to “try out” and test scenarios without risk; they are similar to playing simulation games. It is believed that these dreams prepare us for surviving future events.
question

How do non REM dreams benefit us?
answer

Non REM dreams help us learn via replay and making assocations
question

What are the types of memory making during sleep and when do they occur?
answer

Motor skills – REM Visual perception – REM and non REM Procedural – REM and non REM Factual memory – REM and non REM Spatial memory – non REM
question

How can little sleep affect students?
answer

Students who get only five to six hours of sleep lose out on dreaming and reduce the amount of time their brains have to consolidate information and skills into permanent storage
question

What is the psychological-cognitive cycle?
answer

For well-rested children and adults the best time for focus and learning is between 7 am – 12 PM. Cognitive ability decreases until its lowest point at 1 PM. After 1 PM, cognitive ability increases slightly until 2 pm and then it slowly drops off until 10 pm.
question

How is the psychological-cognitive cycle different for adolescents?
answer

For well-rested adolescents there is a shift of about an hour off this time sequence. A teen’s cognitive peak is generally between 8 and 1 PM. Hits a low at 3 PM. Increases slightly at 4 PM, then decreases until 10.
question

What is Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome?
answer

Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome – DSPS – involves circadian rhythms and their inability to function properly.
question

How should teachers use recent neurological research in their teaching?
answer

Present no more than 5-9 new items at a time to adolescents. Change activities every 10-20 minutes Try to teach adolescents important information between 8 am and 1 pm. Reduce sleep hormones during the day by keeping classroom lights on, opening blinds, lifting shades, and getting students outdoors whenever possible Administer standardized tests in the morning Recognize youre at different levels in the psychological-cognitive cycle
question

What is educational psychology?
answer

Educational psychology is the scientific study of the mind as it related to learning and helping people learn
question

What is the behaviorist perspective?
answer

The behaviorist perspective saw learning as response acquisition: people learned by acquiring appropriate responses to stimuli.
question

What is the instructor’s role in the behaviorist perspective?
answer

The instructor’s role in the behaviorist perspective was (1) to reinforce learner’s appropriate responses in order to strengthen them and (2) to ignore or punish inappropriate responses to weaken them
question

What was the humanist perspective?
answer

The humanist perspective emphasized the uniqueness of the learner. People’s feelings, self-development, communication, and values were important components of their learning
question

What is the role of the instructor in the humanist perspective?
answer

The role of the instructor in the humanist perspective was to play close attention to each learner’s unique qualities, needs, attitudes, and abilities in order to design instruction that was learner-centered, included cooperation, and addressed various learning styles
question

What is the cognitivist perspective?
answer

In the cognitivist perspective there is an emphasis on learning as knowledge acquisition: it was believed that people learned by acquiring as many facts, concepts, and skills as possible. People learned by seeking patterns in their search for meaning, their brain’s working memory had a limited capacity, and rehearsal was essential for retention.
question

What is the role of the instructor in the cognitivist perspective?
answer

The role of the instructor in the cognitivist perspective is to help learners make memories by presenting information in carefully designed and sequences steps and prompting for rehearsal
question

What are the generative learning and constructivist perspectives?
answer

The generative learning and constructivist perspectives see learning as generating meaning or knowledge construction: people learned by making meaningful connections between the information presented and their prior knowledge
question

What was the role of the instructor in the generative learning and constructivist perspectives?
answer

The role of the instructor in the generative learning and constructivist perspectives was to create environments and activities that allowed learned to generate their own understanding
question

What is the educational neuroscience perspective?
answer

The educational neuroscience perspective tells us there are specific brain regions involved with different skills (e.g., reading, learning) and subject areas (e.g., math, music), that learning changes the function and structure of the brain, and that the brain is changeable and adapts to environmental demands
question

What is the instructor’s role in the educational neuroscience perspective?
answer

The instructor’s role in the educational neuroscience perspective is to design instruction that works with and helps alter the structure and function of the brain
question

What is the goal of educational psychology?
answer

The goal of research in educational psychology is to collect and analyze data in order to add to our educational knowledge base apply what is learned to instructional situations evaluate the merit of educational programs
question

What are the three types of research performed in educational psychology?
answer

The three main types of studies conducted in educational psychology are descriptive, correlational, and experimental
question

What are preliminary sources?
answer

Preliminary sources are used to locate research articles, books, and education documents
question

What are primary sources in the field of educational psychology?
answer

In the field of educational psychology, primary sources are original research studies written by researches
question

What do primary sources usually include?
answer

Primary sources usually include an introduction, literature review, objectives, hypotheses, methods/procedures, findings/results, discussion, and conclusions
question

What are secondary sources?
answer

Secondary sources synthesize and summarize primary research. Secondary sources are quick, reliable overviews of research; however, because the information is often summarized by people who have their own strong interests and goals, these sources can omit important information, show a bias viewpoint, and include inaccuracies
question

How should you check for author bias?
answer

To check for author bias look for the use of strong and emotional wording, promotion of a strong theoretical position, a stake in the results, and dismissal or omission of important studies to the contrary
question

What is educational psychology according to the textbook?
answer

According to the textbook, educational psychology is the study of learners, learning, and teaching
question

What do educational psychologists do?
answer

Educational psychologists carry out research on the nature of students and effective methods of teaching to understand principles of learning and give educators the information they need to think critically
question

What is pedagogy?
answer

Pedagogy is the link between what a teacher wants students to learn and students’ actual learning
question

Which tasks must be attended to at all levels of education?
answer

The following tasks must be attended to at all levels of education 1. Motivating Students 2. Managing the classroom 3. Assessing prior knowledge 4. Communicating ideas effectively 5. Taking into account the characteristics of the learners 6. Assessing learning outcomes 7. Reviewing information
question

How do you make abstract rules concrete?
answer

You make abstract rules concrete by using many examples, relating the content of instruction to the students’ background, state rules, give examples, and restate rules
question

How do intentional teachers achieve a sense of efficacy?
answer

Intentional teachers achieve a sense of efficacy by constantly assessing the results of their instruction; trying new strategies; continually seeking ideas from colleagues, etc
question

What is the Partnership for 21st Century Skills framework?
answer

The Partnership for 21st Century Skills framework is 1. Core subjects and 21st century themes 2. Learning and innovation skills 3. Information, media, and technology skills 4. Life and career skills
question

What do the Common Core standards emphasize?
answer

Common Core standards emphasize 1. Flexible, creative problem solving 2. Ability to use technology 3. Ability to participate in active discussions in 1-1, small-group, and whole class settings 4. Focus on writing, speaking, and argumentation in groups 5. Focus on reading classic texts as well as new and multicultural texts 6. Focus in math on problem solving in real-world contexts
question

What is a principle?
answer

A principle explains the relationship between factors, such as the effects of alternative grading systems on student motivation
question

What are laws?
answer

Laws are principles that have been thoroughly tested and apply in a wide variety of situations
question

What are five important things teachers must decide?
answer

Teachers must decide 1. How to recognize problems and issues 2. How to consider situations from multiple perspectives 3. How to call up relevant professional knowledge to formulate actions 4. How to take appropriate action 5. How to judge the consequences
question

What are the principle methods educational researchers use?
answer

The principle methods educational researchers use experiments, correlational studies, and descriptive research
question

Why is random assignment critical?
answer

Equivalence is critical because if we were not sure the two groups were equal before the experiment, we would not be able to tell if the treatment made a difference in behavior
question

What is a laboratory experiment?
answer

A laboratory experiment is a highly artificial, structured setting that existed for a very brief period of time. Researchers have a very high degree of control over all factors. This allows for high internal validity
question

What is the primary limitation of laboratory experiments?
answer

The primary limitation of laboratory experiments is they are typically so artificial and so brief that their results may have little relevance to real-life situations
question

What is a randomized field experiment?
answer

A randomized field experiment is an instructional program or other practical treatments that are evaluated over long periods in real classes under realistic conditions
question

What do field experiments often use?
answer

Field experiments often use matching, in which teachers using one method would be matched with those using a different method or with a control group. The results must be carefully interpreted because of a possible bias of participants
question

What is an example of the single-case experiment?
answer

If behavior improves under the special program but disappears when the program is withdrawn, the implication is the program affected behavior
question

According to Pearson, what is teacher efficacy?
answer

According to Pearson, teacher efficacy is the degree to which teachers feel that their own efforts determine the success of their students
question

According to Pearson, what is intentionality?
answer

According to Pearson, doing things for a purpose. Teachers should plan their actions based on the outcomes they want to achieve
question

According to Pearson, what is the goal of educational psychology?
answer

According to Pearson, the goal of educational psychology is to carefully examine “obvious” and less than obvious questions, using objective methods to test ideas about the factors that contribute to learning
question

According to Pearson, what are principles?
answer

According to Pearson, principles explain the relationship between factors
question

According to Pearson, what are laws?
answer

According to Pearson, laws are principles that have been thoroughly tested and found to apply in a wide variety of situations
question

According to Pearson, what are theories?
answer

According to Pearson, theories are a set of related principles and laws that explains a broad aspect of learning, behavior or another area of interest