Environmental Science Exam 1

The average citizen of which of the following nations has the largest ecological footprint?
United States
In all ecosystems energy is eventually lost to the environment via
Heat resulting from respiration
During the light reactions of photosynthesis, the solar energy absorbed by chlorophyll is used to
Split water molecules and release oxygen in the form of O2 and produce small, high energy molecules that are used in the Calvin cycle to manufacture sugars.
Although 78% of Earth’s atmosphere is nitrogen, nitrogen is limited in most ecosystems because
The natural conversion of atmospheric nitrogen occurs via only lightning and nitrogen fixing bacteria
The cycle’s largest reservoir is ocean water and transpiration is a major flux in this cycle.
Water cycle
This cycle is significantly affected by the extraction of fossil fuels and photosynthesis is a major flux in this cycle
Carbon cycle
Nitrification is a major flux in this cycle and this cycle’s largest reservoir is the atmosphere.
Nitrogen cycle
This cycle is affected by the release of detergents in treated wastewater and the weathering of rock is a major flux in this cycle.
Phosphorus cycle
This is the only process that can change a gene’s DNA and therefore give rise to new variations of the gene.
Mutation
Heavy rains and mudslides cause a river to change course, isolating two groups of lizards of the same species from one another. Over a long period of time….
The groups will probably diverge genetically, and speciation may occur
One example of artificial selection is
Broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, and brussel sprouts bred from Brassica oleracea
If a scientist spends his time studying communities and the non living materials that they interact with, he or she would be considered an
Ecosystem ecologist
The functional role of a species in its community is its
Niche
Density-dependent factors
Have a greater impact at higher population densities
High population density can
Increase the incidence of disease transmission and food scarcity
Population distribution describes
Spatial arrangement of individuals of a single species within a particular area or ecosystem
Made up of interacting populations of different species that inhabit the same area
Community
When the organisms of a particular population seek habitats or resources that are unevenly spaces, the distribution of the individuals in the population is
Clumped
Individuals of a single species fighting over access to a limiting resource is one example of
Intraspecific competition
Many wild orchids cannot be successfully dig up and transplanted because they need the native fungus in the soil to survive. What kind if interaction is this?
Mutualism
Zooplankton-eating fish are
Secondary consumers
Autotrophs, at the base of the tropic pyramid, exist in greater numbers than organisms at higher levels of the pyramid and also have greater stores of energy as well as greater
Biomass
Which of the following are most likely to be keystone species in an ecosystem?
Large bodied, higher level consumers
Which of the following biomes has acidic soil with few nutrients and little organic matter?
A tropical rainforest
In an ecosystem, herbivores are what percentage?
10%
What is the term that refers to the substances and forces that sustain our society and everyday lives?
Natural resources
A distinguishing feature of ecological economics is the concept of
Steady state economies that neither grow nor shrink
Robert Constanza and his colleagues have shown that
The value of ecosystem services is more than $48 trillion in 2013 dollars
What event is credited with leading to the passage of the Clean Water Act?
The Cuyahoga River catching fire
Which of the following was NOT part of public policy during the early years of the United States?
The Superfund
Lobbying, legal action, and campaign funding are all means used by what to influence governmental environmental policies
The public sector
Rachel Carson’s book “Silent Spring”, published in the 1960’s
Focused on chemical pollutants, including industrial chemicals
International environmental policies arise from
International conventions or treaties
The entire environmental policy process
Includes more steps than the average citizen is able to accomplish alone
Which of the following best describes the human population from early times to the present?
Slow, uneven growth until the 1800’s, then increasingly rapid growth
The decline in death rates followed by decline in birth rates, occurring as a country economically develops
Demographic transition

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