English Midterm; Chapters 1-23 The Writers World

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Topic (subject)
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What you are writing about
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Audience
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Intended reader (classmates, boss, coworkers, and so on)
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Free writing
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Writing for a limited period of time without stopping
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Brainstorming
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Is like free writing except that you create a list of ideas, and you can take the time to stop and think when you create your list
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Clustering
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Is like drawing a word map; ideas are arranged in a visual image
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Journal
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Is a book, a computer file, or a blog where you record your thoughts, opinions, ideas, and impressions
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Writing portfolio
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A binder or an electronic file folder where you keep samples of all your writing
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Paragraph
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Is a series of related sentences that develop one central idea
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Topic sentence
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States the topic and introduces the idea the writer will develop
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Controlling idea
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Makes a point about the topic and expresses the writers opinion, attitude, or feeling
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Supporting details
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The facts and examples that provide the reader with interesting information about the subject matter
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Unity
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When all of an effective paragraphs sentences directly relate to and support the topic sentence
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Time order (chronological order)
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When you arrange details according to the sequence in which they have occured
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Emphatic order
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When you arrange the supporting details of a paragraph into a logical sequence; from most important to least important
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Plan (outline)
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Is a map s hoping the paragraphs main and supporting ideas
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Revise
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When you modify your writing to make it stronger and more convincing; look for faulty logic, poor organization, or poor sentence style then rewrite
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Edit
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When you proofread your final drafts for errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, and mechanics
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5 steps during revising and editing
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Unity, adequate support, coherence, style, technical errors
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Transitional expressions
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Linking words or phrases, and they ensure that ideas are connected smoothly
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Illustration
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When you write including specific examples to clarify your main point
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Narrate
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When you tell a story about what happened; you generally explain events in the order in which they occurred, you include information about when they happened and who was involved in the incidents
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Description
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Creates vivid images in the readers mind by portraying people, places, or moments in details
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Process
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A series of steps done in chronological order
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Define
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When you explain the meaning of a word
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Classify
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You sort a subject into more understandable categories
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Classification chart
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A visual representation of the main topic and its categories
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Cause and effect writing
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Explains why an event happened or what the consequences of such an event were
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Argument
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You take a position on an issue and attempt to defend it
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Facts
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Statements that can be verified in some way
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Statistic
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Another type of fact
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Informed opinion
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Sometimes experts express this about an issue
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Essay plan (outline)
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Can help you organize your thesis statement and supporting ideas before you write your first draft
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Introductory paragraph
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Introduces the subject of your essay and contains the thesis statement; will capture the readers attention and make him/her want to read on
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Conclusion
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A final paragraph that rephrased the thesis statement and summarizes the main points in the essay
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Support (adequate)
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When you revise you ensure that there are enough details and examples to make your essay strong and convincing; include examples, statistics, quotations, and anecdotes
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Coherence
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When you revise you ensure that the paragraphs flow smoothly and logically
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First-person narration
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You describe a personal experience using I or we
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Third-person narration
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You describe what happened to somebody else, and you use he, she, it, or they
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Direct quotation
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Contains a persons exact words; set off with quotation marks
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Indirect quotation
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Keeps the persons meaning but not the persons exact words; is not set off by quotation marks
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Dominant impression
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The overall feeling that you wish to convey; tension, joy, nervousness, anger, etc
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Simile
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A comparison using like or as
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Metaphor
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A comparison that does not use like or as
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Personification
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The act of attributing human qualities to an inanimate object
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Research
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You look for information that will help you better understand a subject
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Sentence
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Contains one or more subjects and verbs, and it expresses a complete thought
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Verb
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Expresses an action or state; either expresses what the subject does or links the subject to other descriptive words. If a sentence is missing a subject or a verb, it is incomplete.
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Linking verb
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Connects a subject with words that describe it, and it does not show an action; the most common is be
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Helping verb
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Combines with the main verb to indicate tense, negative structure, or question structure; common forms are be, have, and do
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Complete verb
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Consists of helping verbs and the main verb
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Transitional expression
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Joins two complete ideas together and show how they are related
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Conjunctive adverbs
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Includes most transitional expressions; examples are however and furthermore
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Clause
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A group of words containing a subject and a verb
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Action verb
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Describes an action that a subject performs
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Independent clause
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Has a subject and a verb and can stand alone because it expresses one complete idea
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Fragment
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An incomplete senctence
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Run-on sentence
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Occurs when two or more complete sentences are incorrectly joined
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Fused sentence
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Has no punctuation to mark the break between ideas
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Comma splice
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Uses a comma incorrectly to connect two complete ideas
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Verb tense
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Indicates when an action occurred
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Nonstandard English
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Used in everyday conversation, and it may differ according to the region in which you live; unprofessional
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Standard American English
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The common language generally used and expected in schools, businesses, and government institutions in the US; professional
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Dependent clause
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Has a subject and a verb, but it can or stand alone; “depends” on another clause to be complete
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Past progressive tense
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Indicates that an action was in progress at a particulars past moment

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