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English Literature Authors (1800-1900s)

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John Henry Newman
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“The Dream of Gerontius”; English prelate and theologian who (with John Keble and Edward Pusey) founded the Oxford Movement
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Thomas Lovell Beddoes
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The Improvisatore (3 stories in verse), 2 plays: The Bride’s Tragedy and Death’s Jest-Book (appeared after his suicide)
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Walter Horatio Pater
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proponent of doctrine ‘art for art’s sake”; Studies in the History of the Renaissance (establish reputation); apart of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
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Robert Louis Stevenson
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Scottish novelist; Treasure Island, Kidnapped, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Requiem (famous poem)
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William Butler Yeats
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Irish poet & playwright; Mosada (first drama; magic fascinat), The Wanderings of Oisin (intense nationalism of Young Ireland movement)
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James Joyce
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Finnegan’s Wake, Ulysses (recreates holiday “Bloomsday” & activities of Jewish advertising, design based on Homer’s Odyssey; 1st of greatest works in England, utilizes many radical techniques; both of these novels decisively influenced the development of the ‘stream of consciousness’ or ‘interior monologue’
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Virginia Woolf
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English author whose work used such techniques as stream of consciousness and the interior monologue; The Waves (most experimental novel), The Voyage Out (beginning work), Jacob’s Room (woman’s suffrage; innovative), The Common Reader (critical essays contains some of her finest pieces), A Haunted House (short story),
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Katherine Mansfield
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New Zealand writer of short stories (1888-1923); considered a master of the short story; Bliss and the Garden Party (early works brought fame), The Dove’s Nest, Something Childish,
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Robert Graves
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English writer known for his interest in mythology and in the classics (1895-1985); Good-bye to All That (outspoken autobiography; a book on his war experience which established his reputation), I, Claudius and Claudius the God (unorthodox novels of Roman history), King Jesus and Homer’s Daughter (fictionalized reappraisals of history and legend), Illiad (translated),
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Elizabeth Barrett Browning
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poet (considered better than husband), “Poems”, Sonnets from the Portuguese; English poet best remembered for love sonnets written to her husband Robert Browning (1806-1861)
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William Makepeace Thackeray
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Book of Snobs, Vanity Fair (satirical panorama of upper-middle-class London life & manners)
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Charles Dickens
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one of the world’s most popular, prolific, skilled novelist; The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick club, Oliver Twist, Nicholas Nickleby, A Christmas Carol, David Copperfield, Bleak House, A Tale of Two Cities, Great Expectations, The Mystery of Edwin Drood (last novel)
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Robert Browning
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English poet and husband of Elizabeth Barrett Browning noted for his dramatic monologues (1812-1889); My Last Duchess, Pauline (his first poem), Paracelsus & Sordello (won recognition), The Ring and the Book (a poem murder story in dramatic dialogue),
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Anthony Trollope
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The Warden (first to win fame; first in series of Barsetshire novels-fame rests upon this collection)
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Charlotte Bronte
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published “Poems” with sister, Emily; wrote Jane Eyre, Shirley, The Professor
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Emily Bronte
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younger sister of Charlotte Bronte; Wuthering Heights
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Arthur Hugh Clough
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Ambarvalia (co-authored short poems), Amours de Voyage (a novel in verse), Dipsychus (a rather amorphous satire), Ideal pupil; made joke about religion, Best friend of Matthew Arnold
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George Eliot
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British writer of novels characterized by realistic analysis of provincial Victorian society (1819-1880); pen name of Mary Anne Evans; Adam Bede (established her as a novelist), The Mill on the Floss, Silas Marner, Scenes of Clerical Life, The Spanish Gypsy (dramatic poem), Agatha (poem), Middlemarch, Daniel Deronda,
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Anne Bronte
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her & sister Emily wrote obsessively about imaginary worlds as children,youngest of Charlotte & Emily Bronte; Anges Gray, The Tenant of Wildfell Hall
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Arnold Matthew
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The Strayed Reveller, Empedocles on Etna (poems; disliked, so he withdrew them), Merope: A Tragedy, (1822-1888) English poet, literary critic, essayist. (Not to be confused with Benedict Arnold, the infamous American traitor: 1741-1801.) Best known for his book, Essays Literary and Critical (1865; 1888), and for his influence upon other writers. His poetry is considered by some as a bridge between Romanticism (emphasizing emotion, in a reaction against science) and Modernism (emphasizing reason, in a reaction against tradition).
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William Wilkie Collins
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best known for mystery novels: The Woman in White, The Moonstone
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Lewis Carroll
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Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and its’ sequel, Through the Looking Glass; The Hunting of the Snark (humorous verse)
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Thomas Hardy
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{underlying theme of many of his novels, short poems and the epic drama, The Dynasts is the struggle of man against the indifferent force that rules the world and inflicts on him the sufferings and ironies of life and love} Far From the Madding Crowd (first widely acclaimed popular writing won his literary success); Major Works: The Return of the Native, The Mayor of Casterbridge; Two Masterpieces: Tess of the D’Urbervilles, Jude the Obscure
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James Henry
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Expatriate American writer and critic at the turn of the 19th century whose novels include The Turn of the Screw and Daisy Miller; novelist & critic; The Wings of the Dove, The Ambassadors, The Golden Bowl, (1843-1916)
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Gerard Manley Hopkins
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poet; became a Jesuit and burned all early verse and abandoned poetry; The Wreck of the Deutschland, God’s Grandeur, The Windhover, The Leaden Echo, The Golden Echo
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Oscar Wilde
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Irish author & wit; The Importance of Being Earnest, The Happy Prince, The Ballad of Reading Gaol (greatest poem written in jail)
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Rudyard Kipling
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The Jungle Book, Captain Courgeous, The Light That Failed (novel), Departmental Ditties, “If” (famous poem)
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John Stuart Mill
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philosopher, economist; A System of Logic, Principles of Political Economy, On Liberty, Utilitarianism, Auguste Comte and Positivism
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Alfred Tennyson
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most famous poet of Victorian age, first play at 14 (The Devil & The Lady); Becket (his greatest poetic drama), Timbuctoo (prizewinning poem), Idylls of the King (somber ethical epic of glory and downfall of King Arthur), Maud (monodrama), considered during his time to be the greatest poet of his era; popular; “finest ear”; remarkably capable of linking scenery to states of mind; themes of isolation, role of artist in industrialized world, morality, religious doubt in new scientific age; public figure; poet laureate
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Edward Lear
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humorist & artist; A Book of Nonsense, Nonsense Songs, Laughable Lyrics
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John Ruskin
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complained that people prized material benefits of nature but not spiritual aesthetic benefits; founded some of the first environmental organizations; studied nature & painting, first professor of art at Oxford; Art Theory: Modern Painters, The Seven Lamps of Architecture; Social Reform: Sesame and Lilies, Time and Tide; Praeterita (autobiography; written between lapses of insanity),
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Dante Gabriel Rossetti
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sister of Christina Rossetti, founder of Pre-Raphaelites, better painter than writer; The Blessed Damozel (regarded by many as best poem), Sister Helen (ballad)
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Christina Georgina Rossetti
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devout Anglican; best works: The Prince’s Progress, A Pageant and Other Poems
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George Meredith
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The Ordeal of Richard Feverel (first distinguished work), Evan Harrington, The Adventures of Harry Richmond, The Egoist, Lucifer in Starlight
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William Morris
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known for beautiful tapestries; poetry: The Life and Death of Jason, The Earthly Paradise, Love is Enough; two great works of prose (both socialist fantasies cast in a dream setting): The Dream of John Ball, News from Nowhere
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Algernon Charles Swinburne
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some of his poems were savagely attacked for sensuality & anti-Christian sentiments, yet praised for technical facility & energy; Atalanta in Calydon (poetic drama modeled on Greek tragedy); Three Closet Dramas: Chastelard, Bothwell, Mary Stuart; Tristram of Lyonesse (long poem presents intensely passionate vision of medieval legend)
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Richard Brinsley Sheridan
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Irish playwright remembered for his satirical comedies of manners (1751-1816); , The Rivals (best English comedy since Shakespeare)
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William Hazlitt
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(1778-1830) Humanistic essays and literary criticism. 4-volume biography of Napoleon, radical political, proto-socialist, commentaries on Shakespeare’s plays, career destroyed by the pamphlet Liber Amoris. “The love of liberty is the love of others; the love of power is the love of ourselves.”
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John Galsworthy
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author of “Quality”, English novelist and playright; won the Order of Merit and the Nobel Prize for literature; originally trained as a lawyer
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H.G. Wells
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critic who believed society was becoming too technological for its own good and beyond man’s control. Science discoveries were hindering social and intellectual development; wrote Invisible Man, Time Machine, The War of the Worlds
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Joseph Conrad
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English novelist (born in Poland) noted for sea stories and for his narrative technique (1857-1924); , author of Heart of Darkness
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David Herbert Lawrence
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English novelist and poet and essayist whose work condemned industrial society and explored sexual relationships (1885-1930)
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Aldous Leonard Huxley
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satirical novelist; “Brave New World”
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Evelyn Arthur St. John Waugh
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satirical novelist; Decline and Fall, Vile Bodies
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George Orwell
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imaginative British writer concerned with social justice (1903-1950); Animal Farm, 1984
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Sir William Golding
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a critic of society; “Lord of the Flies”
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Edward Morgan Forster
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Born January 1, 1879. Was an English novelist, short story writer, essayist, and librettist; “A Room with a View”, “Howard’s End”, “Passage to India”
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Graham Greene
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Famous roman catholic convert and novelist. “One began to believe in heaven because one believed in hell.”;
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Saki
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Pen name of British author Hector Hugh Munro, whose witty and sometimes macabre stories satirised Edwardian society and culture.
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Rupert Chawner Brook
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the most famous poet WWI; “1914 and Other Poems”
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A.E. Housman
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(1859-1936) English poet and classical scholar, best known for cycle of poems “A Shropshire Lad.”
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Wilfrid Owen
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killed in action a week before the Armistice ended the war; “Poems”
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T.S. Eliot
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American who became a British citizen; won the Nobel Peace prize in literature; wrote poetry and drama; , wrote “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock,” “The Waste Land” and “The Hollow Men;” British WWI poet, playwright, and literary critic
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W.H. Auden
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(1907-1973) Wrote the first half of his poems as an English citizen before WWII, and the second half after WWII. He is more similar to the modernist than any other school, but transcends labels. “As I Walked Out One Evening”; “in Memory of W. B. Yeats”; “The Unknown Citizen”; “Musee des Beaux Arts”