Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 

A principle that states we can never know both the position and velocity of an electron beyond a certain level of precision. 


Shows the probability of finding an electron within a given volume of space around the nucleus. The number in a shell is equal to the shell number squared. 


A grouping of orbitals based on their principle quantum number (n). 


A grouping of orbitals based on their the angular momentum quantum number (l). Referred to by letter rather than number (s, p, d, f, g). The number of these is equal to the shell number. 

Pauli Exclusion Principle 

A maximum of two electrons can occupy a single orbital and they must have opposite spins. 


Fill lower energy orbitals with electrons before filling higher energy orbitals. 


If two or more orbitals with the same energy are available, half fill each orbital with 1 electron before filling any one orbital. The electrons in halffilled orbitals should have the same spin direction (parallel spins). 


Orbitals that have the same energy level. 

Groundstate Electron Configuration 

The lowest energy configuration of electrons in orbitals. 


Elements in groups 1A and 2A that have electron configurations where the s orbital is the last orbital filled. 


The elements in groups 3A through 8A who have an electron configuration where the p orbital is the last orbital filled. 


The transition metal elements that have electron configurations where the d orbital is the last orbital filled. 


The innertransition metal elements which have electron configurations where the f orbital is the last orbital filled. 


The radius of an atom. Decreases from left to right across a period on the periodic table. Increases from top to bottom down a group on the periodic table. Depends on the effective nuclear charge. 


The net nuclear charge actually felt by an electron (Zeff) 


n
gives the electron shell and the relative energy of electrons; higher values of n represent larger orbitals with electrons at higher energy levels


angular momentum quantum number 

l
can have integer values of 0 to n1
defines the shape of an orbital (0, s; 1, p; 2, d; 3, f)



m_{l}
can have integer values from –1 to +l, including 0
give the spatial orientation of the orbital and indicates the number of an orbital shape per electron shell


spin magnetic quantum number 

m_{s}
has possible values of +1/2 and 1/2
indicates the magnetic spin of an electron in a specific orbital



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the distance between two adjacent peaks in a wave



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the number of complete wavelengths that pass a given point each second
(s^{1})



c
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3.00 x 10^{8} m/s



unit of distance
1 x 10^{9} nm = 1 m




Equation relating frequency and wavelength 


Equation relating energy of a photon and frequency 




Equation relating energy of a photon to wavelength 

