Effect of Smoking on Breathing, Gas Exchange & Pregnancy Essay Example
Effect of Smoking on Breathing, Gas Exchange & Pregnancy Essay Example

Effect of Smoking on Breathing, Gas Exchange & Pregnancy Essay Example

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  • Pages: 4 (867 words)
  • Published: December 28, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
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Passive Smoking Passive smoking is involuntary smoking by non-smokers inhaling the smoke of others. Smoke emitted from a lighted cigarette can be split into two types; mainstream smoke and sidestroke smoke. Mainstream smoke is the smoke that the smoker inhales through the cigarette and sidestroke smoke is the smoke that comes from the lit end of the cigarette.

Up to 85% of smoke in a room where a cigarette has been smoked Is slipstream smoke and this is the smoke that is Inhaled by non-smokers.

Often passive smoking can be more harmful that actual smoking because sidestroke smoke is unfiltered and still contains many harmful smoke particles that mainstream smoke does not have due to the filter that most cigarettes have attached to them. Nicotine Nicotine Is the addictive substance In cigarettes, It I


s what causes a smoker to crave another cigarette and therefore carry on the habit. The more nicotine a smoker consumes, the more they will crave and so the more they will smoke.

This means that they will be inhaling more toxic substances into their body, particularly the lungs, and this affects the breathing system as these substances will damage the lungs and cause a reduction in their ability to function properly. Carbon Monoxide One of the main functions of the respiratory system is to provide the body with oxygen so that it can be delivered to vital cells that require oxygen to function. Oxygen is carried in red blood cells by reaction with a substance called hemoglobin to form oxygenation.

However, hemoglobin has a high affinity for carbon monoxide and If it Is present It will react with the carbon

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monoxide Instead of oxygen carbon monoxide, this means that the cells in the body of a smoker will not receive as much oxygen as those of a non-smoker and they may become short of breath as their lungs are forced to work harder to compensate for this. Once the hemoglobin in a red blood cell has reacted with carbon monoxide it will never be able to react with oxygen and so it is of no use for its intended purpose.

This means that a smoker will have fewer red blood cells that are able to carry oxygen than a non-smoker. Disease a) Chronic Bronchitis Smoking is the most common cause of chronic bronchitis. It stimulates the production of mucus in the lining of the bronchi and thickens the bronchi's walls and those of the bronchioles resulting in the narrowing of these air passages. This means that less air is able to reach the lungs and heavy mucus or phlegm is coughed up.

These passages then become more susceptible to infections, causing further damage. B) Emphysema Emphysema is also largely caused by smoking and is often accompanied by rhinitis.

It is a disease in which the alveoli become damaged. Often this is because of the harmful chemicals present in cigarette smoke that pass through the walls of the alveoli when it is inhaled. The alveoli over-inflate and eventually burst and blend to form fewer larger air sacs, reducing the surface area over which gas exchange can take place.

This significantly impairs oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange and the sufferer will have to breathe faster and heavier to compensate for this.

Over the [ears the lungs also

become less elastic as the tissue is destroyed due to chemical imbalance and this reduces their efficiency. Z) Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease This is a term given collectively to many diseases of the lung including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. D) Lung Cancer Lung cancer is often caused when the harmful chemicals in cigarette smoke cause cells in the lung to mutate.

These cells then multiply and spread, often forming a tumor, which can grow big enough to block the respiratory tubes and therefore prevent oxygen from reaching the lungs. Human Fertility Studies have shown that women who smoke are likely to take longer to conceive than Omen who don't. In men, smoking can impair sperm production and sometimes this Nil reduce the chances of a couple having a boy, as the Y-chromosomes in the sperm are more vulnerable to the toxins of cigarette smoke.

Affects on the Fetus En a woman is pregnant, she provides for the baby through her own body and Nat she takes into her body will also reach the baby. This means that when a pregnant woman smokes, many of the toxins that are affecting her body are also affecting the fetus. Like the mother, the fetus will have decreased oxygen levels and increased nicotine and carbon monoxide levels, which will get into the placenta ND prevent the fetus from receiving the vital food and oxygen needed for it to grow.

For this reason, babies born to mothers who are smokers are often underweight, resulting in many health problems. Women who smoke are also more likely to miscarry A Child Whose Mother Smoked During Pregnancy Children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy

are more likely to suffer respiratory illnesses including asthma. Smoking during pregnancy has also shown to affect the child's growth and intellectual ability; it will sometimes even affect the child's reproductive organs and cause them fertility problems in later life.

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