Educational Psychology BC TEST 1-7 (final)

Most developmental theorists agree that:
Developmental milestones appear in a consistent sequence for most children.

A sensitive period in development can best be described as:
An age range during which environmental conditions are most likely to have an effect on a particular aspect of a child’s development

According to the textbook, which one of the following conclusions is most warranted from research on brain development?
Classroom experiences can affect students’ cognitive development throughout the elementary and secondary school years.

From Piaget’s perspective, children are:
Eager to interact with and make sense of their world

Which one of the following statements best describes Piaget’s view of how children acquire knowledge about the world?
Children actively construct their own view of the world from their experiences with the environment.

In Piaget’s theory, a scheme can best be described as:
An organized group of similar thoughts or actions

Which one of the following is the best example of Piaget’s concept of assimilation?
A kindergarten child uses a white crayon instead of chalk to draw on the chalkboard.

Which one of the following best illustrates Piaget’s concept of accommodation?
Donna revises her understanding of what clouds are like when she studies them in science.

Piaget’s processes of assimilation and accommodation both involve:
Relating new information to prior knowledge

Which one of the following most accurately describes the general concept of temperament?
An inherited predisposition to interact with one’s environment in certain ways

Which one of the following pairs of children best illustrates a difference in temperament?
Carol is very sociable and outgoing; Chris is more quiet and reserved around peers.

Mr. King runs a tight ship in his middle school math classes. At the beginning of each class, he gives a ten-minute explanation of a new concept or procedure, and then he hands out worksheets that students complete independently at their desks. Which one of the following students has a temperament that is probably the best match with Mr. King’s classroom?
Jayson is quiet and diligent.

Which student has probably come from a home in which his or her parents exhibit an authoritative parenting style?
Frank is well-behaved and self-confident.

If we extend research findings regarding effective parenting styles to the classroom, teachers would be well advised to:
Establish fair rules and high expectations, and provide loving support.

Which one of the following best describes socialization as developmental psychologists use the term?
Molding children’s behavior to enable effective functioning within their culture

The four teachers below are hoping to improve their students’ sense of self. Which one will probably be least effective in doing so?
Ms. Berry tells her students how wonderful they are.

The formation of children’s self-concepts is most strongly influenced by:
How other people treat them

Authoritative parents can best be characterized as having which type of relationship with their children?
High expectations, loving support, and shared decision-making

Which one of the following teachers is definitely keeping in mind Piaget’s idea that assimilation and accommodation are both necessary for learning and cognitive development to occur?
Mr. Baretta shows students how a new topic is similar to the things they already know, but also different in certain ways.

Louis receives a new soccer ball and begins to dribble it in the same way he dribbles his basketball. His dribbling of the new ball reflects Piaget’s concept of:

Which one of the following conclusions could be drawn from a descriptive study?
Approximately 80% of the students at Southside High School are planning to go on to college.

A study that tells us whether two variables are associated, but does not tell us if one variable causes or influences the other, is a(n):
Correlational study

Which one of the following statements about educational research is true?
Experimental research allows us to draw cause-and-effect conclusions.

Experimental research requires which one of the following?
Manipulating an aspect of the environment

A research study finds that students who weigh more do better in school. Which one of the following is an appropriate deduction from this information?
There is a correlation between weight and classroom performance.

A researcher is interested in the effect of teacher-student ratios. She finds 10 fifth-grade classrooms with 30-40 students per class and 10 others with 15-25 students per class. She discovers that there is a correlation between class size and student achievement. Which one of the following conclusions can we draw from this study?
Class size can help us predict school achievement.

In general, experimental studies have which one of the following advantages over descriptive and correlational studies?
Only experimental studies allow us to identify the possible factors influencing behavior.

A French teacher reads an article about how visual imagery (i.e., “picturing” things in one’s mind) can be used to help students learn French vocabulary words. To find out if visual imagery is more effective than verbal repetition in learning vocabulary words, she develops two different study guides for her students-one that tells students how to use visual imagery to learn French words, and one that tells them just to repeat the words over and over again-and randomly distributes the two study guides to her students. Over the next few weeks, the teacher finds that students using visual imagery study guides achieve higher average quiz scores. She concludes that the study guides describing the visual imagery technique help her students learn their French vocabulary words. Is the teacher’s conclusion valid?
Yes, because she was able to manipulate a variable in the environment.

Dr. Kenney conducts a study in which she gives some students (chosen randomly) logically organized learning material; she gives other students the same material presented in a haphazard, unpredictable sequence. She finds that students with the organized material remember more. This study can best be described as a(n):
Experimental study

Which one of the following conclusions can be drawn only from an experimental study?
Drugs administered during childbirth affect a child’s early development.

When cognitive psychologists talk about the process of “putting” things in memory, they often use the term:

You know what a computer is, and you may also know how to send an e-mail message using a computer. The difference between these two kinds of knowledge can best be characterized as a difference between:
declarative knowledge vs. procedural knowledge

Which one of the following statements best describes the idea that learning involves a process of construction?
Students use various pieces of new information about a topic to develop their own understandings.

A biology teacher wants students to remember the various components of a cell(nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane). Considering what research tells us about encoding and retrieval, the teacher would be well advised to help students encode information about the cell:
In both visual and verbal forms, because multiple forms of encoding increase the likelihood of retrieval

In contemporary psychology, a schema can best be described as:
Knowledge about the typical characteristics of a certain object or phenomenon

Three of the following statements accurately characterize rote learning. Which statement is not true of rote learning?
Information is stored as one or more visual images.

Four students are storing the fact: “Europeans first settled at St. Augustine, Florida, in 1565.” Based on the following information, which student is probably going to have themost difficult time retrieving the informatin from long-term memory a few days later?
Alexander repeats the fact to himself 10 times in a row.

Three of the following are examples of mnemonics. Which one is not a mnemonic?
To learn how to drive a car with a standard transmission, Bart practices the various parts of the task (e.g., steering, shifting, and braking) separately.

If you wanted to help your students learn something by using a mnemonic device, which one of the following sentences would you use?
“My very energetic mother just slugged Uncle Norton” tells us the eight planets in the solar system.

Ms. Iwata has a long-term goal for her science students: to consider what they have learned about science as they deal with issues and problems in their daily lives. What teaching strategy will best help her students retrieve relevant scientific principles when they need them the most?
Associate those principles with as many real-life situations as possible.

Three of the following are examples of comprehension monitoring. Which one is not?
Dwayne looks at all the headings and subheadings in a chapter before he begins to read the chapter itself

A student who has an illusion of knowing is most likely to:
Express surprise about a low test score .

Perry is trying to solve the following riddle: “What creature walks on four legs, then two, then three?” He repeatedly tries to think of an animal that might walk on three legs, but he can think only of animals that walk on either two or four legs. Finally, he is told the correct answer – a human begin, who crawls, then walks, then walks with a can. Which one of the following is the most likely explanation of Perry’s difficulty?
He has encoded the problem with too narrow a definition of “legs.”

Critical thinking can best be described as involving:
Judging the worth of information or arguments

Fourteen-year-old David rarely turns in his homework and often skips school, and so he is earning “Ds” and “Fs” in most of his classes. Yet he expresses his sincere desire to go to college and “make something of myself.” This apparent inconsistency between his poor academic performance, on the one hand, and his strong interest in going to college, on the other, can probably best be explained by:
Insufficiently developed self-regulation skills.

Three of the following are authentic activities related to using a computer. Which one is, in an of itself, not an authentic activity
Learning how to save files on a hard drive

Which one of the following is the best example of problem-based learning?
Devising a way to move a large, heavy object using principles of physics

Three of the following are accurate statements about factors that affect transfer. Which statement is not necessarily accurate?
Students are more likely to transfer things they learn in school than things they learn outside of school.

From the perspective of psychology, why should teachers not expect students to solve complex problems in their heads?
Students’ working memories can hold only a few pieces of information at a time.

Three of the following strategies illustrate the use of metacognitive processes in problem solving. Which strategy is least metacognitive in nature?
Looking up the correct answer at the back of the textbook

Jeffrey needs to study for an upcoming exam. He does a number of things to prepare for the exam, four of which are listed below. Three of these illustrate metacognition. Which one reflects little if any metacognitive activity?
He directs his eyes to the first page of his textbook

Which one of the following is the best illustration of metacognition?
Dolly is studying for a history test. She knows that she has trouble with dates, so she checks herself by giving herself a short quiz after each chapter.

Many children lack metacognitive knowledge. This is reflected in the fact that they:
Don’t know very much about how to learn

Which one of the following best illustrates concept mapping?
Christina puts the words force, gravity, velocity, acceleration, and time on a piece of paper; she then draws lines between pairs of related words and describes the relationships.

Which one of the following statements best describes the usefulness of concept mapping
It helps teachers organize lessons and gives students a way to understand interrelationships among concepts.

Which one of the following is the best example of positive transfer?
Zelda uses the formula for calculating the area of a circle when she wants to figure out how much bigger a 10-inch pizza is than a 7-inch pizza.

Which one of the following is the best example of negative transfer?
Nellie sees five squared (“52”) in her math book and reads it as “fifty-two.”

Weston is working on a science project and wants to make his papier-mâché volcano “erupt.” He remembers that when his mother combined vinegar and baking soda while following a recipe, the batter foamed up as she added the vinegar. So he tries mixing vinegar and baking soda in his volcano, and the mixture bubbles. Weston is showing:
Specific transfer

Creativity often involves divergent thinking. Which one of the following is the best example of divergent thinking?
Lacking any wooden blocks to build an arch for his toy soldiers to march under, Thomas builds an arch using upside-down paper cups.

Other things being equal, which one of the following students is most likely to engage in critical thinking about scientific topics?
Brita realizes that scientists’ theories change as new evidence comes in.

Which one of the following examples best illustrates the concept of situated motivation?
Last year Ophelia was bored to tears in history class, but this year she loves history because her teacher conducts many activities that make the subject matter come alive.

The four statements below describe effects that motivation may have on learning and/or behavior. Three of the statements are accurate. Which one is not accurate?
Motivation enhances students’ memory for irrelevant information.

Which one of the following is the best example of extrinsic motivation?
Wanting a good grade in your literature class

Which one of the following students is displaying extrinsic motivation?
Elbert wants to become a professional football player so others will admire him.

Which one of the following students is displaying intrinsic motivation?
Annette loves to play the viola and so practices for at least an hour every day.

Three of the following are true statements about intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Which one is false?
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are mutually exclusive: Students who have one are highly unlikely to have the other.

Which one of the following best describes the concept of self-worth as a factor in motivation?
Students like to believe that they are competent individuals.

As a teacher, you are apt to find the parents of a few of your students will have little involvement in their children’s education. Three of the following statements are accurate with regard to such parents. Which statement is not accurate?
Their lack of involvement usually reflects a lack of interest in their child’s academic performance.

Mike desperately wants to do well on the SATs, as his scores will affect his chances of getting into his first-choice college. He also knows that many students at his school think that SAT scores are good indicators of how “smart” one is. Yet the night before the test, rather than get a good night’s sleep, Mike goes out with his friends, has a few beers, comes home late, and wakes up with a hangover. With this information in mind, we might suspect that Mike:
Is engaging in self-handicapping

If you want to promote intrinsic motivation in your students, you should:
Help them master challenging tasks

Which one of the following statements best describes motivation theorists’ concept of sense of self-determination?
Believing that you have some choice about what you do

Which one of the following teachers is using a strategy that is most likely to increase students’ sense of self-determination?
Ms. Brown asks her third graders to develop some class rules to ensure that all class members will have a chance to express their ideas openly.

Mr. Rawlins is faculty advisor for the high school service club. He attends every meeting, but he typically sits in the back of the room and offers advice only if club members ask for it or if he thinks the club’s planned activities are in some way inappropriate. In taking this approach, Mr. Rawlins is most likely to:
Enhance club members’ sense of self-determination

When choosing a partner to work on a science fair project, James selects a close friend who isn’t particularly good in science. With this information in mind, which one of the following is most likely to be true about James?
He has a high need for affiliation.He has a high need for affiliation.

Which one of the following is the best example of hot cognition?
Getting excited when you read about a possible cure for AIDS

Which one of the following best illustrates cognitive dissonance?
Frannie is shocked to hear that her best friend Meghan, seemingly a very honest person, cheated on a math quiz.

Which one of the teachers below is using a strategy consistent with the concept of hot cognition?
Mr. Ramirez portrays the Holocaust so vividly that her students become quite angry about the atrocities the Nazis committed.

Which one of the following statements is most accurate about how anxiety affects students’ performance in the classroom?
A little bit of anxiety can facilitate learning and performance, and high anxiety can facilitate performance on very easy tasks.

Your students have been given a challenging task-one at which they can succeed only if they work hard. Considering what we know about the effects of anxiety on performance, which one of the following students is most likely to complete the task successfully?
Bindy wants to do well on the task and is a little anxious about it, but not to the point where her hands are sweaty or her stomach is in a knot.

As teachers, we can probably best help students overcome debilitating anxiety in the classroom by:
Communicating to them that they can succeed with effort, and that mistakes can be corrected.

At the beginning of the school year, Ms. Greenlaw learns that she will have three students with learning disabilities in her classroom. She should expect that these three students will:
Require individualized instruction that is apt to be different for each student

Which one of the following best illustrates inclusion as it is defined by special educators?
Alex, who has mental retardation, is taught in a general education classroom, where his teacher and a specialist both design and deliver instruction.

What is the primary purpose of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)?
It guarantees an education to students with cognitive, emotional and physical disabilities and establishes educational policies for that purpose.

In the United States, Public Law 94-142, also known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), provides several specific guarantees for students with disabilities. Which of the following is not one of the PL 94-142’s guarantees?
A student’s education must occur entirely within the regular classroom.

Juliana is a five-year-old who is paralyzed and cannot speak. To act in accordance with IDEA’s concept of a free and appropriate education, her local school district:
Should make sure its classrooms are wheelchair accessible, hire an aide to take care of Juliana’s personal needs, and find ways to modify the curriculum so she can participate.

IDEA’s requirement that students with disabilities be educated in the least restrictive environment means that:
Students should be included in general classrooms as long as they do not pose a danger to themselves or others and as long as, given specially adapted instruction, they are able to make reasonable progress toward their educational goals.

Other things being equal, which one of the following approaches is apt to be most effective when working with a student who has an intellectual disability
Direct Instruction

Which example best illustrates the idea of least restrictive environment?
Sheila, who is visually impaired, attends a general education class but has special copies of the textbooks written in Braille.

A student with special needs is guaranteed an individualized education program. Who among the following individuals is least likely to be involved in developing this program?
A representative from the superintendent’s office

Three of the following have been shown to be potential benefits of including students with special needs in general education classrooms. Which one has not necessarily been shown to be a benefit of inclusive practices?
Correct Response Parents become more involved in their children’s education.

Kristen has large scars on her neck from surgeries she has received to correct a problem with her esophagus. In the past she has been fed with a tube, but now she is learning to eat through her mouth. Her doctor wants her to snack throughout the day to increase her calorie intake. According to the guidelines set forth by IDEA, the most appropriate school response would be to:
Give Kristen frequent short breaks from classroom tasks so that she can eat her snacks.

When teachers choose an instructional strategy, they should consider the extent to which students are self-regulating learners. Which one of the following approaches would be most effective if students show little or no ability to regulate their own learning?
Direct instruction

One of the history teachers below is violating a principle recommended for teacher-directed instruction. Which one?
Ms DeLuca talkes in a relaxed conversational style, describing different battles of World War II as they come to mind.

Judging from the brief descriptions below, which one of these four teachers is using a mastery learning approach?
Mr. Dickson insists that students pass each test at the 80% level before beginning the next unit.

In which situation is mastery learning most appropriate?
When certain skills provide the foundation for future material

Which one of the following are you least likely to see in direct instruction?
A heated discussion of controversial issues

When Ms. Krakowski teaches the process of long division, she describes the objective of the lesson and demonstrates the procedure on the chalkboard. Then she has students solve long-division problems at the chalkboard, where she can give them frequent guidance as they work. Later, after the students show some proficiency with long division, she has them work on additional problems at their desks. Ms. Krakowski’s approach can best be classified as which of the following?
Direct instruction

Three of the characteristics listed below are frequently found in computer-based instruction. Which characteristic are we least likely to see in CBI?
Opportunities for group discussion of the material

Three of the following are accurate statements about the benefits of cooperative learning. Which statement is not accurate?
Students rarely get off-task during cooperative learning activities.

Which one of the following statements is most accurate about he value of homework in the elementary grades?
It has little effect on students’ learning but may help them develop self-regulation skills.

Rani has just moved here from a Middle Eastern country where most women remain at home serving their husbands and taking care of their children. She seems confused when she is asked to perform the same school tasks that her male classmates are. Rani’s situation illustrates:
Cultural mismatch

When we say that different cultural and ethnic groups have different world views, we mean that
Their basic assumptions about how the world operates may be different.

Which one of the following teacher statements most clearly reflects a cultural lens as the textbook uses the term?
Marie’s parents are really irresponsible. They can never seem to get to a parent-teacher conference on time.”

Three of the teachers below are using strategies appropriate for a culturally diverse classroom. With the textbook’s discussion of student diversity in mind, identify the teacher who is probably not promoting the classroom success of some of her students.
Ms. Boynton uses competitive activities to get all students motivated to do their best.

Poor nutrition is a problem for many children who live in poverty. Which one of the following situations is likely to be associated with poor nutrition?
Jill appears to have trouble remembering things and does not seem motivated to achieve in school.

Three of the following are examples of operant conditioning. Which one is not?
Carol’s room has been a disaster area for more than a month, with toys and clothes lying about everywhere. Carol’s mother has told Carol that, once the room has been cleaned, they will spend a day at the zoo. There is not noticeable improvement in Carol’s housekeeping habits.

Ms Smythe keeps Eric after school whenever he swears in class. Even though Eric has been kept after school each day for the past three weeks, his swearing has not decreased at alll – in fact, it has steadily increased. Given what we know about the effects of punishment on behavior, Ms Smythe should probably conclude that:
Staying aftere school is reinforcing for Eric.

Imagine you are a teacher at a junior high school. Below are four behaviors you might exhibit in your classroom. Considering the textbook’s discussion of modeling, choose the behavior your students are least likely to imitate.
You show them how much you enjoy reading professional education journals.

Which one of the following examples illustrates vicarious reinforcement?
Alice notices that her friend Ellen gets extra attention from the teacher when she acts helpless. Alice begins to act helpless as well.

Which one of the following teaching strategies best reflects the textbook’s definition of multicultural education?
Considering the perspectives of different cultures groups regularly throughout the school year

Three of the following are differences that teachers may find among children from some cultural backgrounds. Which behavior is probably not the result of a child’s cultural background per se?
Some children may be accustomed to “talking back” to authority figures when they disagree.

Which one of the following statements is most accurate regarding individual achievement and competition in many Native American, Mexican American, and Southeast Asian cultures?
Students from these cultures are uncomfortable with competition and may prefer to help their classmates rather than compete with them.

The concept of socialization, as psychologists typically use the term, can best be described as:
A process that molds children to act and think in culturally appropriate ways

Three of the following are likely to give you reasonable clues about a child’s cultural background and/or ethnic group membership. Which one is probably least dependable as an indicator of a child’s cultural background and ethnicity?
A child’s physical features

Three of the following statements about culture are true. Which one is false?
A culture tends to remain constant and unchanging despite migration, technological advances, and other changes in society.

Given what psychologists have learned about modeling, why might inner-city African American students learn more from an African American model who grew up in a ghetto than from a model of a different race or background?
Because the students will view the African American model’s behavior as being applicable to themselves

Good grades are reinforcing to some students but not to others. Someone explaining this fact from an operant conditioning perspective would say that good grades are most likely to be reinforcers to students who:
Have previously associated grades with other reinforcers

A teacher wants to encourage her students to work cooperatively with one another as they study classroom subject matter. If she applies the principle Some antecedent stimuli tend to elicit certain kinds of behaviors, she might:
Provide instructional materials that students can use only by working together

After explaining what sines and cosines are, a high school mathematics teacher shows students how they might use these concepts in constructing large buildings. Which one of the following principles does this scenario best illustrate?
Learners perform more effectively when they acquire the cognitive tools of their culture.

A community of learners can best be described as:
A classroom in which a cooperative spirit of helping one another learn prevails.

From the perspective of the textbook, which one of the following classrooms best
reflects effective classroom management?
Ms. Demaine’s students are busily working on their math assignments in groups of three or four students each. The classroom gets a bit noisy at times when a group disagrees about how to do a problem.

Three of the following teacher behaviors are consistent with the textbook’s suggestions
for communicating caring and respect for students. Which one is not consistent with its
Mr. Banyard gives assignments that he knows students can complete independently
with little effort.

Three of the following strategies may help promote a sense of community in the
classroom. Which strategy is least likely to promote this sense of community?
Publicly praising students who show the highest academic achievement

Which one of the following is consistent with the textbook’s recommendations
regarding the best approach to setting limits for classroom behavior?
Begin with a few basic rules and procedures; as the year goes on, involve students
in decision making about additional issues that arise

Which one of the following teacher statements is most consistent with the
that classroom rules and procedures should be presented in an
informational (rather than controlling) manner?
When you write your compositions, remember that I can read what you’ve written
more easily and can give you more useful feedback if you write clearly.

Students are most likely to follow classroom rules if they understand the reasons
behind the rules. Below are four possible ways through which we might help students
learn why we establish certain rules for classroom behavior. Which one is most
consistent with recommendations offered in the textbook?
Have students discuss problems that arise in the classroom and develop possible
ways of solving them.

Ms. Girardi, a sixth grade teacher, is explaining an assignment. She notices two
students passing notes to one another. While continuing to discuss the assignment,
she moves toward the students and confiscates the written notes. Then she walks back
to the front of the class, still continuing her explanation, and asks Mark, who is
daydreaming, to answer a question. This scenario best illustrates which one of the
following classroom management skills?

Which one of the following examples is most consistent with the textbook’s definition
of a misbehavior?
Blake is using a rubber band as a slingshot during music

In which one of the following situations would it be best to ignore a student’s
Mary asks a classmate to clarify an assignment and then returns to her work.

Three of the following are examples of self-regulation as social cognitive theorists
describe it. Which one is not a good example of self-regulation?
A student tries hard to earn the reinforcer his teacher has told him he will get for
good behavior.

Which one of the following examples illustrates informal assessment?
Observing how various students handle the ball as they play soccer

What is the major argument for the use of authentic assessment rather than
traditional assessment to determine what students have learned?
Authentic assessment looks at behaviors similar to those required in the outside world.

Which one of the following is the best example of authentic assessment?
Asking students to use what they’ve learned about electricity to fix a flashlight that
doesn’t work

Which one of the following is the best example of authentic assessment of students’
knowledge of ten spelling words?
Having them write a composition that includes all ten words

Which one of the following is definitely not an example of authentic assessment?
Taking a multiple-choice test

Which one of the following is most likely to be what educators call a standardized test?
Mr. Conway’s students are taking a multiple-choice test, developed by a testing
company, that assesses students’ knowledge of language, mathematics, and logic;
scores on the test have been shown to predict college success with some degree of

Which one of the following illustrates the use of formative evaluation?
A teacher gives students an unexpected quiz to find out what things they need more
work on; it won’t count toward final grades.

Which one of the following is the best example of summative evaluation?
Ms. Vickery gives her social studies students a quiz at the end of a unit to determine
how well they have learned the material in the unit.

By encouraging students to evaluate their own performance during assessment
activities, we are most likely to:
Promote self-regulation

The reliability of an assessment instrument tells us:
Whether the instrument assesses something consistently

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