EDU 300 – CHAPTER 12 Learners with Blindness or Low Vision

question

As a disability of children, blindness is a. one of the most prevalent disabilities. b. about average in prevalence compared to other sensory disabilities. c. the least prevalent disability. d. increasing rapidly in prevalence.
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the least prevalent disability.
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The legal definition of blindness involves assessment of a. color perception and visual acuity. b. field of vision and depth perception. c. visual acuity and field of vision. d. depth perception and color perception.
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visual acuity and field of vision
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Even though he has visual acuity of 20/20, Jeff is considered legally blind. This is possible if he has severely restricted a. angular vision. b. peripheral vision. c. partial vision. d. low vision.
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peripheral vision
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A common criticism of legal definitions of blindness is that visual acuity a. is difficult to measure objectively. b. doesn’t predict how well people use their remaining sight. c. is defined in different ways by different professionals. d. doesn’t provide information about the cause of blindness.
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doesn’t predict how well people use their remaining sight
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The educational definition of blindness and low vision stresses a. the method of reading instruction. b. using visual acuity as a predictor of how people will function. c. the method of vision assessment. d. using whatever remaining sight a person has.
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the method of reading instruction
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For educational purposes, individuals who are blind a. are able to use a magnifying device. b. can still read print if it is large enough. c. have absolutely no sight. d. must use braille or aural methods.
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must use braille or aural methods
question

Many students who are legally blind would not be considered blind from an educational perspective because they a. have a coexisting condition. b. are able to use vision for learning. c. are able to read Braille. d. are able to use hearing for learning.
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are able to use vision for learning
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Best practice for children with low vision is a. not to let them use too much braille because they will become dependent on it. b. not to let them use to much braille because it will take time away from learning to use what eyesight they do have. c. to teach them braille if their sight might become worse over time. d. to teach them braille but only if they or their parents insist on it.
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to teach them brailee if their sight might become worse over time
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What percentage of school-aged children does the federal government classify as visually impaired? a. 0.4% b. 0.04% c. 4.0% d. 0.004%
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0.04%
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Blindness occurs most often in a. adulthood. b. adolescence. c. early childhood. d. preadolescence.
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adulthood
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The transparent gelatinous substance inside of the eye is known as the a. aqueous humor. b. cornea. c. vitreous humor. d. retina.
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vitreous humor
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The structure in the eye that refines and changes the focus of the light rays is the a. lens. b. pupil. c. vitreous humor. d. retina.
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lens
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The watery substance found between the cornea and lens of the eye is the a. aqueous humor. b. vitreous humor. c. cornea. d. iris.
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aqueous humor
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The colored portion of the eye that contracts or expands depending on the amount of light striking it is the a. pupil. b. lens. c. iris. d. cornea.
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iris
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Each of the following is a limitation of the Snellen Chart EXCEPT a. It measures visual acuity for distant but not near objects. b. It does not accurately indicate visual efficiency. c. It depends on a person’s ability to recognize letters. d. It does not accurately indicate how a person uses vision in natural settings.
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it depends on a person’s ability to recognize letters
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.Janice is described as being able to detect some objects in the environment when they are fully lit. This is an example of a skill a teacher might note when performing a a. functional vision assessment. b. visual acuity assessment. c. learning styles assessment. d. visual disinterest assessment.
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functional vision assessment
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In children, the leading cause of blindness is a. cortical visual impairment. b. retinitis pigmentosa. c. injuries, athletic and otherwise. d. brain tumors.
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cortical visual impairment
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.Clara has good vision for assignments written on the blackboard, but she has difficulty with the print in her textbook. She may have a refraction problem known as a. myopia/nearsightedness. b. hyperopia/farsightedness. c. astigmatism. d. glaucoma.
answer

hyperopia/farsightedness
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Cognitive mapping a. was discovered by accident during the German military’s testing of night vision goggles in World War II. b. demonstrates that perception can be trained to override cognition. c. was first studied in sighted humans and rats. d. has been largely debunked by randomly controlled clinical trials.
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was first studied in humans and rats
question

.All the following are true about retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) EXCEPT a. It involves abnormal growth of blood vessels in the eye. b. It can lead to a detached retina. c. It can be prevented if the newborn is provided high amounts of oxygen. d. It can result from premature birth.
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it can be prevented if the newborn is provided high amounts of oxygen
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A condition that involves an underdevelopment of part of the eye and is often associated with other neurological conditions, such as cerebral palsy, is a. retinopathy of prematurity. b. optic nerve hypoplasia. c. fetal alcohol syndrome. d. cortical visual impairment.
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optic nerve hypoplasia
question

An important difference between individuals with and without sight is that a. those without sight become highly adept at learning things incidentally. b. those without sight need to take much more initiative to learn what they can from their environment c. those with sight are more internally motivated. d. those with sight are more susceptible to optical illusions.
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those without sight need to take much more initiative to learn what they can from their environment
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A hereditary disease that usually causes the field of vision to narrow and also affects night vision is a. diabetic retinopathy. b. nystagmus. c. cortical visual impairment. d. retinitis pigmentosa.
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retinitis pigmentosa
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“Skipping slides” refers to a. the process of putting together sensory memories to make a cognitive map. b. the loss of memory of visual images that often occurs with cortical visual impairment. c. flashes of light that often occurs with cortical visual impairment. d. momentary lapses in visual perception that often occurs with optic nerve hypoplasia.
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the process of putting together sensory memories to make a cognitive map.
question

Echolocation a. can be accomplished by clicking one’s tongue. b. is one of the few skills obtainable by people who are blind but not those who are sighted. c. demonstrates that blindness results in an inherent, automatic ability to use the sense of hearing better than the sighted can. d. demonstrates that humans are able to hear much higher frequencies with practice.
answer

can be accomplished by clicking one’s tongue.
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In comparison to sighted children, children who are blind a. experience articulation problems, which they quickly outgrow. b. differ with regard to all major aspects of language. c. are not impaired in language functioning. d. have restricted language development probably due to their lack of visual experiences.
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are not impaired in language functioning.
question

Most professionals now agree that the intelligence of people with blindness a. is slighly higher than that of people with sight. b. is markedly lower than that of people with sight. c. is slightly lower than that of people with sight. d. can’t be compared directly to that of people with sight.
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can’t be compared directly to that of people with sight.
question

Which of the following statements about the conceptual abilities of children with visual impairment is true? a. The performance of infants with visual problems is the same as that of their peers with sight on conceptual tasks. b. Adults should directly encourage infants and toddlers with vision problems to explore their environment as they are less likely than their sighted peers to do so on their own. c. Touch is just as efficient as sight for arriving at conceptualizations of objects. d. Infants with vision problems pick up information incidentally in the same way as their peers with sight.
answer

Adults should directly encourage infants and toddlers with vision problems to explore their environment as they are less likely than their sighted peers to do so on their own.
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A good way to teach a person who is blind to pour a liquid is to start a. by having them estimate how much liquid has poured into a cup based on auditory perception. b. with a substance that is less likely to spill, like rice. c. with a carbonated beverage so they can better hear the liquid being poured. d. by making sure they don’t accidentally put their fingers over the container’s lip.
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with a substance that is less likely to spill, like rice.
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Orientation and mobility skills a. develop naturally in people who are blind—surprisingly little instruction is needed to learn them as long as one is highly motivated. b. are largely dependent on motivation and proper O & M. instruction. c. are highly correlated with level of visual acuity, the greater the loss of acuity, the better one’s O & M skills. d. are highly correlated with level of visual acuity, the greater the loss of acuity, worse are one’s O & M skills.
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are largely dependent on motivation and proper O & M. instruction.
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People who are blind a. develop better acuity in their other senses. b. are superior to sighted people in musical ability. c. have lowered thresholds for sensation in touch and hearing. d. learn to make better use of the sensations they experience.
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learn to make better use of the sensations they experience.
question

The lower achievement scores of students who are blind or who have low vision is most likely due to a. their visual problem itself. b. their listening skills. c. emphasis on using braille forms of achievement tests. d. lack of exposure to braille or low expectations.
answer

lack of exposure to braille or low expectations.
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Social adjustment problems for children with visual impairment are most likely the result of a. inherent personality problems. b. society’s reaction to people who are blind. c. stereotypic behaviors. d. blindisms which cannot be controlled.
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society’s reaction to people who are blind.
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People with sight can facilitate communication with people who are blind by a. using “telephone skills” when conversing in person. b. telling the person who is blind when they are smiling. c. avoiding use of visual cues such as smiling. d. eliminating reference to sight or color.
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using “telephone skills” when conversing in person
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Repetitive movements such as rocking, rubbing the eyes, and grimacing displayed by some people who are blind are known as a. blindisms. b. redundant behavior. c. stereotypic behavior. d. perseverations.
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stereotypic behavior.
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The basic unit of braille is a a. single dot. b. word. c. quadrangular cell of dots. d. circular array of dots.
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quadrangular cell of dots.
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Approximately what percentage of the population of people with blindness currently uses braille as a primary reading method? a. 12% b. 34% c. 62% d. 84%
answer

12%
question

The National Federation of the Blind has had braille bills passed to a. ensure that teachers of students with visual impairment are proficient in braille. b. require braille instruction for all students with visual impairment. c. increase the availability of devices like the Kurzweil Personal Reader. d. provide funding for students to attend special schools to learn braille.
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ensure that teachers of students with visual impairment are proficient in braille.
question

The major disadvantage of large-print books is that they A) don’t have pictures in them. B) take up a great deal of storage space. C) encourage students to be dependent on them. D) take much longer to read.
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take up a great deal of storage space.
question

Use of compressed speech enables students with blindness to a. listen to recorded texts at a faster rate. b. tape record reports rather than type them. c. develop better listening skills. d. participate more fully in class discussions.
answer

listen to recorded texts at a faster rate.
question

Which mobility aid is most often recommended by professionals? a. the long cane b. a guide dog c. tactile maps d. human guides
answer

the long cane
question

A disadvantage of using guide dogs is that they a. walk very slowly. b. cause heartbreak when they die. c. require extensive training for the dog and the owner. d. might have fleas.
answer

require extensive training for the dog and the owner.
question

Research on braille leads to all the following recommendations EXCEPT a. daily braille instruction for a period of 1.5 to 2 hours during the early elementary grades. b. Pre-braille instruction (e.g., exposure to names in braille, i. tactile labels, writing experiences) for preschool and kindergartenii. age students. c. Braille slate and stylus instruction several days a week for moderate to short time periods beginning in third or fourth grade d. discouraging keyboard instruction until the student has reached a 5th grade proficiency level in reading braille.
answer

discouraging keyboard instruction until the student has reached a 5th grade proficiency level in reading braille.
question

Guide dogs must learn each of the following except a. keep on a direct route, ignoring distractions. b. see when a traffic light has changed color. c. stop at all curbs until told to go. d. lie quietly when the handler is sitting down.
answer

see when a traffic light has changed color.
question

When guiding a person who is blind, you should A) take his or her arm and encourage him/her to walk slightly ahead of you. B) let the person take your arm and walk slightly behind you. C) walk at a much slower pace than normal. D) allow the person to go through a door ahead of you.
answer

let the person take your arm and walk slightly behind you.
question

These devices can serve the same function as the Perkins Brailler or slate and stylus, but they offer additional speech-synthesizer and word-processing capabilities. a. Descriptive Video Teleprompters b. VersaBraille c. Portable braille notetakers d. Kurzweil Personal Readers
answer

Portable braille notetakers
question

Historically, residential institutions were the preferred means of service delivery because they a. offered a number of specialized services in one place. b. provided more opportunities for social development. c. maximized the academic achievement of students with visual impairment. d. reduced the burden on families of caring for a child with blindness.
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offered a number of specialized services in one place.
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Professionals who work in early intervention programs for infants who are blind often recommend that initial efforts focus on a. feeding skills. b. mobility skills. c. parents’ feelings. d. social development.
answer

mobility skills.
question

Impediments to independent living and feeling comfortable in society for people who are blind or who have low vision include all of the following EXCEPT a. paternalistic attitudes. b. The sighted often take for granted daily living skills because they seem so easy to do. c. The sighted often view those who are blind as helpless. d. cognitive deficits.
answer

cognitive deficits.
question

Each of the following is an accommodation that can be made on the job for those who are blind or who have low vision EXCEPT a. better lighting. b. prompt snow removal. c. d.
answer

ANSWER IS D, BUT D IS MISSING

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