EDFL 456: Test 2

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Which of the following is the first consideration in planning a test?
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What are the results going to be used for
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Which of the following assessment types should be used to evaluate student progress learning?
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Formative
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A type of pretest is?
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Placement
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Table of specifications?
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Improve validity
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To certify student accomplishment
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Summative
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Failure to use proper specifications for tests and assessments will result in overemphasis in?
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Factual knowledge
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Distribution of items and tasks ?
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Importance of objectives
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If a class test measure
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D
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Constructing test items from single cell to two-way table
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Decrease validity and increase reliability
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Table of specs
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Test blueprint
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Weight assigned to instructional objective in table?
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How much time spent on it in class
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Two major classes of essay?
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Extended and restrictive
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One advantage of supply items of performance based task?
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Require only paper and pencil
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Which characteristic of test have to be increased following the principle of measuring learning outcome most directly
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Validity
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Measure recall of important historical dates?
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Short Answer
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To measure integration and application of critical concepts?
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Extended-response performance tasks
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Which types of objectives test items is likely to be most appropriate for measuring the objective “distinguishes between fact and opinion?
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True and False
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One advantage of the multiple choice item over other selection type items?
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Provide clues to misunderstandings
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For a criterion-referenced interpretation the difficulty should be determining by which of the following factors?
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Nature of the learning tasks
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The most desirable way to increase the difficulty of classroom test is to?
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Include more higher level learning outcomes
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Removing clues to the answer from test items is most likely to improve the tests?
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Validity
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Using specifications when constructing test items and assessment tasks most likely improves?
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Sampling
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Substituting multiple choice items for extended performance tasks increases?
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Number of items on the test
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The answer to an item in a classroom test should be one that is?
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agreed upon by experts
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the most basic principle in selecting the type of test items and assessment tasks is to select the types that are?
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The most direct measure of the intended learning outcome
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Which of the following item types is classified as a supply-type item?
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Short answer
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Which of the following item types would provide the highest score based on guessing alone?
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True false
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Which of the following item types would be most effective for measuring the ability to distinguish between factual statements and opinions?
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True false
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Which of the following item types is difficult to assess students higher order thinking skills?
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True false
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Sort answer test items are clearly superior to matching or true false meaning?
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Computational skills
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Short answer major shortcoming
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Scoring
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Most well written short answer?
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The author of (book title) is?
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Which of the following is the most well-written short answer item?
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A test that is reliable is not necessary _______ or useful
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In correcting a short answer test to measure students knowledge of specific principles a teacher deducted one point from the total score for each misspelled word. How would this procedure affect test results?
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Lowers reliability
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In large scale math testing programs many of the advantages of supply type items can be maintained by using which item?
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Grid-in
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Which of the following is a limitation of short answering?
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They are time consuming to score
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All whales are mammals because they are large…asking students to mark the previous statement…would be considered poor testing practice because?
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Misinformation could lead to the correct answer
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Which of the following is the most well written true false?
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A rising barometer forecasts fair weather
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42. Absolute terms like all or non that provide clues in true false statements are known as?
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a. Specific determiners
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A true false test can be made more reliable if a teacher does which of the following?
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a. Increases the number of items
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44. Which of the following true false items statements has a specific determiner?
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a. Alaska is never hot in the summer
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45. Matching items are most useful for measuring learning outcomes at which of the following levels?
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a. Knowledge
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46. The matching item is a modified form of the?
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a. Multiple choice
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47. One difficulty in constructing matching items is that it is difficult to find material tat requires students to?
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a. Relate
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48. A difficulty in constructing matching items is finding material that is?
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a. Homogenous
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49. Guessing on a matching item can be reduced by doing which of the following?
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a. Using responses more than once
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50. Excessive use of matching items will most likely result in overemphasis on which of the following?
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a. Rote learning
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51. Which of the following types of items has the greatest chance of measuring irrelevant material?
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a. Matching
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52. One way to cut down on the assessment of irrelevant information in matching items is to write them first as true false questions
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a. False
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53. One problem with true false items is that when a false item is correct it does not measure whether the student actually knows the information that makes the item true?
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53. One problem with true false items is that when a false item is correct it does not measure whether the student actually knows the information that makes the item true? a. Agree
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54. In which of the following types of questions would interrater reliability probably be an issue?
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a. Short answer
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55. Discuss why a teacher would likely not take off for spelling when scoring a short answer question
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a. Reduce validity – testing for spelling not content
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57. The interpretive item is probably..
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a. Higher order thinking
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58. Using interpretive exercises results in more effective
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a. measurement of complex learning outcome
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59. The introductory material used should include?
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a. Should be in harmony with learning outcomes
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60. One advantage of interpretative exercise over the single multiple choice item?
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a. Interpretive measures more complex learning outcomes
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61. One advantage of the interpretive exercise over performance based assessment tasks is that the interpretive
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a. Provides a more structured task
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62. Which of the following “enabling skills” would most likely to lower the validity of an interpretive exercise?
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a. Reading
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63. Requiring students to recall an excessive amount of factual information in order to solve and interpretive exercise can result in lower
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a. Validity
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64. Which of the following is common error made by test designers in constructing interpretive?
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a. Including items that can be answered on the basis of general knowledge
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65. Which of the following types of test items are most commonly used with interpretive?
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a. Key type and multiple choice
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66. The use of interpretive exercises to measure complex learning outcomes reduces the influence of what?
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a. Irrelevant factual information
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67. The introductory material in the interpretive exercise is most effective if?
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a. It is new to the students
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68. The interpretive exercise is especially useful for educators because it assists in measuring the ability?
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a. To detect invalid inferences
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69. The test items in an interpretive exercise are most effective if they include which of the following?
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a. They require more than the recall of information to answer
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70. When teaching very young students it is best to use material that is?
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a. Visual
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71. When compared to essay questions, interpretative exercises possess?
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a. Higher interrater reliability
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72. A simply method for checking the adequacy of an interpretive exercise is to do which of the following?
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a. Attempt to answer the questions without the introductory material
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73. Which of the following factors makes it difficult use interpretive exercises on a test?
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a. Constructing them
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74. The interpretive exercise is least useful for measuring the ability to?
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a. Produce a product
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75. If the higher achieving student in class can answer the questions on an interpretive exercise without looking at the introductory material but the lower achieving students cant – the exercise is likely?
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a. Poorly constructed and invalid
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76. Which of the following would be considered sound principles for constructing an interpretive exercise based on a reading passage?
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a. Choosing a passage that is relatively brief
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77. Keeping the introductory materials on an interpretive exercise relatively brief would assist students who may be experiences issues of?
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a. Short-term memory
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78. Which of the following would likely be a legitimate use of the interpretive exercise?
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a. Answering reading comprehension questions
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79. Which of the following should probably be the relationship between introductory materials in a science curriculum interpretive exercise and reading level of students?
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a. Lower and grade level
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82. The use of some essay questions in a classroom test will probably improve the assessments?
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a. Validity
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83. For which of the following types of learning outcomes is the essay most useful?
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a. Synthesis
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84. Which of the following is useful for improving essay testing?
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a. Determining the scoring procedures in adavance
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85. Which of the following characteristics is shared by both objective tests and essay tests?
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a. Bboth are useful in both formative and summative assessment
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86. One major problem in using essay qestions to evaluate learning is?
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a. Difficult to score
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87. Essay questions should be used in achievement tests when?
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a. Organizing and integrating ideas is important
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88. Essay questions are more appropriate than multiple choice items when learning outcome calls for?
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a. Development of an argument
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89. Essay are more appropriate than objective when measuring?
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a. Integrate information
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90. Which is a serious limitation of an essay test?
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a. Limited sampling
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91. An extended response essay is better than restricted if?
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a. Complex learning outcomes are being assessed
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92. A restricted response essay question is better than extended response?
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a. Specific information needs to be supplied by the student
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93. For which of the following learning outcomes would objective items be better than essay?
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a. Identifying the meaning of concepts
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94. Which is a sound essay grading procedure?
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a. Using the rating method for extended response questions
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95. Deducting points for neatness on essay responses will have the greatest influence on which of the following?
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a. Validity
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96. Which of the following is a desirable practice for using restricted response essay?
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a. Prepare a model answer in advance
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97. Which test construction procedures is most likely to result in valid responses to extended response essay questions?
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a. Clearly indicate the nature of the desired answer
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98. Which of the following is desirable practice for grading essay?
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a. Grade content and spelling separately
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99. In order to assess students ability to express themselves creatively in writing?
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a. Extended response
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100. Presenting students with several essays to respond to?
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a. Basis of comparing students is undetermined
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101. Which of the following would most likely improve the scoring of an essay answer on a test?
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a. Having a second competent scorer grade the paper (interrater reliability)
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104. Performance based are more effective than MC in
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a. Ability to formulate problems
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105. Advantage of performance based assessment…
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a. Both process and product
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106. Problem of performance based assessment
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a. Lengthy administration time
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107. Restricted response performance based better than extended response?
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a. When the problems are structured so the model performances can be constructed
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108. Best justification for large amount of time required for performance
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a. Provide students with valuable learning opportunities
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109. Dependecnce of task performance on skills that are irrelevant
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a. Reduces validity
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110. A teacher who rates all performances lower
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a. Severity error
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113. Rating product of student performances it is best for educators
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a. Rate performances on one task for all students before rating performance on another task
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114. Analytic scoring is better than hostic scoring when an educator is trying?
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a. To provide diagnostic information to students
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116. Student portfolios are distinguished from file folders
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a. Purposeful
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117. Strength of portfolios
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a. The ease wthey are integrated with instruction
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118. Potential weakness in porfolios
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a. Lack standardization needed for comparability
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119. Major obstacle for portfiolio
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a. They are labor intensive
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120. Misconception of portfolios
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a. Haphazard collection of student work
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121. Types of work appropriate for portfolio
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a. Specified in portfolio guidelines
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122. Which eval criteria is most useful analytic scoring
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a. Formative eval
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123. Least likely to be achieved using portfolios
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a. Assessment of factual knowledge
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124. Argument of summative grades?
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a. Holistic evaluation criteria
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125. Collaborative assessment in portfoilios
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a. Primary purpose of instruction
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127. best to evaluate on appearance
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a. disagree
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128. which is an advantage of communicating portfolio results with parents?
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a. Gives parents insight into what goes on in the classroom
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129. Which of the following is a particular issue tat educators need to consider when portfolios in group
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a. Will students receive individual or group grade
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When arranging items in a test, it is best to ensure which of the following?
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Essay questions are placed last
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If test directions instruct students to “answer every item,” it is not recommended that educators
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correct for guessing
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The effect of guessing on scores can best be reduced on a multiple-choice test by increasing which of the following?
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number of alternatives
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A test item has positive discriminating power when answered correctly by
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more high-scoring students
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On a test of 50 students, if 25 students answered an item correctly, the item difficulty is
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50%
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If item analysis data shows that an item was answered correctly by 8 out of 10 students in the upper group and 6 out of 10 students in the lower group, the difficulty of the test item is
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70%
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Which of the following is a major limitation of using item analysis procedures with the typical classroom test?
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the small number of students
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If 8 out of 10 students in the upper group and 2 out of 10 students in the lower group answer an item correctly, then the difficulty and discriminating power of the item would be
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50%, .60.
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A distracter in a multiple-choice item is judged good if it attracts more students who have
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obtained low scores
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It is probably a sound motivational procedure for the teacher to announce that an upcoming test is high stake for students. (True or False)
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True
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One good method for discouraging cheating is to proctor an exam by moving around the room. (Agree or Disagree)
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Agree
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If paper costs are a factor, educators can reduce the print size of test questions. (True or False)
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False
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It is good practice to not break up a test item an continue it on the next page. (Agree or Disagree)
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Agree
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It is good practice to have a colleague check test item for bias. (True or False)
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True
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The main purpose of a marking and reporting system should be to accomplish which of the following?
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improve student learning
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A serious limitation of reporting progress with a single letter grade only is that letter grades
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include too many different elements
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When a letter grade (A, B, C, D, F) is used to report student progress, the grade should be based on which of the following?
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achievement
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A school’s marking and reporting system should be based on which of the following?
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instructional objectives
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An effective grading and reporting system is based on which of the following?
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adequate assessment of students
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Which of the following methods is most useful for overcoming learning difficulties?
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checklist of objectives
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Assigning grades that represent a pure measure of achievement is most feasible with which of the following systems?
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multiple marking
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Which of the following is a major disadvantage of using the pass-fail system?
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it doesn’t assess gradation of learning
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One advantage of the pass-fail grading system in elective courses is that it
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encourages students to explore new areas of study
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Which of the following is the most serious limitation of the traditional letter grade as a means of reporting student progress?
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they lack common meaning from one teacher to another
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When weighting sets of test scores to obtain a composite score for assigning grades, the weighting should be based on which of the following?
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spread of scores on each test
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Absolute grading would require information concerning a student’s
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level of performance
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During parent-teacher conferences, which of the following actions should be avoided?
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beginning by discussing the student’s weaknesses
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Near the end of a parent-teacher conference, it is most important for the teacher to
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summarize and plan a course of action
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Which of the following is the most useful score for reporting standardized test results to parents?
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percentile rank
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Grades such as T-scores are based on variability. (True or False)
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True
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Sending letters home to the parent or guardian as a report card assumes that the adult is able to understand the vocabulary on the report. (Agree or Disagree)
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Agree
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It is appropriate to collapse achievement and effort into a single letter grade. (True or False)
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True
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Record keeping of student grades may be streamlined by using computer spreadsheets. (Agree or Disagree)
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Agree
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A student in grade 6 earned a raw score of 50 on an achievement test. Which of the following interpretations is most justified?
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the score is interpreted without more information
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Brent earned a score of 91 on a 100-item achievement test. Which of the following interpretations is most justified?
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His percentage-correct score is 91
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Which of the following best illustrates a criterion-referenced interpretation?
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describing the nature of the individual’s performance
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When making criterion-referenced interpretations of standardized tests, educators must be sure that
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there are enough items for each interpretation
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Which of the following best describes test norms?
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actual performance of representative groups
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At the end of grade 5, Erik has a grade-equivalent score of 6.5 in reading. When he is at the end of grade 6 his score will most likely be
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greater than 7.5
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Grade equivalent scores are least useful for
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comparing performance on two tests
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A percentile score of 50 on an achievement test indicates that
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half the norm group had lower scores
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Which of the following is a disadvantage of percentile ranks?
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They have unequal units
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The z-score serves as the basis of which of the following?
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Standard age score
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Which of the following is true about T scores?
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They are based on the z-score
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One advantage of T-scores over z-scores is that they
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include only positive scores
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If a student ranks 5th in a class of 50, the percentile rank would be
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90.
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In a normal distribution, which of the following scores equals a percentile rank of 16?
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T-score of 40
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The smallest number of percentile ranks fall between which of the following ranges of T-scores?
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30 and 35
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In a normal distribution a percentile rank of 84 would be the equivalent to a stanine of
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7.
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The “score bands” used on the test profiles indicate which of the following?
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score reliability
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Other things being equal, which of the following represents the highest level of achievement?
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Normal-curve equivalent = 80
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In a normal distribution, which of the following represents the lowest level of achievement?
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T-score = 40
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Which of the following statements about stanine scores is most accurate?
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Stanines are based on a nine point scale.
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Percentages and percentiles are interchangeable statistics. (Agree or Disagree)
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Agree
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Norm relevancy should be left up to the test publisher. (True or False)
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False
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It is legitimate for the test consumer to ask questions about the recency of test norms. (Agree or Disagree)
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Agree
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The normal curve has the particular property of being symmetrical. (True or False)
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True
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Percentile scores have equal intervals from one percentile rank to the next. (True or False)
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False
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Stanine scores express scores in nine equal steps ranging from 1 (the highest) to 9 (the lowest). (True or False)
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False
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NCE (Normal Curve Equivalent) scores can be averaged. (True or False)
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True
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An NPR score of 67 means that 33% of the students who took the test earned higher scores.
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True
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A student with an NPR (National Percentile Rank) of 50 is considered to be performing at the below average level. (True or False)
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False
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It is accepted practice to compare a student’s NPR scores earned on ELA, Math, Science, and Social Studies tests . (True or False)
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False
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The Raw Score represents the number of questions that a student answered correctly. (True or False)
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True
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A student with an NCE score of 50 is considered to be performing at the average level. (True or False)
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True
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NPR (National Percentile Rank) CAN NOT be averaged. (True or False)
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True
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A student with a stanine score of 6 is considered to be performing at the slightly above average range.
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True
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The best method to assess a student’s problem solving ability is through a simulation or through an “authentic” application of knowledge and skills that is commonly known as a(n) _____.
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performance task
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An essay question that focuses on the student’s ability to provide specific information is called a(n) _____ essay.
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restrictive
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An essay question that is meant to measure a student’s ability to gather and integrate whatever information that is needed is called a(n) _____ essay.
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extended
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The manner in which an achievement test’s scores are interpreted and used impacts its _____.
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validity
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Pre- and Post-test results are commonly used in Louisiana as a measure of teacher _____ in the classroom.
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effectiveness
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A final examination that measures a student’s ability to correctly spell 10 words out of the 800 words that were taught during the school year is NOT considered to provide an adequate measure of a student’s spelling ability because of the small _____ size.
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sample
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One of the key characteristics of a matching test is that the stems and choices must be _____.
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homogeneous
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Describing the level of an individual’s performance compared to that of a group represents a(n) _____ referenced interpretation.
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norm
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Describing the level of an individual’s performance against a set of standards represents a(n) _____ referenced interpretation.
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criterion
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A rubric that rates a student’s performance using a range of descriptors that indicate/describe various levels of performance is known as a(n) _____ rubric.
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analytic
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The NCE score is used in reporting _____.
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norm-referenced test scores
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A student whose percentile rank is 70 suggest that _____.
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70% of the students who took the test received a core that is equal to or less than the student in question.
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A criterion-referenced test produces data that _____.
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indicate a student’s level of mastery of content standards.
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A major problem in using essay questions to evaluate learning is the difficulty of _____.
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scoring
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A major problem in using interpretive exercises to evaluate learning is the difficulty of _____.
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constructing
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The type of test question that is most susceptible to guessing is _____.
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true/false
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One measure of test validity involves _____.
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how the scores are interpreted
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What is the process that can be used to measure a teacher’s effectiveness?
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pre-test and post-test
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Brent earned a score of 91 on a 100-item achievement test. Which of the following interpretations is MOST justified?
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His percentage correct score is 91.
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Regarding teaching time-on-task, the distribution of items and tasks in a table of specifications should reflect the relative _____.
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emphasis placed on the topic.
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This score is a norm-referenced score that has been adjusted so that it can be used in mathematical calculations.
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NCE
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This score is produced from a single equal-interval scale of scores from kindergarten through grade 12.
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Standard Score
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This is the abbreviation for a stanine score.
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NS
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This score is based on the performance of a normed group of students.
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NPR
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This score is calculated by dividing the total number of correct responses by the total number of questions and then by multiplying the answer by 100.
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%C
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Measures student progress while informing the teacher and the learner of the extent that the presented course material is being learned and where no grades are recorded.
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Informal Assessment
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Measures the extent that a student is making adequate progress during the presentation of course content over a period of several days.
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Formative Assessment
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Measures a student’s ability to apply acquired knowledge and skills to a ‘real life’ simulation.
answer

Authentic Assessment
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Measures the extent that a student has acquired knowledge and skills after having completed a course.
answer

Summative Assessment
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Measures student progress and involves the recording of a student’s grades.
answer

Formal Assessment

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