EBP Multiple Choice Questions

Flashcard maker : Robert Lollar
The model of EBP collaboration has __________ levels.
a. Four
b. Five
c. Three
d. Seven
b. Five
Justice is the principle of doing good
a. True
b. False
b. False
The Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki are international guidelines aimed at protecting the rights of human subjects.
a. True
b. False
a. True
Which of the following is an EBP performance criterion for nurse executive?
a. Serves as coach and mentor in EBP – This is Advanced practice Nurse role
b. Role models EBP – this is Nurse Manager Role
c. Questions current practices – Staff nurse role
d. Role models EBP in administrative decision making
d. Role models EBP in administrative decision making
A proposal might be eligible for an expedite review when:
a. There is potential risk to human subjects.
b. The study includes vulnerable populations.
c. There is minimal risk to human subjects.
d. There is no risk to human subjects.
c. There is minimal risk to human subjects.
A problem statement doesn’t identify what problem is addressed in the study
a. True
b. False
b. False
The statistical hypothesis stating that there is no relationship between the variables is:
a. Directional hypothesis
b. Null hypothesis
c. Non-Directional hypothesis
d. Research hypothesis
b. Null hypothesis
The purpose of research question is to generate new knowledge, while the purpose of EBP questions is to make decision about patient care.
a. True
b. False
a. True
Rigorous and systematic synthesis of research findings about a clinical problem is:
a. Pilot studies
b. Replication studies
c. Case studies
d. Systematic reviews
d. Systematic reviews
The standard of care or alternative interventions can be used as comparisons of interest in the PICOT model
a. True
b. False
a. True
Metaparadigm of nursing consists of:
a. Person, environment, health, and nursing
b. Person, care, environment, and health
c. Person, health, medicines, and care
d. Person, environment, medicines, and nursing
a. Person, environment, health, and nursing
Model is a pictorial representation of the concepts and their interrelationships.
a. True
b. False
a. True
Which of the following are secondary sources?
a. AutoBiography
b. Published articles based on previous publications
c. Dissertation
d. Comments from editors on a published article
b. Published articles based on previous publications
d. Comments from editors on a published article
Deductive quantitative research is typically used to:
a. Convey unique ideas or mental images.
b. Measure variables.
c. Test theory.
d. Build theory.
c. Test theory.
Nightingale’s conceptual definition of health would be:
a. Metabolic efficiency
b. A state of physical and mental well-being.
c. An absence of disease.
d. Reduction of the death rate
b. A state of physical and mental well-being.
A variable is an observation that can be measured by assigning a number to each dimension.
a. True
b. False
a. True
Which of the following is associated with plagiarism?
a. Keeping good notes
b. Exploding
c. Qualification
d. Copyright violation
d. Copyright violation
Theory, research, and practice should be developed in isolation
a. True
b. False
b. False
Using a question mark in a search word is an example of:
a. Truncation
b. Nesting
c. Using wildcards
d. Using stopwords
c. Using wildcards
Table of contents and indexes can be useful to narrow search for evidence.
a. True
b. False
a. True
Cross-sectional designs are the research designs where researchers look back in time to determine possible causative factors; ex post facto.
a. True
b. False
b. False
_______________means all subjects in the sample (not the population) have an equal chance of being assigned to either the treatment or the control group.
a. Random Assignment
b. Random Sampling
c. Randomization
d. Random Collection
a. Random Assignment
If subjects during the study on condom use came of age to obtain a driver’s license and get a job, it would be difficult to determine whether an increase in condom use was a result of the Independent Variable or of the subjects’ increased ease of purchasing condoms for use. This condition indicates:
a. Threat of maturation
b. Threat of testing
c. Threat of instrumentation
d. Threat of oversight
a. Threat of maturation
Double-blind experimental designs have been used in health research to control for threats of reactivity.
a. True
b. False
a. True
Which one is a threat to internal validity?
a. Effects of selection
b. Interaction of treatment and setting
c. Interaction of treatment and history
d. Statistical conclusion validity
d. Statistical conclusion validity
In experimental designs, ______________ is considered to be the intervention, or treatment, that is being tested in an experimental study.
a. Dependent variable
b. Independent variable
c. Independent and dependent variables
d. Manipulation
b. Independent variable
Multicausality means:
a. A problem with an outcome that has many causes
b. A problem with several outcomes but one cause
c. A problem with an unknown cause
d. A problem with unknown effects
a. A problem with an outcome that has many causes
Cohort comparison designs allow researchers to draw conclusions about variables over time even though data were collected at only one point in time.
a. True
b. False
a. True
When extraneous variables influence and distort the relationship between the Independent Variable and the Dependent Variable,
a. Bias results but does not affect the findings.
b. The effect cannot be predicted.
c. Bias results so that the findings are not really reflecting the true relationship
d. There won’t be any serious effect.
c. Bias results so that the findings are not really reflecting the true relationship
The type of study in which subjects receive more than one experimental treatment and are then followed over time is:
a. Follow-up study
b. Crossover designs
c. Panel designs
d. Trend studies
a. Follow-up study
Transferability is:
a. A criteria for a trustworthy qualitative study that relates to whether findings from one study can be transferred to a similar context.
b. A criteria of assessing the trustworthiness of a quantitative study.
c. A method for evaluating qualitative research.
d. A method of data collection.
b. A criteria of assessing the trustworthiness of a quantitative study.
What is phenomenology?
A qualitative research approach applicable to the study of phenomena that influence nursing practice. In phenomenological terms, this is referred to as the lived experience. The purpose of phenomenology is to describe the intrinsic traits, or essences, of the lived experience.
What is an ethnography?
A qualitative research approach developed by anthropologists involving the study of individuals, artifacts, or documents in the natural setting. The researcher is involved in the data collection process and seeks to understand fully how life unfolds for the individual or group under study.
What is Grounded theory?
A qualitative research method based on the symbolic interactionist perspective of human behavior. Grounded theory research combines inductive and deductive research methods. With the use of inductive processes, theory emerges from the data. Deduction is then used to test theory empirically.
Describe the type of sampling method most commonly used in qualitative study.
Purposive sampling method and Snowball sampling method
How researchers determine the number of participants in qualitative study?
The number of qualitative research generally is not pre-determined. Researchers will stop recruiting participants when data saturation is achieved.
The goal of the question \”what is the lived experience of a woman dying from breast cancer\” is:
a. To discover financial aspects of the situation
b. To discover cultural impact of the situation
c. To achieve understanding of an experience in areas where there is little or no previous research
d. To achieve understanding of an experience from the perspective of the participant
d. To achieve understanding of an experience from the perspective of the participant
The strategy used by qualitative researchers to set aside their personal interpretations to avoid bias is:
a. Memoing
b. Audit trail
c. Braketing
d. Participant observation
c. Braketing
Field work means:
a. The time researchers spend interacting with participants
b. The time researchers spend in statistical analysis
c. The time researchers spend in review of related literature
d. The time researchers spend on the whole project
a. The time researchers spend interacting with participants
Axial coding is done:
a. After the completion of open coding
b. Along with open coding
c. Before the open coding
d. There is no particular order
a. After the completion of open coding
A qualitative strategy involving the analysis of cases that do not fit patterns or categories is:
a. Triangulation
b. Peer debriefing
c. Negative case analysis
d. Member checks
c. Negative case analysis
In term of evidence hierarchy, Qualitative research ranks higher Randomized controlled trials (Use the book p. 424 to guide your answer)
a. True
b. False
b. False
A widespread occurrence of a disease in a community or population that is in excess of what is expected.
A. Endemic
B. Epidemic
C. Pandemic
D. Temporal ambiguity
B. Epidemic
The ability of the test to correctly identify people without the disease by negative results is known as
Specificity
The term known as ____ is the ability of the test to correctly identify people with the disease by positive test results.
Sensitivity
The term that describes the number of existing cases of disease in a population is known as:
Prevalence
The statistical test used for a case control study is the odds ratio.
A. True
B. False
A. True
Which of the following is the statistical test used for a cohort study?
A. Prevalence
B. Odds ratio
C. Incidence
D. Relative risk
D. Relative risk
True Negative is when a screening give a negative result despite the presence of the disease
A. True
B. False
B. False -False negative
Distribution of disease in a population is known as:
A. Descriptive epidemiology
B. Analytic epidemiology
C. Count data
D. Prevalence
A. Descriptive epidemiology
What are the three components of the epidemic triangle?
1. Host
2. Agent
3. Environment
Zika virus originally is common in Africa and Asia. It did not begin spreading widely in the Western Hemisphere until last May, when an outbreak occurred in Brazil. This phenomenon is known as
Pandemic
What are true experiments?
An experiment in which the researcher tries to assess whether an intervention or treatment makes a difference in a measured outcome. The following elements are present in all true experimental designs: control, random assignment, and manipulation of the independent variable.
What are quasi-experiments?
Random assignment and/or a control group(s) are/is not necessary.
Are true experiments better than quasi-experiments?
Yes, it is better. However, it may be difficult or impossible to use a control group or randomly assign patients to groups based on the nature of the study.
True experiments are better because When looking at the research evidence, Experimental design are most valued. It is because the results yield causality. It means that the cause and effect of independent variable and dependent variable is proven.
A quasi-experimental design where one group is measured prior to administering the intervention and then multiple times after the intervention.
a. Preexperimental design
b. Nonequivalent groups posttest only designs
c. Time series design
d. One-group posttest-only design
c. Time series design
A researcher is testing radiation doses in women with breast cancer. Ideally, the researcher should select the dose of radiation that obtains the desired effect with the least amount of side effects. Here the goal is to:
a. Maximize the benefits while minimizing the risks.
b. Provide standard care to protect subjects’ rights to fair treatment.
c. Coerce subjects to remain in a study to limit threats related to mortality.
d. Protect the autonomy of individuals
a. Maximize the benefits while minimizing the risks.
Translational research aims at:
a. Linking research findings and law making
b. Linking research and culture
c. Linking research and commercial production
d. Linking research findings to the point of care
d. Linking research findings to the point of care
There are FOUR major types of non-experimental designs. Identify what they are.
1. Descriptive designs, including a variety of name such as exploratory, comparative, and survey design.
Correlational designs, including three types of correlational designs commonly reported in the literature
2. Descriptive, correlational designs
3. Predictive, correlational designs
4. Model -Testing correlational designs
Researchers use descriptive research design to establish causality (cause and effect between independent and dependent variables).
a. True
b. False
b. False
Rank the evidence generated from the following designs from the highest to the lowest.
a. Experimental design
b. Nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest
c. One -group posttest only
d. Non-equivalent-groups posttest only
a. Experimental design
b. Nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest
d. Non-equivalent-groups posttest only
c. One -group posttest only
Factorial designs never allow researchers to manipulate more than one intervention during the same experiment.
a. True
b. False
b. False
How many types of true experimental design are commonly reported in the scientific literature?
a. Four
b. Five
c. Six
d. Seven
c. Six
A ratio-level scale of a 100-mm line anchored on each end with words or symbols.
a. Likert scales
b. Visual analog scale
c. Physiological measure
d. Psychometrics
b. Visual analog scale
Which of the following is the tool or instrument common to ethnography method of qualitative research?
a. Diaries
b. Artifacts
c. Observations
d. Photographs
c. Observations
A continuum of numeric values where the intervals are not meant to be equal is:
a. Nominal level of measurement
b. Ratio level of measurement
c. Interval level of measurement
d. Ordinal level of measurement
d. Ordinal level of measurement
An attribute of reliability when all items on an instrument measure the same concept is:
a. Test-retest reliability
b. Internal consistency
c. Equivalence
d. Stability
b. Internal consistency
On interval scales, zero point:
a. Indicates the true absence of something.
b. Is arbitrary and not absolute.
c. Is absolute.
d. Is the lowest measurable point.
b. Is arbitrary and not absolute.
An element of a population is referred to as subject:
a. When people form the element
b. When events form the element
c. When experiences form the element
d. When behaviors form the element
a. When people form the element
Which is the sampling method where bias may be introduced if randomization of start location is not maintained?
a. Systematic random sampling
b. Stratified random sampling
c. Cluster sampling
d. Simple random sampling
a. Systematic random sampling
If a researcher is conducting a study on individuals ages 13-17 who have type 1 diabetes, the target population should be:
a. Every single adolescent who has type 1 diabetes and who is 13-17 years of age
b. Every single adolescent who has type 1 diabetes and who is 13-17 years of age, residing in that particular locality
c. Every single adolescent who has type 1 diabetes and who is 13-17 years of age whose care is managed by government agencies
d. Every single adolescent who has type 1 diabetes and who is 13-17 years of age who is hospitalized
a. Every single adolescent who has type 1 diabetes and who is 13-17 years of age
Comparing demographic data from individuals in the sample to population demographics can help researchers determine whether the sample is representative. This is true for:
a. Theoretical sampling
b. Convenience sampling
c. Quota sampling
d. Purposive sampling
b. Convenience sampling
The research question and careful identification of the target and accessible populations determines:
a. Representativeness
b. Inclusion criteria
c. Exclusion criteria
d. Inclusion and exclusion criteria
a. Representativeness
When data are skewed and the researcher is interested in the \”typical\” score, what is the most appropriate measure of central tendency for the nurse researcher to use?
a. Median
b. Mode
c. Mean
d. Normal Curve
a. Median
What is Type I error ?
Means that the null hypothesis is rejected when it is indeed true.
What is Type II error?
Type II error in statistical testing means that the null hypothesis is accepted as true when it is indeed false. The smaller that the level of significance (the alpha) becomes, the greater the risk of type II error.
As the possibility of type I error decreases, the possibility of type II error increases.
The nurse researcher is using the percentage of nurses holding various nursing degrees as a variable in a research study. Which type of statistics is most appropriate in this case?
a. Inferential statistics
b. Descriptive statistics
c. Nonparametric statistics
d. Mathematical statistics
b. Descriptive statistics
Which of the following is not a descriptive statistic?
a. Correlational analysis
b. Frequency distribution
c. Mean
d. Standard deviation
a. Correlational analysis
In a study of nurses’ willingness to care for patients with a contagious disease, it was found that the greater the nurses’ spirituality, the greater the willingness to provide care. This finding represents what?
a. No correlation
b. Perfect correlation
c. Positive correlation
d. Negative correlation
c. Positive correlation
The researcher understands that the t-test is used to?
a. Describe relationships between two variables.
b. Examine differences among three or more groups.
c. Test for a significant difference between the means of two samples.
d. Test the power of a statistical procedure
c. Test for a significant difference between the means of two samples.
A researcher wanted to study the elements or variables associated with fear. Which of the following would be an appropriate statistical measure?
a. Chi-square
b. Factor analysis
c. Pearson’s r
d. T-test
c. Pearson’s r
The researcher understands that which of the following is not a characteristic of ANOVA?
a. Can be used only with two groups
b. Often requires post hoc tests to identify locations of differences
c. Tests for differences between means
a. Can be used only with two groups
The Alpha level of .05 is commonly used in nursing research. Explain what is meant by 0.05 level of confidence.
A level of confidence is a probability level that is established by a researcher. The 0.05 level of confidence is accepted by most researchers in all sciences; that is, researchers are willing to accept statistical significance occurring by chance 5 times out of 100.
Which data measurement scales typically use nonparametric tests of significance? (Select all that apply.)
a. Nominal
b. Ordinal
c. Interval
d. Ratio
c. Interval
d. Ratio
Which of the following is categorized under the framework \”syntheses\” in the pyramid of evidence?
a. Concept analysis
b. Case studies
c. Quantitative studies
d. Systematic review
d. Systematic review
A level in the pyramid of evidence containing brief descriptions of evidence is:
a. Systems
b. Studies
c. Syntheses
d. Synopses
d. Synopses
The final step of systematic review is:
a. Interpretation of the data and dissemination of the results
b. Evaluation of the literature
c. Collection of data
d. Generalize the findings
a. Interpretation of the data and dissemination of the results
What is meta-synthesis?
a. It is a systematic review that contains only qualitative studies.
b. It is a systematic review that contains both qualitative and quantitative studies.
c. It is the creation of multiple research papers on the same topic.
d. It is a review of selected quantitative studies.
a. It is a systematic review that contains only qualitative studies.
Concept analyses are:
a. Scholarly papers that explore the attributes and characteristics of a concept
b. Scholarly papers that explore the characteristics of a concept
c. Scholarly papers that explore the attributes of a concept
d. Scholarly papers that explore the history and development of a concept
a. Scholarly papers that explore the attributes and characteristics of a concept
Qualitative research is not appraised for scientific rigor, systematic analysis, and conclusions that are grounded in data.
a. True
b. False
b. False
__________________ are graded by examining the risk versus the benefit and the quality or strength of the evidence on which the information is derived.
a. EBP guidelines
b. Descriptive studies
c. Randomized controlled trials
d. Clinical practice guidelines
a. EBP guidelines
Which of the following is not included in five-step approach for evidence-based nursing practice?
a. Acquire
b. Appraise
c. Require
d. Assess
c. Require
Domain 5 of Domains of Quality in the AGREE II Instrument is applicability.
a. True
b. False
a. True
Place the following kinds of evidence in order from lowest to highest (1 =lowest; 5 =highest)
a. Meta-analyses
b. Case studies
c. RCTs
d. Cohort studies
e. Expert opinion
e. Expert opinion
b. Case studies
d. Cohort studies
c. RCTs
a. Meta-analyses
The change phases model is a seven-phase process to describe organizational change.
a. True
b. False
b. False
An organizational characteristic that is necessary to create and sustain an evidence-based culture is:
a. An expectation for staff to engage in research activities
b. Patient satisfaction with nursing care
c. Nursing staff satisfaction
d. Patient satisfaction with pain management
a. An expectation for staff to engage in research activities
The level in which the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses defines the levels of evidence as \”recommendations are based on qualitative studies, descriptive or correlational studies, integrative reviews, systematic reviews, or randomized controlled trials with inconsistent results.\”
a. Level A
b. Level C
c. Level D
d. Level E
b. Level C
The fourth phase of Stetler model of research utilization to facilitate EBP is:
a. Preparation
b. Validation
c. Translation/Application
d. Comparative Evaluation/Decision Making
c. Translation/Application
Barriers to EBP include organizational culture, nurses’ belief systems, and research-related barriers.
a. True
b. False
a. True
Socialization includes:
a. Self-awareness
b. Awareness about formal and informal rules of behavior
c. Understanding about oneself and the world
d. Curiosity
b. Awareness about formal and informal rules of behavior
One who is willing to try new things is known as a/an:
a. Leader
b. Introvert
c. Innovator
d. Pessimist
c. Innovator
Preceptors and role model play a major role in:
a. Ladder program
b. Orientation
c. Lifelong learning
d. Socialization
b. Orientation
Wheel of professionalism in nursing was proposed by Rogers in 2003.
a. True
b. False
b. False
The process of creating and sharing information with one another to reach mutual understanding is:
a. Communication
b. Perception
c. Critical thinking
d. Sense of inquiry
a. Communication
The cycle of scientific development is an important phase in:
a. Professional nursing
b. Networking
c. Implementation
d. Dissemination
d. Dissemination
Evidence-based practice cannot be successful if nurses fail to read or hear about new knowledge.
a. True
b. False
a. True
The 3Ps of dissemination are posters, _______________, and presentations.
a. Publications
b. Papers
c. Programs
d. Planning
b. Papers
The type of content typically included in EBP posters.
a. PICO question
b. Clinical problem
c. Assessment
d. Clinical issue
a. PICO question
A/an _____________ is a scholarly paper prior to its publication.
a. Manuscript
b. Authorship
c. Presentation
d. Abstract
a. Manuscript
A major advantage of poster presentations over other methods is that opportunities for networking exist.
a. True
b. False
a. True
Notices are also known as:
a. Posters
b. Networking
c. Call for abstracts
d. Outcome of the review
d. Outcome of the review
Evidence-based practice cannot be successful if nurses fail to read or hear about new knowledge.
a. True
b. False
a. True
When making a poster, which of the following should you do?
a. Use full sentences and avoid bullets
b. Use color to emphasize important points
c. Use fancy or script font because viewers fid them attractive.
d. Avoid including acknowledgement of funding sources because of space limitation
b. Use color to emphasize important points
All nurses are obligated to participate in the process of dissemination.
a. True
b. False
a. True
Which of the following are well aligned with collaborative processes in a healthcare facility?
a. All of the above
b. Education on new or revised policies and standards
c. Quality improvement committees
d. Implementation of EBP
a. All of the above
The purpose of a nurse presenting research findings at a conference is which of the following:
a. To engage in scholarly activities and get advancement in their place of work
b. To ensure that all nurses provide the same care at all facilities ensuring consistency
c. To disseminate information allowing others to learn from the research findings
d. To get input from peer nurses to make improvements to the research findings
c. To disseminate information allowing others to learn from the research findings
Nurse executives have an important role in ensuring EBP in their facility. Which of the following are examples of how nurse executives should be involved in EBP implementation?
a. Read evidence related to practice
b. Ensure individual recognition is provided to early adopters of EBP
c. Allow nursing managers to discipline staff who do not adopt EBP
d. Make contingency plans for staff unable to adopt EBP
b. Ensure individual recognition is provided to early adopters of EBP
The nurse researcher is aware that PICOT is a research strategy mnemonic for which of the following components?
a. Patient population or patient condition of interest, Intervention, Comparison of intervention, Outcome of interest , Total patients involved
b. Patient population or patient condition of interest, Intervention, Comparison of interest , Outcome of interest , Time
c. Patient population or patient condition of interest , Intervention, Comparison of intervention, Overarching alignment with practice , Time
d. Patient disease or illness , Intervention , Comparison of interest , Outcome of interest , Total patients involved
b. Patient population or patient condition of interest, Intervention, Comparison of interest , Outcome of interest , Time
The nurse is aware that using research to fill a gap in knowledge that requires a solution can have what affect on patient care?
a. Promote health across the lifespan and increase hospital length of stay
b. Improve clinical outcomes and promote health across the lifespan
c. Improve clinical outcomes and decrease disease incidence
d. Decrease hospital length of stay and decrease disease incidence
b. Improve clinical outcomes and promote health across the lifespan
The nurse researcher understands that a mediator is an intervening variable with what specific purpose?
a. Mediators account for how or why two studies are strongly associated
b. Mediators account for how or why two theories are strongly associated
c. Mediators account for how or why two variables are strongly associated
d. Mediators account for how or why two hypothesis are strongly associated
c. Mediators account for how or why two variables are strongly associated
\”Do hope and spiritual well-Being predict quality
of life in hospitalized patients across the
time points spanning admission,
discharge, and 6 weeks after discharge? \” This is an example of a:
a. Purpose statement
b. Research Hypothesis
c. Null Hypothesis
d. Research question
d. Research question
For research to be considered nursing research which of the follow must be present.
a. Research done using nursing interventions
b. Research with a focus on nursing practice
c. Research which focuses on health policy
d. Research done by a nurse
b. Research with a focus on nursing practice
The ANA established the Commission on Nursing Research, whose report emphasized the rights of human subjects in which of the following three ways?
a. Right to freedom from harm, right to privacy and dignity, and right to anonymity
b. Right to freedom from harm, right to honesty and right to anonymity
c. Right to privacy and dignity, right to anonymity, right to medical record access
d. Right to freedom from harm, right to privacy and dignity and right to compensation
a. Right to freedom from harm, right to privacy and dignity, and right to anonymity
When the nurse is narrowing a research focus and determining a research topic it is important to consider which of the following?
a. The historical significance of the research ensuring that it will have an impact on all aspects of care
b. The clinical significance of the research ensuring it adds to the body of nursing knowledge
c. The importance of the research on potential future research and how current research will be affected by future research
d. The guiding research theory ensuring the theory is well aligned with the research focus and topic
b. The clinical significance of the research ensuring it adds to the body of nursing knowledge
Which of the following is an example of a meta-analysis?
a. Using the results of one study on patient acuity to create an evidence based practice model of care
b. Combine the results of 15 studies on patient acuity based on a statistical method to help determine best practice in assessment of patient acuity
c. Using the results of 15 studies on patient acuity to create an evidence based practice model of care
d. Using the results of one study on patient acuity to make a declaration of best practice in assessment of patient acuity
b. Combine the results of 15 studies on patient acuity based on a statistical method to help determine best practice in assessment of patient acuity
The nurse is using a keyword search to determine the amount of literature available on a specified topic, the nurse is aware that the keyword search is:
a. The most efficient way to search for an article with a known title and known authors
b. A significant word from a title or document used as an index to content
c. Using one term in a thesaurus to find all like terms and like content
d. Using the database to find all occurrences of a key word in any given article
b. A significant word from a title or document used as an index to content
\”The purpose of this investigation was to understand the lived experiences of patients 1-2 years after ICD implantation.\” This is an example of a:
a. Purpose statement
b. Problem statement
c. Research hypothesis
d. Research question
a. Purpose statement
Which of the following is an appropriate strategy to incorporate in attempting to overcome the barriers which can prevent the adoption of Evidence Based Practice in a healthcare facility?
a. Have staff members work independently to make all policy changes
b. Use a team approach and proven research when considering policy changes
c. Avoid policy changes to maintain consistency in patient care
d. Use an autocratic leadership to determine all facility policies
b. Use a team approach and proven research when considering policy changes
A middle range nursing theory is best defined as:
a. Are easily testable with a high number of variables which predict outcomes
b. Have a broad scope providing a bridge from grand theory to a testable theory
c. Have a narrow scope providing a bridge from grand theory to a testable theory
d. Have a narrow scope providing a bridge from practice theories to application theories
c. Have a narrow scope providing a bridge from grand theory to a testable theory
The nurse researcher is using an electronic index to perform a literature review and is aware the other common name for an electronic index is what?
a. A databank
b. A datasource
c. A journal bank
d. A database
d. A database
What is the primary purpose of nursing research?
a. Nursing research is limited to nursing interventions and nursing theories it does not extend into practice
b. Nurses use research to generate new knowledge or validate and refine existing knowledge that directly or indirectly influences nursing practice
c. Nursing research is used to guide medical and psychological patient care investigations and research
d. Nurses use research to generate new knowledge which will contribute to medical research findings
b. Nurses use research to generate new knowledge or validate and refine existing knowledge that directly or indirectly influences nursing practice
Selecting key terms can be critical in a successful literature search, a good way to identify key terms is to:
a. Use FICO
b. Use PICOT
c. Outline the potential findings
d. Brainstorm
b. Use PICOT
There is a relationship between seatbelt use and head injury in auto accident. This is an example of a:
a. Research Hypothesis
b. Research Question
c. Null Hypothesis
d. Research problem statement
a. Research Hypothesis
Theory, research, and nursing practice are related through
a. Specialized frameworks that guide medical practice.
b. The metaparadigm of nursing.
c. Reciprocal relationships that inform development of nursing (discipline) knowledge.
d. Focusing primarily on individualized nursing care to patients.
c. Reciprocal relationships that inform development of nursing (discipline) knowledge.
The nurse researcher is quoting a physician who provided statistical data which will be added to a research study, the nurse would consider the physician to be what type of resource?
a. Primary Resource
b. Resource
c. Peer Reviewed Resource
d. Initial Resource
a. Primary Resource
A _______ is an observation that can be measured by assigning a number to each dimension.
a. Hypothesis
b. Variable
c. Moderator
d. Concept
b. Variable
Hypothesis: Scores on the Beck Depression Inventory will be lower in women who take yoga classes than in women who do not. What is the dependent variable?
a. Score on Beck Depression Inventory
b. Type of participation in yoga.
c. Women
d. Yoga ability.
a. Score on Beck Depression Inventory
The Belmont Report (1979) identified the following ethical principles as required for conducting research with human subjects:
a. Paternalism, justice, integrity.
b. Fairness, nonmaleficence, autonomy.
c. Justice, respect for persons, beneficence.
d. Justice, respect for persons, fidelity.
c Justice, respect for persons, beneficence.
The best definition of Evidence Based Practice (EBP) is which of the following
a. EBP is a process involving the examination and application of research findings or other reliable evidence that has been integrated with scientific theories
b. EBP is a process involving the integration of time honored methods of patient care with scientific theories
c. EBP is a process involving the examination and application of medical research findings integrated with historical patient care interventions
d. EBP is a process involving the examination and application of research findings or other reliable evidence that has been ordered by the physician
b. EBP is a process involving the examination and application of research findings or other reliable evidence that has been integrated with scientific theories
What types of variables confound, or confuse, the effect of the Independent Variable (IV) on the Dependent Variable (DV)?
a.Existing Variables
b.Cofounding Variables
c.Randomized Variables
d.Extraneous Variables
d. Extraneous Variables
History is considered a threat to internal validity in which of the following situations:
a. A threat to internal validity when there is a loss of subjects before the study is completed
b. A threat to internal validity when the dependent variable is influenced by an event that occurred during the study
c. A threat to internal validity when a pretest influences the way subjects respond on a posttest
d. A threat to internal validity when subjects change by growing or maturing
b. A threat to internal validity when the dependent variable is influenced by an event that occurred during the study
Which of the following is an example of epidemiology?
a. Studying the effects of genomic based cancer therapies
b. Studying the interaction between HIV cells and healthy cells
c. Studying the effect of Tuberculosis medications on the severity of the disease
d. Studying the effect of STD prevention on STD prevalence rates
d. Studying the effect of STD prevention on STD prevalence rates
Experimental and quasi-experimental designs are similar in what aspect of the design?
a. Manipulation of the dependent variable
b. Manipulation of the independent variable
c. Generalization of the findings
d. Manipulation of the coefficient
b. Manipulation of the independent variable
Ecologic studies have a distinct disadvantage for the nurse researcher. Which of the following is the greatest disadvantage?
a. The inability to link exposure to disease with specific individuals
b. The inability to link the disease to diagnosis and treatment data
c. The inability to determine the prevalence of the disease
d. The lack of useful data demonstrating the cause of the disease
a. The inability to link exposure to disease with specific individuals
Quantitative research is considered ________________ in nature.
a. Inductive
b. Deductive
c. Collaborative
d. Thematic
b. Deductive
Two measures (test A and test B) offer a blood sugar test result to screen for diabetes. While both tests have the same sensitivity (98.0%), test A has a specificity of 96% and test B has a specificity of 94%. In a comparison with true diagnosis of diabetes, you would expect that:
a. The positive predictive value of test A is greater than the positive predictive value of test B.
b. The positive predictive value of test A is less than the positive predictive value of test B.
c. The positive predictive value of test A and B is the same.
d. The positive predictive value of test cannot be identified.
a. The positive predictive value of test A is greater than the positive predictive value of test B.
A researcher conducts a study in which Syrian refugees are asked to describe a typical day and the health beliefs. Which type of qualitative study does this represent?
a. Ethnography
b. Phenomenology
c. Grounded theory
d. Historical research
a. Ethnography
Which of the following would be a threat to external validity?
a. History
b. Effects of selection
c. Maturation
d. Testing
b. Effects of selection
Which of the following is an example of incidence?
a. The number of existing cases of lung cancer in a specific county
b. The number of previous cases of lung cancer in a specific county
c. The number of new cases of lung cancer in a specific county
d. The number of deaths from lung cancer in a specific county
c. The number of new cases of lung cancer in a specific county
Descriptive epidemiology examines the distribution of disease in a population in terms of what three factors?
a. Person, place, time
b. Why, how, when
c. Population, community, cause
d. Population, subgroup, individual
a. Person, place, time
Factorial design has what unique quality related to the design?
a. Allows researchers to manipulate more than one intervention
b. Allows researchers to expand the data and findings by a factor of 10
c. Allows researchers to change the hypothesis during the study
d. Provides researchers the option to manipulate the dependent variable
a. Allows researchers to manipulate more than one intervention
Which of the following types of studies is considered qualitative research?
a. Grounded theory
b. Quasi experimental study
c. Meta-analysis
d. Online survey
a. Grounded theory
Experimental designs involve random assignment of which groups from the convenience sample?
a. The control group and the treatment group
b. The population
c. The control group only
d. The treatment group only
a. The control group and the treatment group
A question relating to the general definition of external validity is:
a. Are all subjects in the control group present at the end of the study?
b. Are my results able to be applied to other settings?
c. Were subjects allowed to choose either control group or treatment group?
d. Were pre-teens tested using the same posttest after they reached puberty?
b. Are my results able to be applied to other settings?
In the case control study examining sources of exposure and odds of Salmonellosis (a gastrointestinal illness caused by bacteria from the genus Salmonella), the findings showed that the odds ratio of eating shell eggs = 8.8 (p= <0.001). How would you interpret this risk?
a. There were 88 cases of Salmonellosis among people eating shell eggs.
b. The odds of eating shell eggs was 8.8 times higher among cases than control.
c. The odds of eating shell eggs was 8.8 times higher among control than cases.
d. The odds of salmonella was 88% as common among cases as control.
b. The odds of eating shell eggs was 8.8 times higher among cases than control.
Which threat to internal validity of a study occurs when patients are given the opportunity to choose the group they wish to enroll for the study?
a. Testing
b. Instrumentation
c. Selection bias
d. History
c. Selection bias
The nurse reviews a new screening test. She found that in the package the sensitivity (true positive) was 96% and the specificity (true negative) was 97%. This means that:
a. 96% of the people without the disease will test positive.
b. 96% of the people with the disease will test negative.
c. 97% of the people without the disease will test negative.
d. 97% of the people with the disease will test positive.
c. 97% of the people without the disease will test negative.
In experimental designs, researchers actively manipulate the ____________, sometimes to determine its effect on the dependent variable (DV) or outcome variable.
a. Construct Variable (CV)
b. Design Variable (DV)
c. Independent Variable (IV)
d. Information Variable (IV)
c. Independent Variable (IV)
Which of the following is an example of grounded theory method in research?
a. Researching the cause of breast cancer
b. Researching how patients emotionally deal with a breast cancer diagnosis
c. Researching the best chemotherapy to treat breast cancer
d. Researching the best prevention interventions for breast cancer
b. Researching how patients emotionally deal with a breast cancer diagnosis
Which of the following is an example of a data collection method appropriate for an ethnographic research study?
a.Collecting the age of all participants in a study
b. Immersion in the environment being studied collecting observed data
c. Sending out Likert scale multiple question questionnaires
d. Phone surveys of individual participant religious beliefs
b. Immersion in the environment being studied collecting observed data
Which of the following is an example of case series in epidemiology?
a. Five men in Europe have had similar symptoms of fever, convulsions and uncontrollable bleeding leading to death
b. The influenza virus for the current year has symptoms of prolonged fever, malaise and abdominal discomfort
c. The common cold is best treated with rest, increased fluids, multivitamin and Acetaminophen
d. 20% of the population of Rhode Island has died with similar symptoms of fever, convulsions, and uncontrollable bleeding
a. Five men in Europe have had similar symptoms of fever, convulsions and uncontrollable bleeding leading to death
When formulating labels for codes, themes, or patterns, it is always best to try to use what type of language?
a. Language to match the hypothesis
b. Language to match the research problem
c. Language to match the participant responses
d. Language to match the discipline
c. Language to match the participant responses
Which of the following are potential threats to internal validity?
a. History
b. Mortality
c. Maturation
d. All of the above
d. All of the above
Random sampling is best defined as:
a. Most people in the population of interest have the same probability of being selected to be included in the study
b. All people in the population of interest have the same probability of being selected to be included in the study
c. All members of the population of interest in the study were asked to participate in the study
d. All study participants reflect all levels of the diversity of the population of interest in the study
b. All people in the population of interest have the same probability of being selected to be included in the study
The nurse researcher wants to obtain a random sample for a research study. Which one of the following is not an appropriate method for obtaining a random participant sample?
a. Using computer software for a random sample
b. Drawing names out of a container
c. A random numbers table assigning numbers to potential participants
d. Asking for volunteer participants and taking all volunteers
d. Asking for volunteer participants and taking all volunteers
The researcher understands that it is best to have a high rate of return on questionnaires because a low response rate can cause what problem with the study?
a. Low response rates can cause unethical data because it is not fully representative
b. Low response rates can lead to bias because samples may not be representative
c. Low response rates can lead to skewed data because samples may not be representative
d. Low response rates can create false positives in the data with limited responses
b. Low response rates can lead to bias because samples may not be representative
The nurse understands that nursing research is essential to ensure what type of practice occurs which ensures high quality health care with beneficial outcomes?
a. Research based practice
b. Science based practice
c. Evidence based practice
d. Evidence based outcomes
c. Evidence based practice
Researchers use nominal measurement to classify or categorize variables. Which of the following is an example of nominal measurement?
a. Open ended questions with common themes coded
b. Yes and No question responses given numerical value, 1 and 2
c. Open ended questions given numbers for length of answers
d. Yes and No question responses given level value of low and high
b. Yes and No question responses given numerical value, 1 and 2
Which type of statistics explains characteristics of variables found in a sample and describes, summarizes, and synthesizes collected data?
a. Descriptive
b. Inferential
c. Explanatory
d. Intuitive
a. Descriptive
Likert scales are best defined as:
a. Ordinal level scale containing seven open ended questions focused on the topic
b. Nominal level scale containing seven points on an agree or disagree continuum
c. Ordinal level scale containing seven points on an agree or disagree continuum
d. Nominal level scale containing seven open ended questions focused on the topic
c. Ordinal level scale containing seven points on an agree or disagree continuum
Which of the following is an example of adopting?
a. Testing a new innovation for replication
b. Reading journals to learn about new innovations
c. Applying a new innovation in practice
d. Research the concept of a new innovation
c. Applying a new innovation in practice
Measurement error is best defined as:
a. The difference between the nominal score and the observed score
b. The difference between the true score and the ordinal score
c. The difference between the true score and the observed score
d. The difference between the expected score and the real score
c. The difference between the true score and the observed score
This type of data is the lowest level of measurement whereby data are categorized simply into groups.
a. Categorical data
b. Levels of measurement
c. Interval data
d. Ordinal data
a. Categorical data
There are four categories that are used to describe ___________: the four categories are nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.
a. Scale
b. Survey
c. Measurement
d. Data
c. Measurement
Continuous data is best defined as:
a. Interval or ratio-level data that use a continuum of numeric values with equal intervals
b. Nominal or ordinal data that use a continuum of numeric values with equal intervals
c. Categorical data that use a continuum of numeric values with equal intervals
d. Levels of measurement data that use a continuum of numeric values with equal intervals
a. Interval or ratio-level data that use a continuum of numeric values with equal intervals
The nurse researcher has defined the target population for a study as females under age 40 who have had infertility of unknown cause for over 12 months with no surgical intervention. The nurse now needs to determine what related to the target population?
a. Available population
b. Participating population
c. Accessible population
d. Appropriate population
c. Accessible population
Which of the following is an example of a synopsis?
a. Findings section of a study
b. Abstract of a study
c. Future research implications section of a study
d. References section of a study
b. Abstract of a study
When the nurse researcher is conducting an interview for a qualitative study the research will ensure the questions follow which of the following formats:
a. Structured questions requiring short succinct answers
b. Structured questions requiring yes or no questions
c. Open ended questions allowing the interviewee to provide in-depth information
d. Open ended questions with no guidance keeping them aligned with the study purpose
c. Open ended questions allowing the interviewee to provide in-depth information
______________ is the analysis of a group of qualitative studies.
a. Exploration analysis
b. Meta-analysis
c. Meta-synthesis
d. Concept analyses
c. Meta-synthesis
Physiological measures provide a wide range of biological, chemical, and microbiological data, which of the following is an example of a physiological measure?
a. Emotions
b. Perceptions
c. Cardiac output
d. Time
c. Cardiac output
The nurse researcher is performing a research study, to recruit participants the nurse has asked current participants for referrals to other potential participants. This is an example of what type of sampling?
a. Cluster sampling
b. Snowball sampling
c. Stratified random sampling
d. Simple random sampling
b. Snowball sampling
When conducting a systematic literature review why is it important to research published and unpublished findings?
a. It will help to increase the accuracy of the study findings
b. It will ensure the study is ethical in all areas
c. It will provide the required amount of resources
d. It will help to decrease bias from the strength of significant findings
d. It will help to decrease bias from the strength of significant findings
Which of the following are factors, which may affect data collection, except:
a. Participant availability
b. Access to preexisting instruments
c. Cost of collecting data
d. Data processing software
d. Data processing software
The nurse researcher is designing a study, which will use a questionnaire with a scale to get data from participants. To ensure best practice the design will use what type of scale?
a. A new untested scale designed for the study
b. A likert scale
c. A visual analog scale
d. A previously tested reliable scale
d. A previously tested reliable scale
This is best defined as scholarly papers exploring the attributes and characteristics of a concept:
a. Concept analyses
b. Case study
c. Synopsis
d. Synthesis
a. Concept analyses
There are benefits of using questionnaires in quantitative research. Which of the following are potential benefits?
a. Expensive
b. Easily collect data from large number or respondents
c. Ensures high response rates
d. Easy to code and assess data
b. Easily collect data from large number or respondents
_____ is best defined as highest level of measurement that involves numeric values that begin with an absolute zero and have equal intervals.
a. Nominal
b. Ordinal
c. Interval
d. Ratio
d. Ratio
The nurse researcher has written out description of the proposed study participants and how the participants will be recruited; this is the definition of:
a. Sampling plan
b. Sampling
c. Participation plan
d. Population plan
a. Sampling plan
One of the negative aspects of nonprobability sampling is which of the following?
a. Participant population is highly representative of the general population
b. Results of study are limited to the confines of the participant population
c. With no random selection the results are less likely to represent the target population
d. With random selection the results are likely to represent the target population
c. With no random selection the results are less likely to represent the target population

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