Earth Science: Study Guide: Chapter 2 Lessons 1-3

mineral
a naturally occurring solid that can form by inorganic processes and that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition

crystal
has repeating pattern of a mineral’s particles to form a solid

inorganic processes
all minerals must be able to be formed by_________ _________; doesn’t involve something that once was alive

coal
not a mineral

compounds
almost all minerals are _________ (combinations of 2 or more other elements)

pure form; compound
some elements form in a ____ ____, not as part of a ________ (gold, copper, garnet)

characteristic properties
each mineral has ______________ _________ that can be used to identify it

powder
the streak of a mineral is the color of its ______. the streak of a mineral

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doesn’t change

luster
term used to describe how light is reflected from a mineral’s surface

hardness
determined by the streak test

Mohs Hardness Scale
used to rank the hardness of minerals. the scale ranks from 1-10

talc; diamond
softest mineral; hardest mineral

characteristic density
each mineral has a ______________ _______

Density=mass/volume
mathematical equation for density

crystal structure
repeating pattern of a mineral’s atoms form a minerals _______ _________

cleavage
property when a mineral splits easily along flat surfaces

fracture
describes how a mineral looks when it breaks apart into irregular ways

crystallization
process by which atoms are arranged to form a material that has a crystal structure

organic process, solutions, crystallize
minerals can form in 3 ways: some form from _______ _________, many crysatllize from materials dissolved in _________, and many minerals ___________ as magma and lava cool

solution
mixture in which one substances is dissolved with another

vein
narrow channel or slab of a mineral that is different from surrounding rock

rock-forming minerals
include about 20 minerals that make up most of the rocks in the Earth’s crust

granite
generally light colored rock that has a high silica content; has large crystals

gneiss
(sounds like nice) is often confused with granite. “It’s Nice, but don’t take it for Granite.”

basalt
dark colored rock that has a lower silica content than garnite

mineral crystals; basalt
the _______ ________ in ______ are too small to see with the naked eye

grains
most rocks are made up of particles of mineral or other rocks

texture
look or feel of a rock’s surface

grain sizes
coarse, fine, or no visible grain

grain patterns
swirls or bands that create visible patterns. banded or nonbanded

grain shapes
generally rounded grains (conglomerate) or jagged grains (breccia)

igneous rock, sedimentary rock, and metamorphic rock
geologists have classified rocks into 3 major groups

igneous rock
forms from the cooling of magma or lava; classified by their origin, texture and mineral composition

sedimentary rock
forms when small particles of rocks or the remains of living plants or animals are pressed and cemented together

metamorphic rock
forms when a rock is changed by heat or pressure, or by chemical reactions

extrusive rock
igneous rock formed from lava that erupted onto the Earth’s surface (hint: _________=Exit=outside Earth’s crust)

intrusive rock
rock that formed when magma hardened beneath the Earth’s surface (hint: _________=In=Inside earth)

rapidly cooling lava
forms fine grained igneous rocks with small crystals

slowly cooling lava
forms from course grained rocks

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