the name given to the early super-continent
a hypothesis that Earth’s continents had once been joined as a single landmass
a device that can detect small changes in magnetic fields
the study of the magnetic record of the seafloor
a change in Earth’s magnetic field
a line on a map that connects points that have the same age
a theory that states the new ocean crust is formed at ocean ridges and destroyed at deep-sea trenches
a theory that states the Earth’s crust is broken in to enormous slabs called plates
places where two tectonic plates are moving apart
when continental crust begins to separate that stretched crust forms a long narrow depression
place where two plates slide horizontally past each other
places where two tectonic plates are moving toward each other
the process of one plate descending beneath another
the weight of the uplifted ridge pushes an oceanic plate toward a trench
the weight of the subducting plate helps pull the trailing plate into the subduction zone
Proposed the theory of continental drift
scientists thought the seafloor was this?
new crust is formed at where?
near deep-sea trenches
sediments on the ocean floor are deeper where?
discovery that led scientists to eventually accept the theory of continental drift
internal resistance to flow
intrusive igneous rock bodies caused by magma
when magma reaches Earth’s surface
an opening in the Earth’s crust through which magma reaches the surface
a bowl shaped depression at the top of a volcano
a depression greater than 1 km in diameter at the top of a volcano
type of mountain with broad, gently sloping sides and a nearly circular base
a type of volcano that forms when material is ejected high into the air and falls back and piles up around the opening
a type of volcano that forms when layers of volcanic fragments alternate with lava
rock fragments thrown into the air during a volcanic eruption
flow that refers to rapidly moving volcanic material sent down a slope during an eruption
unusually hot regions of Earth’s crust where high temperature plumes of mantle material ruse toward the surface
A wet mineral or rock will melt at a ________ temperature?
Magma with ________ viscosity is more explosive.
increasing silica content has what effect on the viscosity of magma?
large plutons common in the interior mountain chains
smaller, similar to batholiths
mushroom shaped with round top and flat bottom
cuts across preexisting rocks
magma that intrudes parallel to rock layers
the force per unit area acting on a material
the deformation of materials in response to forces acting on them
the point where an earthquake originates
the point on Earth’s surface directly above where an earthquake originates
a device that detects and records the vibrations caused by an earthquake
a measure of the amount of energy released during an earthquake
the scale that is based the size of the largest seismic waves produced by an earthquake
a large ocean wave generated by vertical motion of the seafloor during an earthquake
sections of active faults that have not experienced significant earthquakes for a long period of time
fractures in Earth’s crust along which movement occurs
how much damage the earthquake caused
the process by which rocks on or near Earth’s surface break down and change
the removal and transport or weathered material from one location to another
the process by which rocks and minerals break down into smaller pieces
the repeated thawing and freezing of water in the cracks of rocks
process by which outer rock layers are stripped away
the process by which rocks and minerals undergo changes in their composition as the result of chemical reactions
the reaction of water with other substances
the chemical reactions of oxygen with other substances
the final stage of the erosional process
the erosion by running water in small channels, on the side of a slope
when a channel becomes deep and wide
the loose convering of broken rock particles and decaying organic mater overlying the bedrock of Earth’s surface
soil located above parent material
soil that has been moved to a new location away from its parent bedrock
a distinct layer within a soil profile
the vertical sequence of soil layers
the downslope movement of loose sediments and weathered rook resulting from the force of gravity
the slow, steady, downhill flow of loose weathered Earth materials
swiftly moving mixtures of mud and water
a rapid, down slope movement of Earth materials that occur when a relatively thin block of loose soil, rock, and debris separates from underlying bedrock
when the mass of material in a landslide rotates and slides along a curved surface
landslides that occur in mountainous areas with thick accumulations of snow
the lowering of the land surface that results from the wind’s removal of surface particles
occurs when particles such as sand rub against the surface of rocks or other materials
rocks shaped by wind-blown sediments
pile of wind-blown sand that develops over time
thick, wind-blown silt deposits
a large, moving mass of ice
glaciers that form in valleys in high, mountainous areas
glaciers that cover broad, continent-sized areas
ridges consisting of till deposited by glaciers
the area at the leading edge of the glacier, where the meltwater streams flow and deposit outwash
glaciers that move over older moraines from the material into elongated landforms
long, winding ridges of layered sediments that are deposited by steams flowing under a melting glacier
a land area that is covered with water for a large part of the year
process by which lakes become rich in nutrients form the surrounding watershed
a depression in the landscape that collects and holds water
when a stream actively resumes the process of downcutting toward its base level
a bend or curve in a stream channel caused by moving water
the ground bordering the stream on each side
the triangular deposit that forms when a stream enters a large body of water
the narrow pathway cut into the sediment or rock by moving water
the broad flat area that extends out from the stream bank and is covered by excess water during times of flooding
occurs when water spills out over the sides of a stream’s bans onto the adjacent land
consists of the sand, pebbles, and cobbles that are pushed or rolled along the bed of a stream
particles held up by the turbulence of a stream’s moving water
a high land area that separates one watershed from another
all the land area whose water drains into a stream system
water flowing downslope along Earth’s surface
all the water on Earth’s surface
the process by which water enters the ground
the percentage of pore space in a material
the upper boundary of the zone of saturation
the ability of a material to let water pass through
permeable layers through which groundwater flows
a natural underground opening with a connection to Earth’s surface
a depression in the ground caused by the collapse pf a cave or by the dissolution of bedrock
dripstone deposits on the floor of caves
natural discharges of groundwater
explosive hot springs
the difference between the original water table and the water level in a pumped well
water from precipitation and runoff is added back into the zone of saturation
springs with a temperature that is higher than that of the human body
impermeable layers that are barriers to groundwater flow
a sloping band of sand, pebbles, gravel or mud at the edge of the sea
the submerged parts of the continents
rapid flowing water currents along the bottom of the sea that carry heavy sediment loads
a deposit at the base of the continental slope is called a continental ________.
the smooth parts of the ocean floor
submerged basaltic volcanoes more than 1km high
scientific study of oceans
the level of the oceans’ surface
a measure of the amount of dissolved salt in seawater
the layer of the ocean characterized by rapidly decreasing temperature with depth
the highest point of a wave
a rhythmic movement that carries energy through space or matter
the periodic rise and fall of sea levels
the lowest point of a wave
currents cause by differences in the temperatures and salinity of ocean currents
the upward movement of the ocean water
the area where the lower end of a freshwater river or stream enters the ocean
the shallowest part of the continental margin extending seaward is the continental _______.
What percentage of Earth’s surface is below sea level?
What marks the true edge of a continent?
What do the sediments of the abyssal plain mostly consist of?
Which represents the flattest part of Earth’s surface?
What is the average salinity of seawater?
Which type of seawater has the greatest density?
cold with high salinity
What is the average depth of the oceans?
Which are the most common gases emitted by volcanoes?
water vapor and carbon dioxide
Which of the following is used to measure ocean depth?
What type of high tides occurs during a full moon?