EARTH SCIENCE – Energy and Insolation

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Evaporation
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Change in phase from a liquid to a gas (vapor)
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Phase
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a stage in a series of changes. i.e. solid, liquid or gas
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Heat
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total kinetic energy; expressed in calories
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Heat of Fusion
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Latent potential energy absorbed when a solid melts and released when a liquid freezes
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Heat of Vaporization
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Latent potential energy absorbed when a liquid vaporizes and released when a gas condenses.
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Latent Heat
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Energy absorbed or released in a change in state. Does not show up as a temperature change.
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Kinetic energy
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Energy of motion
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Potential Energy
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Energy in storage, energy of position, or energy involved in a change of state.
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Joules
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unit used to measure energy
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Electromagnetic Energy
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Energy such as heat waves, visible light, and e-rays, that can radiate through empty space.
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Electromagnetic Spectrum
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Range of electromagnetic energy energy from long-wave radio waves to short-wave gamma rays.
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Conduction
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The way heat energy is transfered through matter by the direct contact of molecules.
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Convection
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The transfer of energy through circulating fluids (liquids and gases) because of differences in density.
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Radiation
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The transfer of energy by electromsgnetic waves. i.e. sunlight to earth
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Insolation
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Incoming solar radiation; electromagnetic energy the earth receives from the sun.
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Angle of Insolation
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Angle of the sun above the horizon
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Greenhouse Effect
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Process by which infrared heat waves aret rapped in the Earth’s atmosphere by gasses such as carbon dioxide and methane.
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Greenhouse Gasses
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Gasses such as carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor that trap heat in the Earth’s atmosphere and affect Earth’s climate.
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Reflection
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Process in which energy waves bounce off a surface or interface.
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Insolation-temperature Lag
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Time delay between maximum or minimum insolation and maximum or minimum air temperature.
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Radiative Balance
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Equilibrium between absorbed radiant energy and radiant energy given off.

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