Earth Science Chapter 7 Study Guide

question

In which climate would chemical weathering most readily occur?
answer

Tropics
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Under what conditions would you expect to see the most erosion?
answer

Heat, (the \”Q\” variable), is NEGATIVE when thermal energy is being REMOVED from a system.
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From where does soil get organic matter?
answer

Plants, dead stuff, animal poop
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Which soil horizon has the darkest and richest soil?
answer

The O Horizon
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What about water causes mechanical weathering?
answer

When it freezes and expands it breaks up rocks
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Where would wind cause the greatest erosion?
answer

Any where there is a lot of sand
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What does water and glacial erosion need to take place?
answer

Generally cold temperatures
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Where does river flow slow down and deposition occur?
answer

Inside of the bends
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Temperate Soil
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thick, fertile soil because of the presence of many weathering agents
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Tropical Soil
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poor in minerals & nutrients, little organic material due to rain
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Polar Soil
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form at high elevations and high altitudes, no distinct horizons-soil too thin, under top few inches of soil, ground is permenantely frozen (permafrost)
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Desert Soil
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soil is rocky, very dry and contains almost no organic matter
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Residual Soil
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Soil that remains above its parent rock
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Transported Soil
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Soil that has been moved away from its parent material by water, wind, or a glacier.
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Exfoliation
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A mechanical weathering process which removes protuding overlying layers and esposing the weathered down dome of the underlying layers
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Oxidation
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A chemical change in which a substance combines with oxygen, as when iron oxidizes, forming rust
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Hydrolysis
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A chemical reaction that breaks bonds between two molecules by the addition of water; functions in disassembly of polymers to monomers.
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Soil Profile
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A vertical section through a soil, from the surface down to the parent material, revealing the soil layers or horizons.
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Soil
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A mixture of mineral particles and organic material that covers the land, and in which terrestrial plants grow.
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Chemical Weathering
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The process in which rock is broken down by changes in its chemical makeup
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Frost Wedging
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The mechanical breakup of rock caused by the expansion of freezing water in cracks and crevices

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