Early Adulthood Development

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The period of development characterized by the postponement of marriage, parenthood and work is now referred to as late adolescence.
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F
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The years between 18 and 25 are optimal for safe reproduction and hard physical work.
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T
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Emerging adults rarely experience serious illness.
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T
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For adults, including emerging adults, chronological age is an imperfect guide for physical, social and cognitive transitions.
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T
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The process of aging begings in late adolescence, but few emerging adults are aware that their cells are aging.
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T
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Maximum muscle strength potential typically begins to decline by age 20.
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F
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Homeostasis requires a response from the body systems whereas allostasis refers to longer-term adjustment.
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T
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Health habits in emerging adulthood do not affect vitality in old age
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F
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New students in college usually do not care a great deal about looking good.
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F
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An individual is likely to continue to be physically active if the individual has friends who are physically active.
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T
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For female emerging adults who engage in unprotected intercourse, pregnancy occurs within three months, on average.
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T
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Recent statistics show that emerging adults are following the traditional sequence of marriage prior to parenthood.
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F
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The rate of psychopathology increases in emerging adulthood.
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T
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All research finds that many emerging adults are anxious about themselves, their relationships and their future.
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T
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Emerging adult men are less likely to suffer from schizophrenia than emerging adult women.
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F
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Taking risks can benefit an individual’s development.
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T
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Emerging adults who are not in college are more likely to use drugs than their college counterparts.
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F
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Social norms exert a particularly strong influence on college students.
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T
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College students tend to underestimate how much the average student drinks, and overestimate how their peers feel about the loud, late talking and other behaviors of students who are drunk.
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F
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Many adults fondly remember past risks, including those during emerging adulthood.
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T
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The stage approach to cognitive development analyzes intelligence via IQ tests and other measures
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F
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Postformal thought is more practical as well as more creative an imaginative than earlier stages of thinking
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T
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Emerging adults consider most of life’s answers to be provisional, not necessarily permanent.
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T
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The older an individual is, the greater likelihood that s/he will demonstrate delay discounting.
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F
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The characteristics of postformal thought (practical, flexible, dialectical) are evident as the brain matures.
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T
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Western as well as non-Western cultures describe adult thought as qualitatively similar to adolescent thought.
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F
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Without being able to combine intellect and emotion, individuals may experience behavioral extremes (e.g., obesity, addiction) and cognitive extremes (e.g., believing that one is the best person on earth).
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T
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Individuals in their early 20s are more likely than people of any other age to abuse alcohol and drugs. However, with personal experience and learning from others, cognitive maturity leads most adults to drink occasionally and moderately from then on.
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T
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A hallmark of postformal cognition is intellectual flexibility, a characteristic far more typical of middle-aged adults than of younger people.
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F
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Cognitive flexibility, particularly the ability to change childhood assumptions, is needed to counter stereotypes.
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T
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The possibility of being negatively stereotyped arouses emotions that could disrupt cognition or emotional regulation.
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T
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Dialectical thinking involves the constant integration of beliefs and experiences with all the contradictions and inconsistencies of daily life.
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T
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College education is one stimulus for young adults’ shifts in moral reasoning
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T
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Moral values do not seem to be impacted by national background or era.
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F
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Gilligan believes that decisions about reproduction advance moral thinking, especially for women.
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T
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Education, specific dilemmas, and culture correlate less strongly than gender with whether a person’s moral judgments emphasize relationships or absolutes.
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F
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For emerging adults, moral thinking may produce moral behavior.
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T
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Emerging adults are more likely than older or younger people to attend religious services and to pray, even though most consider themselves less spiritual compared to when they were younger.
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F
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According to current research, college students today are more concerned with getting a well-rounded education than in being able to find a good-paying job upon graduation.
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F
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Being exposed to a diverse array of people in college likely contributes to deeper thought and intellectual challenge.
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T
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Today, struggles around identity identification are usually resolved in adolescence.
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F
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A reasonable response to the identity search is to seek a moratorium, postponing identity achievement while exploring possibilities.
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T
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Bicultural identity correlates with healthy psychosocial development.
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T
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During emerging adulthood, those who did not attend college are more likely to change jobs than those who attended college.
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F
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A person’s personality can change after adolescence.
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T
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An individual is likely to have a healthier self-image while in emerging adulthood than adolescence.
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T
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Plasticity genes can make a person more or less susceptible to environmental forces.
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T
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During emerging adulthood, individuals tend to become more self-centered and less caring about others
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F
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An adult’s need for intimacy is generally only fulfilled by a romantic partner.
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F
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People tend to make more friends during adolescence than at any later period of time
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F
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Cross-sex friendships are almost always preludes to romance.
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F
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When children are born into a romantic relationship, passion seems to fade for both men and women, but commitment increases.
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T
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With time, partners may find that passion fades, but that does not mean they are likely to end the relationship.
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T
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Emerging adults of both sexes say that if they want a serious relationship with someone, they are more likely to hook up with them to see if they are sexually compatible.
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F
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Social networking may lead to choice overload for emerging adults’ romantic prospects.
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T
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Today, a couple’s first shared household is more likely to involve cohabitation, not marriage.
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T
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In a survey of emerging adults in North America, participants indicated that faithfulness was the most important factor in a successful long-term relationship.
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T
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Conflict always leads to a lack of intimacy in relationships.
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F
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Emerging adults today often have stronger links with their parents than young adults did in the past.
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T
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Parents of all income levels in the USA tend to provide substantial help to their adult children.
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T
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Most adults feel strong, capable, healthy and “in their prime.”
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T
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The depletion in organ reserve during adulthood is apparent on a daily basis.
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F
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For most adults, brain changes that occur before late adulthood correlate with diminished intellectual power.
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F
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Beginning in middle adulthood, hypertension can greatly harm brain functioning.
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T
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Collagen decreases by about 1 percent per year starting at age 20.
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T
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Body shape rarely changes between the ages of 25 and 65.
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F
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During middle adulthood, a person typically loses muscle strength and also loses nearly an inch in height.
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T
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As people age, their eyes adjust to darkness more quickly.
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F
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Geographic trends are apparent in contraceptive use.
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T
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Sexual arousal and orgasm both take longer and occur more slowly with age.
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T
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Infertility is often defined as being unable to conceive after trying for at least one year.
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T
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In the USA, the birth rate among women age 40 and older is decreasing
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F
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Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) can be a cause of infertility among women.
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T
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The drop in testosterone levels of older men is known as andropause.
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T
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Of the illegal drugs, marijuana use is the fastest to decline in use during adulthood.
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F
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Binge drinking is implicated in liver, but not other, cancers.
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F
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More men are morbidly obese than women in the USA.
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F
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The consequences of obesity are psychological as well as physical.
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T
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Studies show that over 60 percent of adults in the USA and England get at least 30 minutes per day of exercise.
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F
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Worldwide, as mortality decreases, morbidity increases.
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T
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It is possible to measure “g” directly.
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F
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For most people, intelligence early in life predicts more education, more income, and a longer life.
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T
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Cohort differences are among the factors that account for age-related variation in adult intelligence.
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T
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The Flynn effect refers to an individual’s increasing intelligence with age and experience.
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F
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It is unfair and scientifically invalid to compare IQ scores of a cross-section to learn about age-related changes.
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T
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Cognitive ability in adulthood does not increase for those with challenging work.
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F
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Intellectually demanding tasks, paid or not, tend to keep the mind working after retirement.
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T
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Abstract thinking and speed of thinking are some of the mental abilities that make up fluid intelligence.
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T
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For most people throughout adulthood, both fluid and crystallized intelligence increase with age.
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F
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Crystallized intelligence remains steady across adulthood.
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F
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Individuals high in analytic intelligence are able to better handle the tasks of adulthood.
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F
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Major stresses can negatively impact health, but minor daily hassles do not.
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F
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Cultures vary in what they believe about infant development.
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T
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If they use problem-focused coping styles, people try to attach the stress directly.
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T
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The best coping strategy in every stressful situation is always emotion-focused coping.
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F
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Over the years of adulthood, a more positive attitude toward life develops, which makes it easier to reinterpret stresses so they do not fester.
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T
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In adulthood, only a select number of previously developed abilities can be enhanced or diminished.
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F
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Experts rely more on formal procedures and rules rather than past experiences and immediate contexts when thinking.
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F
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The superior strategies of the expert permit selective optimization with compensation.
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T
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Expertise always overcomes the effects of age.
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F
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According to Erikson, the search for identity is complete at the end of the stage of identity versus role confusion.
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F
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Maslow linked chronological age to adult development on his hierarchy of needs.
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F
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Today, few developmentalists believe that the changes of middle age produce a midlife crisis.
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T
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Personality traits are exhibited the same in all contexts.
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F
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As adults age, their friendships tend to stagnate.
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F
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Consequential strangers are people who have no impact on a person’s life.
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F
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A good indication of family closeness is whether family members live with one another, close to one another, or distant from one another.
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F
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Fictive kin are people accepted as part of a family without having biological or marital ties to that family.
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T
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Adequate income is not correlated with marital satisfaction.
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F
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Gay, lesbian, and heterosexual couples can all be supportive and destructive.
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T
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Divorce often weakens or destroys family bonds beyond that of the spousal relationship.
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T
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Remarriages are less likely to end in divorce than are first marriages.
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F
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Most people underestimate the difficulty of parenting.
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T
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Most kinkeepers are middle-aged women.
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T
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Raises and bonuses at work do not seem to increase employee motivation.
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F
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The intrinsic rewards of work often result in less absenteeism and job change.
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T
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Micro aggressions may go unnoticed by those in the majority.
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T
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As adults grow older, job changes become less stressful.
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F
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Most employers consider the psychosocial needs of their workers.
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F

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