Drugs and the human body

What is a drug?
any absorbed substance taht changes or enhances any psychical or psycholical functions in the body
What are the types of drugs that produce a withdrawal syndrome? (3)

1) Depressants 

2) Stimulants

3) Opiates 

what is the difference between phamacodymanics and pharmacokinetics?

– pharmacodymanics stud drug actions and effects

– pharmacokinetics : study the rates of change of a drug (ex. rates of absorption)

Whta is peristalsis?
rythmic motion of GI system in digestion
what does renal mean?
pertaining to kidneys
what is Synergistic?
when multiple elements come together to give a super addictive effect
what is taxol? and where did it originate?
taxol is a new anti cancer drug, that has not bee synthesised yet because it is very complex, and comes from teh Yew Tree
what does Visceral mean?
pertaining to internal organs
what does febrile mean?
what does emetic mean?
drug that induces vomiting
what is an antipyretic?
reduces fever
what is an analgesic?
reduces pain
what is chemotherapy?
attack on a disease using a specififc chemical designed for the purpose

what are forms of chemotherapy not involving chemicals?

a) holistic (spiritual)

b) herbal (bee venom)

c)homeopathy (ting doses) of active consituent

what is naturopathy?
techniques used to restor health rather than treat disease
what is body based medicine?
– useful in chiropractic, acupuncture, and massage
what is Digitalis? and where does it originate from?
a cardiactive steroid from foxglove plant
What is insulin? Where does insulin come form?
its promotes and regulates gulcose and comes from the pancreas of dogs
can you make drugs from gene splicing?
yes, but only porteins
do compounds with similar structure also show similar biological activity?
What does Ibuprofen contain?
isobutyl, propionic acid  and phenyl ring
what is the brand name of acetaminophen?
what does TI mean?

therapeutic index = TD50/ED50

– high values are safer 

– tells you how fatal a substance is 

Does alcohol have a lower TI than cocaine and morphine?
no, alcohol has a TI of 10 , Cocaine, 15 and Morphine 70
what drug can actively transport ?
L- Dopa, but common for sugars and amino acids
What are the different kinds of routes of administration?

1) Oral = most common 

2) Inhalation = corrosive over time

3)Injection = need for sterlization

4) Body orifices

5) Skin application/patch 

6) Implantable = slow release 

which two countries are fake drugs an issue?
latin america (mexico) and china
which brand has just came out with a cheaper version of viagra?
what is the difference between aspirin and advanced aspirin?
advance aspirin works 6x fast and uses nanos
how do drugs come into the body?
through the capillary beds
Is cholesterol water soluable?
No, it is unsoluable and can only dissolve with hydrocarbon
Which cholesterol is the worst for you: HDL, LDL, or VLDL?
VLDL = trans fatty acids
what is teh chemical structure of steroids/cholesterol?
4 rings (6,6,6,5)
what is the highest selling prescription drug?
Lipitor – cholesterol
which sex is gallstones more prevelant in?
what are the 3 function groups of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid)?
R= carbon , H = halixe, OH = hydrogen and oxygen
what is the most organic compound on the planet?
gulcose (sugar)
what are organic chemicals?
chemicals that contain carbon
What are the critierias for addiction?

1) withdrawl

2)psychological changes 

3) tolerance build up

how is botox used as an analgesic?
it is being used to treat chronic migraines, however it is the most toxi substance known to humans
what happens as we get older?
we lose water, increase fat levels and lose muscle mass
What is BMI and how is it calculated?

Body Mass index : weight in kg/height in m2

ex. 100 kg mass at 2m height 

BMI = 100/4 = 25

healthy range is 20 -26

What is the blood brain barrier? and what drugs can pass more easily?

blood brain barrier is a meberane that seperate blood from the cereprobal spinal fluid


– sat soluable drugs peneterate more easily than water soluble

which drugs can penetrate the blood brain barrier easily?

– tranquilizers

– barbiturates


– narcotics (opioids)

– marijuana

Which molecules stay longer in the body; polar or non polar?
– non polar = THC
what are the 6 main analgesics (pain killers)?

1) aspirin 

2) acetaminophen (tyelnol)

3) Ibuprofen (mortin/advil)

4) Naproxen (aleve)

5)Celebrex & vioxx

What does the term xenobiotic mean?

– a forgien substance to the body

– most drugs, or toxins (pesticides)

– human body must beable to break it down


What enxyme is primarily found in the liver?

Cytochrome P -450 (CYP)

– xenobiotic break down manily due to CYP

What is hyrdolysis?

– adding water may cleave an ester function

ex. alcohol and carboxylic = Aspirin

what is ment by drug half life?
– time needed for inital level of drug in blood to fall 1/2 of this value ( t1/2)
what are the 3 types of drug tolerance?

1) Metabolic: liver makes more enzymes

2) cellular adaptive : tissues do not respond

3) behavioral : user learns to handle drug

what are the two major types of drug – drug interactions?

1) Synergism : 2 drugs act on eachother to enhance effects

2) Barbiturates and alcohol

what is an anit- coagulant?
inhibits the formation of blood clots
how much does 1 grain = in mg?
65 mg
what are the 7 body fluids that drugs target?

1) Intracellular 


3) cerebrospinal 

4)Placental blood supply 

5)Intraocular (inside eye)

6) synovial (inside body joints)

7) Urine

What 5 tissues do drugs target?

1) Muscle 

2) organs

3) Fat 

4) Albumins

5) Bone

drugs are often unequally distrbuted. What are the two barriers of distrubition?

1) Blood brain barrier

2) placenta barrier 

how may the liver handle a drug?

1) changed chemically 

2) chemically linked to a normal body substance 

3) altered to be more soluble in urine

what does induction of microsomal enzymes mean?
– if a person takes heavy doses of barbiturates over many days the liver nezymes may be insufficient to handle detoxification
what are the two parts of the autonomic nervous system?

parasympathetic : relax 

sympathetic : fight or flight 

what are sympathomimetics?
ddrugs that imitat the effects of the sympathetic nervous system (ex. amphetamines)
what are two ways that neurotransmitters can terminate transmission?

– catabolism (enzymes break it down)

– reuptake

what are terms thatend ASE and what end in OSE called ?

ase (enzymes)

ose (sugar)

what are the two types of receptors?

Alpha : relaxation 

Beta : increase in heart activity

what are beta blocker?
beta blockers are used to treat ADHD , cheat pain, and high blood pressure
What is ritalin for? and what does it do?
ritalin is for children with ADD, and it causes a release of dompaine ad norepinephrine
What if the difference between the structure of dompaine and the structure of neropinephrine?
neropinephrine has an OH
Why does L-dopa exists?
COOH is added to dopamine to make L-dopa so it can cross the blood brain barrier
What are the most important neurotransmitters?

1) Acetylcholine * (found in CNS and PNS)


3) Dopamine

What are two other important neurotransmitters?

1)Gaba: major inhibiorty transmitter in brain

2) Serotonin: blood, brain and GI tract


– both related to depression

what are 4 popular anti depressants?

1)Prozac – no longer patent

2)Paxil – PTSD

3)Wellburtin – also cuts smoking cessation

4) Zolfot – can be used for pms


What drugs contain fluorine?
Lipitor, Crestor, Seretide
What is Tryptophan?

an amino acid found in milk and turkey that gets converted into serotonin 


– it is a sleep inducer and or body can not produce it on its own

Does the UN or RCMP encourage SIS’s? ( safe injection sites)
The UN does but NOT RCMP
What is covalent bonding?
a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron paris between atoms
what is laudanum?
mix of alcohol, codiene and morphine
What is tiritium?
element that will radioactively label morphine during a scan
What are 4 kinda of opiod receptors?

– Mu 

– Delta

– Kappa

– Orphan receptor (ORL)

how are codeine and morphine simialr in their chemical structures?
codeine has O CH3 instead of OH
What does chewing on coca help with?
altitude sickness (machu picchu)
which is the most unsatisfying drug ?
what are the personality traits of a heavy user of cocaine?

– ambitious 

– competitive 

-financially well off 

-intolerant of weakness 

what is teh average purity of street cocaine?
which compounds are used to ‘cut; street cocaine?

– Lidocaine 

– Procaine 

what structures are related to cocaine?

– atropine 

– scopolamine

Which country consumes the most about of coffee?
Which country consumes the most amount of alcohol?
Moldava( Czechoslovakia )
what is a teratogen?

factor that causes malformation of the embryo


at what BAC do you reach black out?


and 0.30% = lethal

what BAC are you considered legally drunk in ontario?
hwo long does caffeine last?
3 – 7.5 hrs (usually 3 tho)
can coffee affect the chances of a miscarriage?
2 cups a day = double the chance
how much is too  much coffee?
4 cups (500 – 600mg)
does caffeine effect children differently?


1 cola drink for a child = 4 cups of coffee for an adult

what is taurin?

an acid found in energy drinks that reduc blood pressure and used in body building


structure: 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, major constituent of bile; 1st isolated from ox bile 

How many mg in red bull?
80 mg, about a half a cup of coffee
Does caffeine offset alcohol?
is ‘non’ alcoholic beer actually ‘non’ alcoholic?
No, it can contain as much as 0.5%, and thsi can cause a relapse for addicts
what are congeners?
certain chemical added for flavor, odor and colour to alcohol (gastiritis association)
what alcohols are more likely to give you a hangover?
red wine, brandy, and whiskey
which ethnicty drinks more?
what is the proof of pure eythl?
200 proof
what is denatured alcohol?
chemicals are added to ethyl to ensure that humans can not drik it (ex. acetone)
what is wood alcohol?
methyl: ethyl’s poisonous cousin
does alcohol effect the way we sleep?
Yes, it changes REM
what are delirium trements (DT)?
seirzers and cardovasular collapse that occurs with withdrawal
how is caffiene used medically?
to treet migraines because it acts as a vasodillator (dilates blood)
what are the different carbon “suffix’s ” ?

single = ane (butane)

Double = ene (polystyrene)

Triple = yne (ethyne)

What are teh different prefixes?




Which Alkane has the least amount of Isomers and which has the most?

least = Methane 

Most = Decane 

what are cycloalkanes?
they have 6 C’s (hexagon) = C6H12
where do hydrocrabons come from?
refining petroleum
what are the sub categories of hydrocrabons? (4)

1) Alkanes




what are aromatic compounds?
they conatin one or more benzene ring, and like cyclohexane but 3 double bonds
What is the acetaminophen (tylenol) structure?
Para postion of N -acetyl group on benzen ring
What is teh structure of aspirin?

benzen ring, carboxylic acid, and ester


what is the structure for Ibuprofen(Mortin/Advil)?

 hydrophobic aromatic , 3 C side chain

(carboxylic acid, Benzene ring , isobutyl sidechain)

what is the chemical structure of Naproxne?
what is a beta -phenethylamine?
link for activity in many neurotransmitters, induces a high that is similar to ‘being in love’
how is the structure of epinephrine similar to that of norepinephrine?
no methyl group on N
how is aleve’s (Naproxen) structure simialr to crystal meth?
Aleve has an OH component, that makes it different
PMMA is the laced version of ectasy, how much more toxic is it?
5x more toxic then ectasy
which drug does bath salts resemble structurally?
how much is 1 teaspoon in ml?
A patient brings home a prescription consisting of 200ml of a liquid . The doctor said take 1 teaspoon full 4x a day. how long will the prescription last?

1 teaspoon = 5ml 

5×4 = 25 ml 

200/25 = 10 


prescription will last 10 days

how many grams are in a pound?
454 grams = 1lb
If a dose of  a drug is 25 mg/kg body weight and a patient weighs 176 pounds, how many grams of drugs should he be given?

454 = .454

.454 x 176 = 79.9 kg

79.9 x 25 = 1997mg

.001 x 1997 = 1.997 g

what is an alkoid? where is it obtained? and what are examples?
alkoid = organic molecules that conatin nitrogen and alkaine , found in plants (caffeine, codiene, nictoine)
what are the advantages of oral treatment vs. injection?

oral : painless, no need for sterility, easy administration 

injection: rapid, direct acess , rightaway



why did the FDA state that the combo of aspirin and an antacid is irration?
aspirin is acetylsalicylic acid so using another acid to relieve issue wouldnt work
what happens to CNS, cardio system, and eye during cocaine use?
– increased heart rate, blood pressure increase, euphoria, and dialted pupils
what si the most mind altering drug used in america?
what lead to cold hands and feet when smoking?
constriction of peripheral blood vessels
what is racemixture?

50/50 mixtures or dextrortatory and leorotary optical issomers 


what is antabuse?
a treatment for alcoholics , prevents nausea, and headaches
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