DNA Replication, Transcription, and Translation Study Guide

Nucleotide Structure
Nucleotides are made up of three basic components: a 5-carbon sugar called deoxyribose, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous (nitrogen containing) base.

Watson & Crick
Watson & Crick’s model of DNA was a double helix, in which 2 strands were wound around each other.

Nucleotide
Consists of a sugar, phosphate, and a base.

Nucleotide Image
Circle- phosphate, Pentagon- Sugar, Half Oval- nitrogen base- A,T,G,C

Adenine pairs to?
Thymine

Guanine pairs to?
Cytosine

DNA has?
Deoxyribose sugar

RNA has?
Ribose sugar

RNA has what nitrogen base that DNA doesn’t have?
Uracil

DNA has what nitrogen base that RNA doesn’t have?

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col-md-5 col-lg-5">Thymine

mRNA means?
Messenger RNA

tRNA means?
Transfer RNA

Transcription takes place in the?
Nucleus

In Transcription, A strand of DNA is used as a template to create what?
A strand of mRNA

In Transcription, Within a strand of DNA there are two different types of segments, what are those segments?
Introns and Exons

In Transcription, Introns do not contain what?
genes for proteins (aka “non-coding segments”)

In Transcription, Exon contains what?
genes for proteins

In Transcription, An enzyme called _____ finds the gene that codes for a protein and starts reading it at the “starting point” called the ____
RNA polymerase and promoter

In Transcription, As the RNA polymerase reads the gene, free-floating nucleotides attach together to form a complementary strand of what?
mRNA (A,U,G,C)

Transcription does what to the recipe?
Reads it

Translation does what to the recipe?
Makes it

In Transcription, Every _____ (also known as codon) of mRNA codes for protein building blocks=_____
3 nucleotide bases and Amino Acid

In Translation, mRNA travels to the _____ and attaches to a ____
Cytoplasm and Ribosome

In Translation, The ribosome does what to the mRNA strand?
Reads it

In Translation, tRNA is instructed to an attach amino acid to the mRNA. What is amino acids also known as?
Protein Building Blocks

In Translation, after the tRNA attaches the amino acid to the mRNA it forms a polypeptide chain of amino acids called a?
Protein

List differences between Transcription and Translation.
Transcription: Reads recipe, Takes place in nucleus, DNA–>mRNA, RNA poly, Has Introns & Exons, 3 nucleotides= codon. Translation: Makes recipe, Takes place in Cytoplasm, Amino Acids, Proteins, mRNA–> protein, Ribosome, tRNA

DNA Replication does what?
Copies the recipe, DNA–> DNA

In DNA Rep., mRNA codons is the?
Recipe

What phase of interphase does DNA replicate?
S phase

DNA replicates how?
Semi-conservatively, half the old strand is saved and creates a new complementary strand.

An enzyme called ____ breaks the hydrogen bonds holding the two strands together to “unzip” the DNA.
Helicase

In DNA Rep., As DNA is being unzipped, free- floating ____ are attached to the nitrogenous base on each strand.
Nucleotides

In DNA Rep., Each new strand formed is called the _____ strand to the original strand.
Complement

In protein synthesis practice you do what?
Change original DNA strand to mRNA strand, then figure out the amino acids that the codons form.

List all differences in DNA replication from Transcription and Translation.
DNA Replication: DNA copies itself, replicates in S phase, Replicates semi-conservatively, Helicase unzips DNA, nucleotides attach to nitrogenous bases, forms complement strand, copies the recipe, DNA—>DNA, A,T,G,C

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