DNA Replication, Transcription, and Translation Study Guide

Nucleotide Structure
Nucleotides are made up of three basic components: a 5-carbon sugar called deoxyribose, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous (nitrogen containing) base.
Watson & Crick
Watson & Crick’s model of DNA was a double helix, in which 2 strands were wound around each other.
Nucleotide
Consists of a sugar, phosphate, and a base.
Nucleotide Image
Circle- phosphate, Pentagon- Sugar, Half Oval- nitrogen base- A,T,G,C
Adenine pairs to?
Thymine
Guanine pairs to?
Cytosine
DNA has?
Deoxyribose sugar
RNA has?
Ribose sugar
RNA has what nitrogen base that DNA doesn’t have?
Uracil
DNA has what nitrogen base that RNA doesn’t have?
Thymine
mRNA means?
Messenger RNA
tRNA means?
Transfer RNA
Transcription takes place in the?
Nucleus
In Transcription, A strand of DNA is used as a template to create what?
A strand of mRNA
In Transcription, Within a strand of DNA there are two different types of segments, what are those segments?
Introns and Exons
In Transcription, Introns do not contain what?
genes for proteins (aka “non-coding segments”)
In Transcription, Exon contains what?
genes for proteins
In Transcription, An enzyme called _____ finds the gene that codes for a protein and starts reading it at the “starting point” called the ____
RNA polymerase and promoter
In Transcription, As the RNA polymerase reads the gene, free-floating nucleotides attach together to form a complementary strand of what?
mRNA (A,U,G,C)
Transcription does what to the recipe?
Reads it
Translation does what to the recipe?
Makes it
In Transcription, Every _____ (also known as codon) of mRNA codes for protein building blocks=_____
3 nucleotide bases and Amino Acid
In Translation, mRNA travels to the _____ and attaches to a ____
Cytoplasm and Ribosome
In Translation, The ribosome does what to the mRNA strand?
Reads it
In Translation, tRNA is instructed to an attach amino acid to the mRNA. What is amino acids also known as?
Protein Building Blocks
In Translation, after the tRNA attaches the amino acid to the mRNA it forms a polypeptide chain of amino acids called a?
Protein
List differences between Transcription and Translation.
Transcription: Reads recipe, Takes place in nucleus, DNA–>mRNA, RNA poly, Has Introns & Exons, 3 nucleotides= codon. Translation: Makes recipe, Takes place in Cytoplasm, Amino Acids, Proteins, mRNA–> protein, Ribosome, tRNA
DNA Replication does what?
Copies the recipe, DNA–> DNA
In DNA Rep., mRNA codons is the?
Recipe
What phase of interphase does DNA replicate?
S phase
DNA replicates how?
Semi-conservatively, half the old strand is saved and creates a new complementary strand.
An enzyme called ____ breaks the hydrogen bonds holding the two strands together to “unzip” the DNA.
Helicase
In DNA Rep., As DNA is being unzipped, free- floating ____ are attached to the nitrogenous base on each strand.
Nucleotides
In DNA Rep., Each new strand formed is called the _____ strand to the original strand.
Complement
In protein synthesis practice you do what?
Change original DNA strand to mRNA strand, then figure out the amino acids that the codons form.
List all differences in DNA replication from Transcription and Translation.
DNA Replication: DNA copies itself, replicates in S phase, Replicates semi-conservatively, Helicase unzips DNA, nucleotides attach to nitrogenous bases, forms complement strand, copies the recipe, DNA—>DNA, A,T,G,C