DNA Replication and Structure Study Guide

What is the function of DNA?
DNA stores the genetic instructions of an organism and is used in reproduction to make a new organism with either another organism or alone to make a clone

What are Nucleic acids?
Macromolecules that dictate the amino-acid sequences of proteins and are organized into RNA or DNA.

What are nucleotides and what make them up?
Nucleotides are the units that make nuecleic which are composed of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base

What is the 5-carbon sugar of RNA and what fuses together to form them?
Ribonucleic acids make RNA by fusing together ribose and nucleotides (ribose + nucleotides = ribonucleic acid)

What is the 5-carbon sugar of DNA and what fuses together to form them?
Deoxyribonucleic make up DNA with the fusion of nucleotides and deoxyribose

What is DNA found in?
Two spiraling molecules held tightly together in the double helix.

What two parts of nucleotides come together to form the backbone of the double helix?
The phosphates and the 5-carbon sugar

How do the nitrogen bases form the double helix?
One kind of nitrogen base will fuse together with another kind forming a sort of ladder. Adenine bases fuse with thymine, while guanine can only fuse the cytosine.

What are the fusions of said nitrogen bases called?
Base pairs

What are the differences between DNA and RNA?
RNA is a single strand to DNA’s double helix
RNA’s ribose has one more oxygen than deoxyribose
RNA contains uracil instead of thymine

What are genes?
Genes are units of genetic information that pass from parent to offspring.

What is DNA replication?
The use of half a DNA strands to form a new complete DNA molecules

What is helicase?
Helicase is an enzyme involved in splitting a double helix DNA strand into two DNA strands

What are the three parts of DNA replication and when does it all happen?
DNA replication happens the S phase of Interphase and is split into the binding of enzymes to existing DNA, unwinding of the double helix, and synthesis of new matching strand for each existing strand

What are the places where enzymes bind in chromosomes to allow for DNA synthesis?
Replication origins

What are DNA polymerase?
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of new DNA strands on top of strands cut by helicase

What is the combination of DNA and proteins called

What kinds of nitrogen bases fuse together?
Adenine with Thymine and Guanine with Cytosine.

Explain the tests of the Griffiths Experiments.
A pneumonia s (deadly with protein coating) and r (safe with no coating) was transmitted into cells. A live s-type killed the cell, a live r-type did nothing, a dead s-type did nothing and a fusion of live r-type and dead s-type killed the cell.

What was learned from these experiments?
Dead bacteria somehow transmits a genetic material to live bacteria.

What is this bacterial genetic material transmission called?
Bacterial transformation

What does the prefix phage mean?

Explain the tests in the Hershey and Chase experiments.
A bacteriophage with a radocative protein coat and another with radioactive DNA infected two cells with the radioactive protein coat cell not having any radioactive material, while the radioactive DNA cell had radioactive material.

What does this show?
DNA is some sort of genetic material that was let into the cell and changed the offspring of the infected cell unlike the protein coat, which was left outside the cell.

What did P.A. Levene discover with DNA?
DNA composition and the kinds of nitrogen bases that fuse together.

What are the purines and pyrimidines bases?
Purines, or two ringed bases, are adenine and guanine, while the pyrimidines have one ring and include thymine and cytosine.

Who was credited for the findings in DNA structure and who really committed to the subject the most?
Watson and Cric are credited for the findings in DNA structure, even though Ms. Franklin did most research, however due to her being a women and dying prematurely she was not given the Nobel prize.

What specifically did Watson and Cric get the Nobel prize for?
Finding the double helix

Depends on what and what?
Molecular shape and nucleotides

Base pairing depends on what?
The number of hydrogen bonds that can be formed

What are the three main parts of DNA replication?
1. The binding of enzymes to 3 main parts
2. Unwinding of double helix
3. Synthesis of new matching strand for each existing

What is the replication point
The area where replication begins

Histones are only visible during?

What kind of replication ins DNA replication

DNA fragements are held together by?
DNA ligase

What is the difference of the lagging and leading strand?
The leading strand is contiously replicating with the lagging strand being replicated in small strands

What does DNA replication depend on?
Molecular shape of DNA and its nucleo tides

Base pairing depends on what?
Number of Hydrogen bonds that can be formed

Strands run
5′ to 3′

Adenine pairs with what to have how many hydrogen bonds?
thymine with 2 H bonds

Cytosine pairs with what to have how many hydrogen bonds?
guanine with 3 H bonds

DNA are

Phosphate attaches at?
C5 and C3

Nitrogenous base attach at?

What is the replication fork?
The area where the helicase unzips the two strands

What does RNA primer do?
RNA primer adds nitrogenous bases to the start of the leading strand for a template that DNA polyermase will use

What are Okazaki fragments?
Small sections of the lagging strand DNA where the DNA polyermase and RNA primase have made pairs

What makes up the upright part of the DNA helix?
sugar and phosphates.