District Disaster Management Plan Sindhudurg Flashcard

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District Disaster Management Plan Sindhudurg Updated 2011-12 District Disaster Management Authority, Sindhudurg Disaster Management Programme Govt. of Maharashtra 1 Executive Summary The District Disaster Management Plan is a key part of an emergency management. It will play a significant role to address the unexpected disasters that occur in the district effectively. The information available in DDMP is valuable in terms of its use during disaster. Based on the history of various disasters that occur in the district, the plan has been so designed as an action plan rather than a resource book.

Utmost attention has been paid to make it handy, precise rather than bulky one. This plan has been prepared which is based on the guidelines provided by the National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM). While preparing this plan, most of the issues, relevant to crisis management, have been carefully dealt with. During the time of disaster there will be a delay before outside help arrives. At first, self-help is essential and depends on a prepared community which is alert and informed.

Efforts have been made to collect and develop this plan to make it more applicable and effective to handle any type of disaster. The DDMP developed involves some significant issues like Incident Command System (ICS), India Disaster Resource Network (IDRN) website, the service of National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) in disaster management. In fact, the response mechanism, an important part of the plan is designed with the ICS. It is obvious that the ICS, a best model of crisis management has been included in the response part for the first time.

It has been the most significant tool to the response manager to deal with the crisis within the limited period and to make optimum use of the available resources. Details of inventory resources are given an importance in the plan so that during disaster their optimum use can be derived. The resource inventory, the IDRN is now linked with the website which is vital to cope with the crisis. It will give the detail information to any officer at the time of disaster. He can view the available resources and order them at the time of disaster.

The most necessary equipments, skilled manpower and critical supplies are included in the inventory resources. During disaster, the resources from this website can be ordered without delay which will make the response time lesser. List of medical doctors, control room of various departments, ambulances, blood banks, public health centers, government and private hospitals have been included in this plan. This plan also provides important list of websites, related to meteorology, earthquake, flood, fire, disaster related training institutions, available materials etc.

As a whole, this is a genuine effort of district administration to develop the plan and if you have any suggestions and comments be free to convey the same so that we can include them in the next edition. We are thankful to all the institutions and persons who have provided us the vital information in time. Also some blank space has been provided wherever possible so that any further new information can be included as and when required. (Virendra Singh, IAS) July 2011 District Collector / Chairperson of DDMA Sindhudurg 2 Abbreviations Used in the Document

AIR BIS BSNL CEO CISF CRPF DCR DD DDMA DDMC DDMP DHO DICT DMT DOT DP DRMP EOC FCI GOI GoM IAP ICP ICS ICT IDRN IMD ITI MERI MIDC MPCB MSEDC MSRTC MTDC MWSSB NABARD NCC NDRF All India Radio Bureau of Indian Standards Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited Chief Executive Officer Central Industrial Security Force Central Reserve Police Force District Control Room Doordarshan District Disaster Management Authority District Disaster Management Committee District Disaster Management Plan District Health Officer District level Incident Command Team Disaster Management Team Department of Telecommunication Diversification of Power District Risk Management Programme Emergency Operation Centre Food Corporation of India Government of India Government of Maharashtra Incident Action Plan Incident Command Post Incident Command System Incident Command Team India disaster Response network Indian Meteorological Department Industrial Training Institute Maharashtra Engineering Research Institute Maharashtra Industrial

Development Corporation Maharashtra Pollution Control Board Maharashtra State Electricity Development Corporation Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation Maharashtra Water Supply and Sewerage Board National Agricultural Bank for Rural Development National Cadet Corps National Disaster Response Force 3 NGO NIDM NSS PHC PPPP PWD RCC RDC RTO SDO SOC SOP SP SRP ST TDMP UNDP YASHADA Non Governmental Organization National Institute of Disaster Management National Social Service Public Health Centre Public Private Partnership Programme Public Work Department Reinforced Cement Concrete Resident Deputy Collector Regional Transport Officer Sub Divisional Officer Site Operations Centre Standard Operating Procedure Superintendent of Police State Reserve Police State Transport Taluka Disaster Management Plan United Nation Development Programme Yashwantrao Chavan Academy of Development Administration ZP Zilla Parish 4 Contents 1. 1. 1 Introduction

Background ——————————————————–01 1. 2 Need for Disaster management————————01 1. 3 What is a Disaster? ———————————————–01 1. 3. 1 Hazard—————————————————01 1. 3. 2 Vulnerability—————————————02 1. 3. 3 Disaster Preparedness——————————————02 1. 3. 4 Disaster risk reduction (DRR) ——————————–02 1. 3. 5 Natural hazard———————————–02 1. 4 Worst Disasters in the world————————————02 1. 5 The Indian Scenario——————————-02 1. 6 National Disaster management

Act (NDMA), 2005——————03 1. 7 Sindhudurg——————————————————-03 1. 8 Importance of Multi-hazard Management Plan ————-04 1. 8. 1 The main features of multi-hazard plan——————-04 1. 8. 2 Disaster Management Cycle——————————-04 1. 8. 2. 1 Pre disaster activities—————————05 1. 8. 2. 2 Emergency activities———————————–05 1. 8. 2. 3 Post disaster activities———————————-06 1. 8. 2. 4 Mitigation methods——————————06 1. 9 Objectives of the Plan ——————– ————-06 2. 2. 1 2. 2 2. 3 District Profile

Location and Extent —- ———————–07 Area and Administrative Division ——- ————07 Socio Economic Features ———————07 5 2. 4 2. 5 2. 6 2. 7 2. 8 2. 9 2. 10 2. 11 Major Historical and Religious Centers ———08 River Systems and Dams —————— ———–08 Industries ———————————– —– —09 Power Stations and Electricity Installation———10 Transport and Communication Network ———-10 Education —————————————10 Tourism ——————————11 Geography and Topography —————12 3. 3. 1 3. 2 Hazard and Vulnerability Analysis History of Disasters in Sindhudurg District ——–14 Vulnerability Assessment ——————– ——-17 4. 4. 1 4. 2 4. 3 4. 4. 5 4. 6 Institutional Mechanism District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA) –23 District Disaster Management Committee (DDMC) -24 District Control Room —————————-26 Communication Mechanism ———————-27 Site Operation System during Disaster ———–29 Desk Arrangements in the District Control Room –29 5. 5. 1 5. 2 5. 3 Mitigation Plan Preparedness —————————–31 Mitigation —————————–31 Preparedness and Mitigation Measures ————32 5. 3. 1 General Preparedness Measures ——–32 5. 3. 2 Disaster wise Preparedness Measures ———33 6. 6. 1 6. 2 6. 3 Response Plan

Response Structure during Warning Stage —————–36 Incident Command System ——————-36 Role and Responsibilities of ICS Staff ——————-41 6. 3. 1 Incident Commander ———————41 6. 3. 2 Information Officer ——————–44 6. 3. 3 Liaison Officer ——————————45 6. 3. 4 Safety Officer ————————45 Role and Responsibilities of ICS General Staff ————-46 6. 4. 1 Operations Section Chief —— ———-46 6. 4. 2 Planning Section Chief ————–47 6. 4. 3 Logistics Section Chief ——————–50 6. 4. 4 Finance / Administration Section Chief ———-52 6 6. 4 6. 5 6. 6 6. 7 6. 8 6. 9 6. 10 6. 11 6. 12 6. 13 6. 14 6. 15 6. 16 6. 17

District Search and Rescue Team ——————–53 District Level Medical Team —————–55 Involvement of Defense and Paramilitary forces —— —–56 6. 7. 1 NDRF in Disaster Management ——- —–57 Temporary Shelter Management ———————–57 Relief Management ————— ——-60 Rapid Damage Assessment and Reporting ————62 Communication ——————–63 Law and Order ———————————-63 Public Grievances / Missing Persons Search —– —–63 Animal Care ——————————————64 Management of Deceased ——– ———————64 NGOs and Voluntary Organizations ———64 NSS / NCC Students —————-65 7. 7. 1 7. 2 7. 3 7. 4 7. 5 7. 6 7. 7 7. 8 7. 9 7. 10 7. 11 7. 12 Recovery and Reconstruction Plan

Post Disaster Reconstruction and Rehabilitation ——66 Administrative Relief ———————–66 Reconstruction of Houses Damaged / Destroyed ———-67 Military Assistance —————–67 Medical Care ——–67 Epidemics —————–67 Corpse Disposal ————68 Salvage ———————–68 Outside Assistance ———– ——-68 Special Relief ————————68 Information ———————-68 Social Rehabilitation —————–68 8. Standard Operating Procedures 8. 1 Standard Operating Procedures of various Departments Revenue Department ————————70 8. 1. 1 8. 1. 2 Police Department ————————-72 8. 1. 3 Health Department —————– ——–73 8. 1. 4 Water Supply Department ——————75 8. 1. 5 Irrigation Department —— —————76 8. 1. 6 Agriculture Department ———————–77 8. 1. 7 M. S. E. D. C. —————————–79 8. 1. Public Works Department ——- ———-80 8. 1. 9 Telephone Department ——- —– ——-81 8. 1. 10 Animal Husbandry Department———–83 7 8. 1. 11 State Transport Corporation —————-84 8. 1. 12 Forest Department ————————-87 8. 1. 13 Port Office ———————-88 8. 2. Checklist of Various Departments 8. 2. 1 District Collector ————————–90 8. 2. 2 Police Department ———————–90 8. 2. 3 Health Department ———————–91 8. 2. 4 M. S. E. D. C —————— ———- 91 8. 2. 5 Water Supply —————————92 8. 2. 6 Irrigation ———————————92 8. 2. Telephone Department ——————-93 8. 2. 8 Public Works Department —————93 8. 2. 9 Agriculture ————————93 8. 2. 10 Animal Husbandry ——— ————–94 9. Monitoring, Evaluation and Funds 9. 1 9. 2 9. 3 9. 4 Plan Evaluation ———————- ———95 Plan Update ———— ——————-95 Funds and other Financial Allocations —– ———-96 Linking with the Development Plans ——————96 10. Important Phone Numbers 1. Control Rooms of Major Departments ——————98 2. MP and MLA, Sindhudurg———– —— —98 3. Revenue and Police Control Rooms at Taluka Level ——–99 4.

Key Officers in the District——————————–99 5. Department wise Nodal Officers—————————100 6. List of Deputy Collectors————————–102 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Key Officers of Zilla Parisad, Sindhudurg———-102 Block Development Officers (BDO) ——————103 Tehsildars & RNTs————————————-104 Nagar Parishad Officers———————————105 Dy. Engineer, PWD (Zilla Parisad) ———————-105 Dy. Engineers (Minor Irrigation, ZP) ——————–105 Dy. Engineers (Rural Water Supply, ZP) —————-106 Child Development Project Officers (ZP) ————–106 8 15. 16.

Major District Level Departments & Telephone Nos. —-106 Railway and Bus Stations—————————107 17. Konkan Railways————————————-107 18. List of Govt. Hospital in the District————–107 19. Govt. Ambulance Services—————————–108 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. Private Ambulance Services—————————108 List of Blood Banks——————————–109 Fire Stations—————————————-109 Police Stations———————————–109 List of Private Hospitals in the District—————–109 Municipal Councils——————————-110 26.

List of Private Hospitals——————————110 27. List of Veterinary Hospitals————————–111 28. List of Primary Health Centre————————-111 29. Zilla Parishad Dispensaries————————114 30. Emergency Medical Team—————————-115 31. List of Medicine Stockiest in the District—————-115 32. List of Inflatable Rubber Boat Operators—————–117 33. Volunteers in Flood Prone Villages Trained in Search & Rescue—-120 34. List of Swimmers——————————–122 35. List of Co-operative Societies in the District————-124 36. ICS Glossary——————————————124 37. Resource Inventory IDRN) —————————-125 List of Websites——————————139 9 1. INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Background Natural Disasters are known to mankind before it evolved and will happen afterwards also. It reminds us of a meteorite that had hit the earth which eventually wiped off the entire dinosaurs, million years ago. Today, also we witness them in the form of Earthquake, Floods, Landslides, Cyclones, Wildfires, Avalanches, Cloudburst, Heat and cold waves and the tsunamis (giant tidal waves). Many countries have suffered loss of human lives and damage to property; their economic losses have been in million dollars. Thus, disasters not only kill people, but also have tremendous effect on economy.

It enhances the poverty of an already poor country and makes it impoverish. In disasters, it is the poor and under privileged, who are the worst affected, they tend to lose their shelter, livelihood and become more impoverished. 1. 2 Need for Disaster management Data on disaster occurrence, its effect upon people and its cost to countries, are primary inputs to analyze the temporal and geographical trends in disaster impact. Disaster losses, provide the basis for identifying where, and to what extent, the potentially negative outcomes embedded in the concept of risk is realized. They help to understand where, and to whom, disaster risk becomes impact.

They also provide the basis for risk assessment processes, a departing point for the application of disaster reduction measures. – UN ISDR Development cannot be sustainable unless disaster mitigation is built into development process. Investments in mitigation are more cost effective than expenditure on relief and rehabilitation. Prevention and mitigation contribute to lasting improvement in safety and are essential to integrated disaster management. Disaster response alone is not sufficient as it yields only temporary results at very high cost. So emphasis must be on Disaster prevention, mitigation and preparedness, which help in achieving objectivity of vulnerability reduction. 1. 3 What is a Disaster? A Disaster is a sudden, calamitous event that causes serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human material economic or environmental losses and impacts which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. ” —- UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, (UNISDR) A Disaster is a “Situation or event, which overwhelms local capacity, necessitating a request to national or international level for external assistance; an unforeseen and often sudden event that causes great damage, destruction and human suffering”. —– Centre for Research of Epidemiology of Disaster (CRED), Belgium 1. 3. Hazard: is a natural physical event which has a potential to convert into a disaster, causing widespread injury or deaths and damage to public or private property or the environment. 1. 3. 2 Vulnerability: means inability to resist a hazard or respond when a disaster has occurred. It depends on several factors such as people’s age and state of health, local environmental and sanitary conditions, as well as on the quality and state of local buildings and their location with respect to any hazards. — UNISDR 10 1. 3. 3 Disaster Preparedness Pre-disaster activities that are undertaken within the context of disaster risk management and are based on sound risk analysis.

This includes the development/enhancement of an overall preparedness strategy, policy, institutional structure, warning and forecasting capabilities, and plans that define measures geared to helping at-risk communities safeguard their lives and assets by being alert to hazards and taking appropriate action in the face of an imminent threat or an actual disaster. — Office of Commissioner for Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) 1. 3. 4 Disaster risk reduction (DRR), attempts to look back at the root causes of risks and vulnerabilities in a society, state, town or even a single household. Factors can be broad or specific, depending on the scope of risk and vulnerability assessments. 1. 3. Natural hazard: Natural process or phenomenon that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage. The Natural disasters were split into 3 specific groups: 1. Hydro-meteorological disasters: Floods and wave surges, storms, droughts and related disasters (extreme temperatures and forest/scrub fires), and landslides & avalanches; 2. Geophysical disasters: Earthquakes & tsunamis and volcanic eruptions; 3. Biological disasters: Epidemics and insect infestations. 1. 3. 6 Man made disasters Disasters due to human activities could be unintentional, but lack of safety measures and abiding by certain safety rules and regulations, . Most of these (barring coordinated terrorist activities) are due to certain accidents.

Terrorism, Bomb blast, Wars, Riots, technology related, Accidents (Road, Ship, Air), Chemical and Nuclear, Industrial accidents etc. 1. 4 Worst Disasters in the world 1. Bam earthquake, Iran, Dec 2003, magnitude 6. 6 and 26,271 dead, 30,000 injured 2. South Asian tsunami, Dec 2004, magnitude 9. 3 and 230,000 dead in 14 nations, 125000 injured, 45,752 missing and 1. 69 million homeless 3. Sichuan earthquake, China, May 2008, magnitude – 7 and 8 69,195 dead, 18,392 homeless and 374,643 injured and 115 billion dollars loss 4. Haiti earthquake, Jan 2010, magnitude 7 and 150,000 dead, 300,000 injured and 100 million dollars loss 5. Pakistan floods, Jul 2010 — 2,000 dead, 20 million affected and loss of 43 billion dollars 6.

Japan tsunami, Mar 2011, magnitude 9 and 15,188 dead, 5,337 injured, 8,742 missing and loss of 300 billion dollars 1. 5 The Indian scenario India has been vulnerable to many disasters in the past both natural and man made. Nearly, 60% of the landmass is prone to earthquake, 8% for cyclones (east and west coast) and 68% for drought. Some of them are mentioned below along with number of people dead and the economic losses incurred. A. Natural disasters in India 1. Latur earthquake, Sept. 1993, magnitude 6. 4 and 20,000 dead and 30,000 injured 11 2. Orissa super cyclone, Oct 1999, 15,000 dead 275,000 homes destroyed and 8,119 injured and 4. 9 billion dollars loss 3. Gujarat earthquake, Jan 2001, magnitude 7. and 20,000 dead and 167,000 injured and 400,000 homes destroyed and 5. 5 billion dollars loss 4. South Asian Tsunami, Dec 2004, magnitude 9. 3 and 12,405 dead, 5,640 missing and 647,599 homeless. 5. Cyclone Aila, 25 May 2009, 325 dead and 8,000 missing, one million homeless and loss of 552. 6 million dollars and 7,000 infected with diarrhea due to floods B. Man made disasters in India 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Bhopal gas tragedy, Dec1984 and 3,787 dead and 558,125 affected with disabling injuries. Gujarat riots, Mar 2002 Serial bomb blast, Mumbai, Mar1993 Bomb blast in suburban trains, Mumbai, Jul 2006 Terrorist attack, Mumbai, Nov 2008 Air plane accident, Mangalore, May 2010

Thus, we can notice that most of the disasters have occurred within the last two decades, and the frequency, intensity and magnitude of the disasters are ever increasing. 1. 6 National disaster management (NDMA) Act, 2005 The National emergency management authority was constituted in Aug 1999, which submitted a report in 2001, to have separate department for Disaster management in India Government enacted the National disaster management act on 23rd Dec 2005, which lead to the creation of National disaster management authority (NDMA). Nodal ministries responsible for various categories of disasters 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Earthquakes and Tsunami Floods Cyclones Drought Biological Disasters Chemical Disasters Nuclear Disasters Air Accidents Railway Accidents 10.

Terrorism, bomblast, Riots MHA/Ministry of Earth Sciences/IMD MHA/Ministry of Water Resources/CWC MHA/Ministry of Earth Sciences/IMD Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Ministry of Environment & Forests Department of Atomic Energy Ministry of Civil Aviation Ministry of Railways Ministry of Home Affairs 1. 7 Sindhudurg Sindhudurg is one of the disaster prone districts in Maharashtra having 121 kms. coastal line. Occasional Cyclones (Cyclone Phyan in Nov 2009), Floods are more common especially in Malvan, Kudal, Sawant wadi,Vengurla, Dogad and Kankavli due to overflowing rivers. Land slides are frequent especially in the ghats (Amboli, Karool, Phonda), Road accidents are frequent on Mumbai Goa highway (National highway no. 7) and due to hair pin bends there are many accident spots identified and Rail accidents along the Konkan rail, mostly during the monsoon due to landslide (In Vaibhav wadi near Kharepatan tunnel in Jun 2003) and lastly due to heavy rain and wind incidents of tree falling are observed. The present Disaster Management Program which has been implementing by the Government of Maharashtra aims to minimize the risk caused by unexpected disasters in the district. The Disaster Management Program exclusively works for developing the disaster management plans, providing trainings, and strengthening the capacity of the different Disaster Management Teams (DMTs) and creating awareness among public on various disasters.

As it is said that, plan development is one of the vital objectives of this project much more attention has been paid by the district administration to develop the plan so that it will 12 be more useful to handle the disasters timely in future. Therefore, genuine efforts have been dedicated to develop the District Disaster Management Plan (DDMP). Disaster Management has comprehensive cycle that includes preparedness, response, recovery and reduction phases. Based on this cycle, the response part is addressed with Incident Command System, (ICS) a best management tool, and linked with resource inventory connected to website India Disaster Resource Network, www. idrn. gov. in (IDRN). In fact, ICS and IDRN make it more effective.

Above all, this plan will be a true guide to a disaster manager at district level, since it provides all necessary information required for timely and effective response to any unexpected disaster. Being a coastal district Sindhudurg is largely prone to cyclones and flash floods. Considering this situation, the District Disaster Management Plan (DDMP) has been developed and covered all relevant information related to human resources, equipments and critical supplies. 1. 8 Importance of Multi-hazard Management Plan It is apparent that this district is prone to natural disasters such as floods, cyclones, landslides etc. Also, it cannot ignore the man-made disasters.

So the district plan is designed as per the present need and the major strategies to respond to any unexpected situation have also been considered. In the multi-hazard district plan, all the disasters will be handled properly following the given response mechanism, like ICS, use of resource inventory, Standard Operating Procedures (SOP), keeping coordination with the line agencies and proper community based awareness activities. SOP of line departments is designed to make them alert. It highlights their role and responsibilities during, after and normal time of the disaster. 1. 8. 1 The main features of multi-hazard plan are: 1. It gives importance to all the disasters equally and helps to mitigate the situation beforehand. 2.

All the departments are assigned with their proper role and responsibilities, which are clearly indicated in the SOPs. 3. The District administration has to be alert round the year as disasters may occur any time, anywhere in the district, irrespective of time and location. 1. 8. 2 Disaster Management Cycle In multi-hazard response plan, the disaster management cycle has a significant role to play. The four stages of disaster cycle have their own importance in terms of their implementation during, after and before the occurrence of any disaster. 13 Disaster Event Preparedness Planning Training Capacity building Emergency Response Immediate relief Search and Rescue First Aid R I S K M A N A G E M E N T Prevention

D I S A S T E R C Y C L E C R I S I S M A N A G E M E N T Recovery Restoration Rehabilitation Reconstruction Mitigation Vulnerability and risk assessment Structural Non structural Development 1. 8. 2. 1 Pre disaster activities 1. 2. 3. 4. Policy development and National, State, district, local level disaster organization formation Vulnerability and capacity assessment Prevention and mitigation Preparedness, planning and training 1. 8. 2. 2 Emergency activities 1. Warning (beginning before the actual event) 2. Evacuation, search and rescue 3. Emergency assistance (relief) – food, water, shelter, medical aid 1. 8. 2. 3 Post disaster activities 1.

Repair and restoration of life lines (power, telecommunications, water transportation) 2. Reconstruction and rehabilitation 1. 8. 2. 4 Mitigation methods 14 i) Structural measures: Any physical construction to reduce or avoid possible impact of hazards, which include engineering measures and construction of hazard-resistant and protective structures and infrastructure. — NDMA (2005) ii) Non structural measures: Non engineered measures to reduce or avoid possible impacts of hazards such as education, training and emergency planning, capacity development, general public awareness, early warning system, hazard vulnerability risk analysis, communication mechanism etc. — NDMA (2005) 1. 9 Objectives of DDMP 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

To prevent loss of human life and property damage To study, analyze and evaluate the disasters To identify the vulnerable locations and do the vulnerability and risk analysis To improve preparedness, prevention and mitigation at district level To ascertain the status of existing resources and facilities available To recommend appropriate strategies and responses to deal with future disasters 15 2. DISTRICT PROFILE 2. 1 Location and Extent The earlier Ratnagiri district was divided into two districts, Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg on 1st May 1981 for the industrial and agriculture development of the southern part of the Konkan division. Sindhudurg District is located at the southwest corner of Maharashtra state along with the western coast in the Konkan region. It is one of the six districts in the Konkan Division along with Ratnagiri, Raigad, Thane, Mumbai and Mumbai Suburban.

It lies between latitudes 15° 40’ to 16° 40’ north and 73° 20’ to 74° 10’ east longitudes. The district headquarter is at Oras Budruk which lies on the Mumbai Goa Highway and is well connected by bus routes to the state capital, Mumbai and other major towns in Maharashtra. The state capital of Mumbai is 550 kms to the north of this district, while Kolhapur is 160 kms to the east, Ratnagiri 192 kms to the north and Panaji, the capital of Goa is 80 kms to the south. 2. 2 Area and Administrative Division Sindhudurg district covers an area of 5207 km. For administrative convenience, it has been divided into 2 sub divisions. Total Talukas – 8, Total Gram Panchayats – 430 Total Revenue villages –235, Total No.

Of Villages – 746, Urban Local Bodies – 4 sn 1 2 Name of the Sub- Talukas division Sawantawadi Sawantawadi, Kudal, Vengurla and Dodamarg Kankavli Kankavli, Malawan, Deogad and Vaibhavwadi Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Taluka Sawantwadi Kudal Kankavali Vengurla Malvan Deogad Dodamarg Vaibhavwadi Total No. of Gram Panchayat 63 69 63 29 63 74 34 35 430 No. of Revenue Villages 32 36 35 26 40 33 13 20 235 No. of Villages 84 124 104 83 136 97 57 61 746 2. 3 Socio Economic Features The total geographical area of the district is 5207 km consisting of 1. 69% of the total area of the state. Area wise, Sawantwadi is the largest tahsil having an area of 1343. 9 sq. km. Followed by Kudal 819. 5 sq. km.

While Vaibhavwadi is the smallest tahsil with an area of 417. 7 sq. km. 16 2. 3. 1 Demographics Total population Total male Total female Total literacy rate Female literacy Total families Schedule Caste families Schedule tribe families Total BPL families 8,48,868 4,16,695 4,32,173 86. 57 % 79. 73 % 1,92,666 38,536 4,952 63,628 2. 4 Major Historical and Religious Centres Kunkeshwar Dewasthan (Deogad), Sindhudurg Fort (Malvan), Bharadi fair (Aanganyachiwadi, Malvan), Bhavai fair (Sonurli, Sawantwadi), Ghodemukh fair (Sawantwadi), Datta Mandir (Patgaon, Deogad). 2. 5 River Systems and Dams There are six major rivers in the district. 1. Vaghothan 2. Sukhnadi 3. Tillari 4. Karli 5. Gadnadi 6. Terekhol 1.

The Vaghothan river has a course of about 48 kms from the Shivgad pass to it’s mouth which is protected by the Deogad promontory from the south. 2. Gad River flows in a southwesterly course from the Sahyadris and joins the sea 3 miles north of Malvan. 3. Karli river is also known as Sarambal in the upper reaches and as Karli only at its mouth. 4. Terekhol in its upper reaches is known as Banda river and in the lower reaches as Terekhol. Sn 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Name of the Dam Tillari Talamba Deoghar Nardawe Sarambal Aruna Shirshinge Tarandale Dendonwadi Shivdav Otav Talere Nadhavade Nirukhe Name of the River Tillari Karli Deoghar Gad Terekhol Aruna Vaghotan Terekhol Gad Gad Achara Khandara Vaghotan Karli

Size Large Large Medium Medium Medium Medium Small Small Small Small Small Small Small Small Status Complete Incomplete Incomplete Incomplete Incomplete Incomplete Incomplete Incomplete Incomplete Complete Incomplete Incomplete Incomplete Incomplete 17 There are some other rivers such as Kalne river, Ianavali river, Kasal river, Kharepatan river, Kalaval river, Karli and Redi creek. The following is the list of major dams in Sindhudurg district regarding their location, size and status. 2. 6 Industries There are 2587 industries situated in 3 Industrial Estates viz. 1. M. I. D. C. , Kudal 2. Industrial Estate, Kudal 3. Industrial Estate Majgaon, Tal.

Sawantwadi The main industries are Plastic Engineering, Aluminium, Cashew Processing, Oil Paints, Cement Pipes. One Pig Iron Factory is run by Tata Metallics at Redi. Details of the Industrial Estates given below Name of the Estate No. of No. of major industries hazardous and polluting industries M. I. D. C. area, 161 Nil Kudal, Pinguli, Nerur 28 Nil Udyamnagar, KudalSawantwadi road At post 58 Nil Majgaon, Tal. Sawantwadi. Location Total work force 1419 M. I. D. C. Kudal Kudal Co-operative Industrial Estate, Kudal Industrial Majgaon, Sawantwadi Estate, Tal. 168 1000 2. 7 Power Stations and Electricity Installations There are 18 power stations in the district. Electrification was made in 4 towns and 741 villages.

Name of the List of Power Taluka Station Sawantwadi Sawantwadi, Amboli, Malewad, Sasoli, Bhedshi Kankavli Kankavli, Kharepatan, Asalde, Phonda Malvan Kumbharmath, Masure Kudal Kudal, Oros, Mangaon Name of Taluka Deogad List of Power Station Wada, Tale Bazar Vengurla Vengurla Vaibhavwadi Vaibhavwadi 18 2. 8 Transport and Communication Network Konkan Railway from Kharepatan to Goa passes through this district and covers 101 kms. The total length of National Highway in the district is 107. 91 km whereas the State Highway and ZP road also access to the whole district. Almost all parts of the district are connected by ST bus service. Post office and telephone services are already available in each and every part of the district. 2. 9 Education Sindhudurg district has a good educational infrastructure.

Its literacy rate indicates that the basic education facility is accessed to each and every corner of the district. Besides it also has medical, engineering, polytechnic, and training institutes, which help the youths here to be its beneficiaries. Particulars Number Particulars Number Total Primary 1448 Total higher 43 School secondary schools Total Secondary 207 +1 (at Sangeli with College 10 School CBSE syllabus) Total ITI’s 3 Total Engineering 1 College Total Medical 2 Colleges 2. 10 Tourism Sindhudurg District has been designated as a Tourism District and special initiatives have proposed. The state government has undertaken the development of tourist centres as follows:2. 10. 1 Scenic Temples 1.

Bharadidevi (14 km from Malvan) :Is a godess of Anganewadi where she has occurred in a self existant rock form. It is believed that when a person asks for a favor goddess fulfills it. Annual fair of this goddess is witnessed by large number of devotees. 2. Rawool Maharaj Mutt (3. 5 km from Kudal): A potent saint of Konkan who sacrificed himself for the welfare of the society. Later he self immolated himself at Pinguli where mutt stands in his name. 3. KunkeshwarTemple (19 km from Devgad): The nature has bestowed beauty by placing this temple on the bank of Arabian Sea. The original Hemadpanthy architectural style temple is believed to be built by one Arabian businessman. 4.

Datta Mandir (14 km from Kudal): Birthplace of Paramhans Pariwajakacharya Vasudevanand Saraswati alias Tembyeswami who has left rich treasure of philosophy written in form of granthas. 5. Mahalaxmi Temple (18 km from Kudal): At Narur this temple is located at the bottom of Ranganagad fort. Trekkers seek blessings of goddess Mahalaxmi before moving upwards towards Ranganagad. 6. Vetoba Temple (14 km from Vengurla): Vetal the king of ghosts is considered as watchmen of Aravali village, which is blessed by spectacular seashore. 7. Hiranyakeshi (3 km from Amboli): Scenic place of worship dedicated to Lord Shiva. Where pilgrims gather in large numbers during Mahashivratri. The Hiranyakeshi River originates from this place. 2. 10. 2 Natural Ports 1. Vengurla: Set within the magnificent natural harbour.

This sleepy little town is renowned for its historic building Dutch Wakhar (a factory) and heritage Sagar Bunglow 2. Malvan Jetty: Is a home of fishing trawlers. A short boat ride from this jetty takes you to the Sindhudurg fort. been 19 3. Sarjekot (4 km from Malvan): This port is a scenic splendor on the mouth of Talashil Creek. Sarjekot received its name from Sarjekot fort constructed by Shivaji Maharaj in 1668. 4. Redi (21 km from Vengurla): The old anchor Revati port area is the nicest spot for picnics in Sindhudurg. The historic significance of this place is Yashwantgad fort and self existent Lord Ganesh who attracts large number of devotees. 5. Devgad: Is a natural harbour and a well-guarded port town named after Devgad fort.

Marathas valiant naval commander was instrumental in erecting this elegant looking fort. 2. 10. 3 Historic Forts 1. Sindhudurg Fort: On a low island and about a mile from the Malvan’s shore, this fort is said to be a pride of Maratha glory. Palm and footprints of great king also preserved here on a dried lime slab in a tower. 2. Rangnagad (20 km from Kudal): At an altitude of 2600 ft. Ranganagad is a trekkers delight. 3. Vijaydurg (31 km from Devgad): Pre Shivaji period fort erected during Adilshah’s regime. Shivaji captured this fort in 1653 & restored its dignity. 2. 10. 4 Important Beaches 1. Tarkarli Beach (8 km from Malvan): Considered as a queen of Sindhudurg’s beaches.

The miles long stretch of delighting cajurina plantations and unique rural cottages lined up in dunes impresses upon a visitor to make halt at this beach. 2. Nivati Beach (25 km from Vengurla): Fishermen seen launching their traditional boats and nets daily into the sea is an interesting feature to watch on this beach. 3. Mochemad Beach (9 km from Vengurla): In a settlement of fishermen this beach attracts tourists by its breathtaking scenery. 4. Shiroda Beach (19 km from Vengurla): This Cajurina fringed beach of Velagar is a feast for the eyes of the visitors. 2. 10. 5 Luring Waterfalls 1. Saitavade Fall (27 km from Devgad): Rapidly flows through the cracks of curious black rocks of Padaghar.

This fall has produced scenic pool at the base. Mirror like water rushing over the rocks is a delight for photographers. 2. Napane Waterfall (16 km from Talere highway junction): Here you can explore the secret of cascading water by reaching close to the spot from where the water emerges from the sedimentary rocks in the form of bubbles. 3. Nangartas Fall (12 km from Amboli): When you arrive at this fall walk cautiously at the edge of the drop off. Stand on the erected platform for viewers and let your eyes follow the sound of falling water into the cavity of the rocks. 4. Chorla Fall: Yet another beautiful waterfall in the picturesque mountain of Sahyadri.

To view this fall one has to reach Virdi a village of Dodamarg taluka situated on the Maharashtra – Karnataka border. 2. 10. 6 Hill Resorts 1. Dajipur (30 km from Kankavali): The luxuriant forest of Dajipur near the backwater of Radhanagari dam is a natural habitat to large population of wild animals. Indian bison is a star attraction of this reserve. 2. Amboli (30 km from Sawantwadi): The pristine beauty of this eco friendly hill station offers more to the visitor’s then traditional summer beach holiday. Numerous viewpoints, botanical garden, flora and fauna, silence of wilderness and countless streams of milky waters in the rainy season. 20 2. 11 Geography and Topography A. Housing Pattern

The houses built in the district are of sloping roofs as the rain water should drain off. There are also R. C. C. buildings constructed in this area. In rural areas, mostly the houses are of mud or brick walls. There are also some pacca houses in the rural areas. B. Landholding Pattern Sindhudurg district is a part of the Konkan division and enjoys a coastline with the Arabian Sea. Sawantwadi, Kudal and Vaibhavwadi talukas are situated in the hilly area, which covers about 85% of the district. Predominant soil type is typically reddish laterite soil. Two types of laterite – Primary or Insitu and Secondary or Transported. The details of land use statistics are given below.

Land Use Category Built up land Agricultural land Forest land Waste land Other fallow, water bodies, rivers Total C. Livelihood & Occupation Details Most of the people here are engaged in farming and related occupations. Horticulture is the main source of earning. Most of the people are also engaged in private and governmental jobs. Area Hectares 6,000 2,18,000 39,156 2,48,000 9,544 5,20,700 In Percentage to total geographical area 1. 15% 41. 87% 7. 52% 47. 63% 1. 83% 100% D. Agriculture and Major Crops The main kharif and rabbi crop is paddy. Most of the kharif cropping season is June to October. Now most of the land is under horticulture use. ALPHONSO mango, known as the king of the mangoes hails from this district.

It is the major foreign exchange earner for the district. The major cash crops are mango, cashew and coconut. E. Climate and Weather The climate of the district is typical of the Konkan coastal area and is hot and humid in the summers and mild in winters. The average maximum and minimum temperatures recorded are 33. 2 and 15. 3 degree Celsius respectively. 21 F. Rainfall The rainfall is quite heavy during the months of June to September due to the southwest monsoon winds. The total annual rainfall is 3045. 4 mm, the average rainfall is 2750 mm and maximum average rainfall is 1094. 37 mm in July. March, April, May are the months of water scarcity. 22 3. HAZARD AND VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS

This chapter largely deals with the disasters that Sindhudurg district experienced. Based on this, the vulnerability assessment of people and their income sources, infrastructure, crops, livestock resources, drinking water supply, daily necessities, communication and transportation system, public distribution, medical facilities and other elements has been done so that such elements can be safely shifted to, or to be taken care of before any unexpected disaster or during the disasters. This is the most important part of the plan. Vulnerability assessment deals with the socio-economic vulnerability, housing vulnerability and environmental vulnerability. 3. 1 History of Disasters in Sindhudurg District

Sindhudurg district is situated in the coastal region and having a proximity to Arabian Sea. This district has a high amount of rainfall primarily because of the clouds of the southwest monsoon winds are blocked at the Sahyadri mountains and so shed a lot of rain on the eastern side of the Western Ghat scarp. This leads to very high rainfall in the foothills of the Sahyadris on the Konkan side with most of the Konkan rivers having their origin in the runoff from the steep mountain slopes. Such a heavy rainfall causes largely flash floods, and occasionally landslides, road accidents. The rainfall statistics for the Sindhudurg district for the year 2006 are as follows:Total Annual Average Rainfall 3045. mm Months during which maximum rainfall occurs July, August Taluka wise total average rainfall from 1st June 2006 to 31st October 2006 in mm Taluka Dodamarg Sawantwadi Vengurla Kudal Kankavli Malvan Deogad Vaibhavwadi Average Rainfall 3485 4511 2324 2153 3214 1994 2497 4185 3045. 38 Remarks Phonda receives Ghat more In the following talukas, some villagers were temporarily shifted to safe places due to the flood situation in the year 2005 & 2009. But there was no rehabilitation. Taluka Village No. of No. of Safe Shelter Familie peopl for evacuated s e victims 18 93 82 229 Relatives Place Primary School Kudal Pavshi Sheltewadi Chendwand Maliwadi 23

Sarambale Deogad Dhalawli Manche Sawantwadi Banda Insuli Sherle 27 2 2 9 6 14 93 7 10 10 15 57 Relatives Place Relatives Place and Z. P. School Relatives Place and Z. P. School Relatives Place and Z. P. School Relatives Place and Z. P. School Relatives Place and Z. P. School The major calamities, which the district administration in Sindhudurg district has to face, are floods in the major rivers and road accidents on the Mumbai- Konkan – Goa Highway. Due to this, various disasters occur whose details have been given below:A. Flood Flash floods bring about disasters. As expressed above there was a critical situation in some parts of the district during 2005-06 floods.

Most of the rivers were overflowing and there was a loss of life and property. The river water entered the standing crops and the farmers suffered a huge loss. Most of the livestock also was flown away in this flood. Some people were shifted to safe shelters but there was no rehabilitation. B. Road and Rail Accidents There is a good network of pucca and kaccha road in the district with 582. 55 km of state highway and 2416. 20 km Zilla Parishad roads. About 107 km of the National Highway Mumbai-Konkan-Goa passes through this district and has considerable transport of hazardous materials which are offloaded at Marmagoa harbour in Goa and transported to Mumbai and places in Maharashtra.

The information from the police and RTO reveals that road accidents take place on this highway, which are related to tankers carrying hazardous materials. No road site settlements and villages are affected by these accidents. Konkan railway started running in the district on 20th Jan 1997. Its network is about 103 km. in Sindhudurg district. For this project nearly 800 hectares of land was occupied. There are two tunnels one at Vaibhavwadi and the other at Kharepatan. There are six railway stations such as 1. Sawantwadi 2. Kudal 3. Sindhudurg 4. Kankavali 5. Nandgaon 6. Vaibhavwadi. It proves to be a great boon to the people here as their time and money is saved as they travel to Mumbai and other places of the country.

Also the perishable goods for which Konkan is famous such as Alphonso mangoes, jackfruits, cashews, fish can be supplied to far away places. 24 A railway accident occurred in the year 2003 in the monsoon season near Berle,Vaibhavwadi when the 904 Karwar – Mumbai Central derailed in which 52 passengers died and many were injured. So, to cope with such disasters in the future some safety measures must be followed. C. Landslides Due to heavy rain some parts of the district experienced landslides along with tree collapse leading to the human loss. Landslides largely occur in three major hill stations and make troubles in movement of vehicles on both National and State Highways. So, it is a regular event, which cannot be ignored in disaster management plan.

Locations prone to landslides in this district are : Amboli Ghat on Sawantwadi-Amboli-Belgaum Road State Highway No. 112. Phonda Ghat on Kankavli – Phonda – Ratnagiri – Kolhapur Road State Highway No. 116. Karul Ghat-Gagan Bavada-Kolhapur Road State Highway No. 115 D. Earthquake Though Sindhudurg district has no earlier history of earthquakes still it comes under the seismic zone III. There was no loss in Kankavli, Sawantwadi, Malvan and Vengurla due to the Killari earthquake of 1993. In Deogad taluka, a loss of 6 houses in the village Jambhavade took place causing loss of Rs. 600/- and in Vaibhavwadi taluka Rs. 400/- of a house in the village Kolpe in earthquake of Killari and Umarga in 1993.

The proximity of the Western Ghat Fault Scarp and evidences of neo tectonic activities in the Konkan area point to the earth movements in the recent past and the possibility of an earthquake cannot be ruled out. There is no history of earthquakes in this district earlier. 3. 2 Vulnerability Assessment A. Flood and Cyclones Based on the previous history, Sindhudurg district has an unexpected rainfall and flash flood followed by landslides and road accidents. This district receives high amount of rainfall during the rainy season. As a result most of the rivers get excess water and experience floods. This heavy rainfall also results in landslides in isolated areas characterized by steep slopes. 25 The major rivers where flood comes at least once a year are: 1. Waghotan 2. Sukhnadi 3. Tillari 4. Karli 5. Gad Nadi

Apart from flood, tidal waves may affect the villages close to the Arabian Coast during cyclone and Tsunami. Flood in 2005 affected almost the whole district by and large. The estimated loss resulted by this flood was more than 9 crores. Identified Flood Prone Villages Taluka – Sawantwadi Gram Panchayat Flood Prone No. of Red Zone River / dam village/wadi families / or Blue khadi persons to Zone be affected Dhuriwadi Bilewadi Kudavtemb Bazar Aali Nimajagawadi Tulsanpulwadi Kapaiwadi Dukanwadi Joshiwadi Aaronda Kinle Kavthani Varchiwadi Rayache Ped Satose 20 6 3 5 14 10 5 Terekhol Insuli Banda Terekhol Sherle Talawade Aaronda Kinle Kavthani Satarda Satose Terekhol Hodawada Terekhol Terekhol Terekhol Terekhol Terekhol Terekhol

Taluka – Malvan Gram Panchayat Ghumade Dhamapur Achare Flood Prone Families/persons Red or River / dam village/wadi to be affected blue Zone khadi Vastwadi Pethewadi Achare Varchiwadi Parwadi Hilewadi Gaudwadi Dongrewadi Pirawadi Jamdul Kumbharwadi Gaonthanwadi Aparajwadi 20 26 Karli Achara Chindar Nagochiwadi Chindar Bhatwadi Sadewadi Palkarwadi Terai Bhagwantgad Vaingani Tondawali Hadi Gaonkarwada Juwapankhol 5 – Kalaval, Gad Vaingani Tondawali Hadi Kalaval Kalaval Kh di Kalaval Kothewadi Kandalgaon Shemad Ranewadi Kandalgaon Mahan Mahan Kolamb Kolamb Rewandi Rewandi Sarjekot Masure – Uslatwadi Dangmode Shekalwadi Bandivade – Budruk Budhawale – Kudopi Bandivade Bazarwadi Malawadi Budhavale Maleshetwadi Taluka – Kankavali Gram Panchayat Flood Prone No. f Red River / village/wadi families / Zone or dam khadi persons to be Blue affected Zone Patelwadi Malayewadi Rawoolwadi Mangarwadi Otoswadi Chinchalwadi 47 11 41 36 83 33 Shivdav Shivdav 27 Taluka – Vaibhavwadi Gram Panchayat Flood Prone No. of village/wadi families / persons to be affected Nadhawade Sardarwadi Napane 575 448 825 Red River / dam Zone or khadi Blue Zone Nadhawade Nadhawade Taluka – Deogad Gram Panchayat Flood Prone No. of Red Zone River / dam village/wadi families / or Blue khadi persons to be Zone affected Mutat Muslimwadi Muslimwadi Malpewadi Morve Poire 15 5-6 Vijaydurg Khadi Vijaydurg Khadi Vijaydurg Khadi Vijaydurg Khadi Achara Khadi Achara Khadi Mutat Manche Dhalawali Malpe Morve Poire Taluka – Kudal Gram Panchayat Flood Prone No. f families Red River village/wadi / persons to be Zone or dam affected Blue khadi Zone Borbhati Bav- Dewoolwadi Bambuli Nehrunagar Chendwan Malewadi Sarambal Bhatiwadi 26 5 – – 94 – 20 Karli Karli Karli Karli Karli / Pawshi Bav Bambuli Chendwan Sarambal Taluka – Vengurla 28 Gram Panchayat Flood Prone No. of village/wadi families / persons to be affected Kavdaswadi Kasturwadi – River / dam Red Zone or khadi Blue Zone Hodawada Tulas Hodawada Flood prone villages are not demarcated as Red zone or Blue zone but the work is in progress. Most of the areas in the district are flood prone and therefore there is a danger to human life, livestock and property.

The people living in kaccha mud houses are more vulnerable to flood. Here most of the people are engaged in agriculture therefore standing crops may be destroyed. Old people, pregnant women, disabled persons are highly vulnerable. They have to be shifted to safe shelters. It is estimated that the above 85 villages are vulnerable to floods and cyclones. The main elements that are vulnerable are the people staying near riversides, poor people, children, old people and ailing people. The houses and the belongings of such people will be damaged. As the main occupation of the people here is agriculture, their crops will be washed away. That is they will lose their livelihood.

The main infrastructures, communication system will be disturbed. Sources of drinking water will become impure. Necessary steps will have to be taken to restore the same. Tidal Wave Prone Villages / Wadis Taluka Vengurla Gram Panchayat Redi Vengurla Nivti Tidal Wave prone Village / Wadi Velagar Kerawade Kurlewadi Navabag Kelus – Kalwibandar Bhogave to Newalewadi Kille – Nivti to Dungoba Devasthan Nivti – Medha Malvan Malvan Talashi Tondavali to Waingani Devbag – Mobarwadi Tarkarli Dandi Vayri Dandi to Dhuriwada Rajkot to Medha Rajkot to Sarjekot 29 Achara Waingani to Tondavali (Middle Part) Pirachiwadi to Jamdool Morve to Tambaldeg Deogad Deogad

Taramumbari Mith Mumbari Anandwadi Deogad Killa Jamsande Wadatar Mallai Vijaydurg Kharepatan The villages near the three coastal talukas will suffer a lot during high tide, cyclone, storm, etc. The fishermen living in these areas lose their livelihood. They do not get the danger warnings in time. Most of the land near the seacoast gets eroded and submerged into the sea every year. B. Road Accidents About 107 km of the National Highway Mumbai-Konkan-Goa passes through this district and has considerable transport of hazardous materials which are offloaded at Marmagoa harbour in Goa and transported to Mumbai and places in Maharashtra. State Highway No. 12, 115, 116 carry goods as well as people everyday on a large scale. Most of the accidents occur during rainy season due to slippery roads. Also the drivers do not follow the traffic signals. The roadside houses, buildings are more likely to get affected due to the road accidents. C. Landslides Due to heavy rain some parts of the district experiences landslides along with tree collapse leading to human loss. The passengers have to stay where they are. Amboli Ghat on Sawantwadi – Amboli -Belgaum Road State Highway No. 112 supplies daily necessities such as milk, various goods which comes to a standstill. As a whole the communication system may totally get disrupted.

There is a control room at the district head quarter and at each tahsil office during monsoon period i. e. from June to October. During the remaining period only the control room of Police works round the clock. 30 The officers of the control room of the district administration receives the information of flood, heavy rainfall, cyclone warning, uprooting of large number of trees, electric poles, road accidents, from various parts of the district and from IMD Colaba office and transmitting them to all Tahsil offices, Collector, RDC and Dy Collectors, Port and Fisheries Department. The Irrigation Department maintains control room on all the dam sites from June to October every year. D.

Industrial and Chemical Accidents Sindhudurg is primarily an agricultural district with industrial areas accounting less than 1% of the total area of the district. There is M. I. D. C. Estate at Kudal and two Udyamnagars at Kudal and Majgaon in Sawantwadi Taluka. The core industries are plastic engineering, aluminium utensils, cashew processing, oil paints, cement pipe manufacturing, sleepers manufacturing and pig iron factory at Redi. Thus, Sindhudurg district is vulnerable to various hazards as mentioned above. The data of the disasters and the vulnerable population and the other elements have been discussed in this chapter. 31 4. INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISM

The disaster management will be more effective and sustainable if it is institutionalised. For this purpose Government of India has already passed Disaster Management Act on 23rd December, 2005, where it is clearly outlined that a Disaster Management Authority to be formed at the district level. It will be the apex body at the district level. Disaster management would involve many layers of participating organization. The three focal levels would be State, District and the site of the disaster. The State level agencies would be involved in policy/decisions making, resource and budget allocation and monitoring through the State Emergency Operations Centre.

Similarly, at district level a District Disaster Management Authority is already formed and activated to mitigate any unexpected situation in the district. There are seven members included in this authority. District Disaster Management Authority District Disaster Management Committee Taluka Disaster Management Committee Village Disaster Management Committee District Disaster Management Taluka Disaster Management Village Disaster Management District Search & Rescue Team Village First Aid Team Village Search & Rescue Team District First Aid Team Taluka First Aid Team Taluka Search & Rescue Team Early Warining Team Early Warining Team Early Warining Team 32

The Institutional Framework for disaster management developed at the District, Taluka and Village level is as follows:At each level, apart from disaster management committee, each level has a disaster management plan along with the various task forces like search and rescue, first aid, early warning, shelter management, etc. Sindhudurg district has its own district disaster management authority chaired by the district collector. Besides, the district disaster management committee is also working under district collector where all line departments are its member. The District search and rescue team consists of 36 members belonging to various departments is also set up in the district. At taluka level every taluka in the district has a taluka disaster management committee headed by tahsildar. As said above all line departments at taluka level are its members. Also a search and rescue team as well as first aid team have been set up at every taluka.

At village level, every panchayat has a village disaster management plan as well as village disaster management committee. The VDMC chaired by sarpanch includes talathi, gramsevak, teacher, health workers, etc. of 10 – 12 persons. Also a search and rescue team as well as first aid team have been set up and trained at every village. 4. 1 Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA) Designation District Collector ( District Disaster Manager) Chairperson, Z. P. Chief Executive officer, Z. P. Superintendent of Police Civil Surgeon Executive Engineer (PWD) Executive Engineer (irrigation) Additional Collector / RDC Position Chairperson Vice Chairperson Member Member Member Member Member Member Secy.

The District Disaster Management Committee (DDMC) is an apex planning body and plays a major role in preparedness and mitigation. The district level response is coordinated under the guidance of the District Collector, who acts as a District Disaster Manager. 33 4. 2 District Disaster Management Committee (DDMC) Besides this, the Disaster Risk Management Programme also traced much to form Committees at the three levels with plans and task forces. A Disaster Management Committee exists to assist the Collector in ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ Reviewing the threat of disasters Vulnerability of the district to such disasters Evaluating the preparedness Considering the suggestions for improvement of the response document DDMP

The Committee meets once a year under the chairmanship of the Collector and consists of the following functionaries The Collector The District Superintendent of Police The Chief Executive Officer, Zilla Parishad The Additional Collector The Resident District Collector The Chief Fire Officer The District Health Officer The District Agriculture Officer The District Animal Husbandry Officer The Civil Surgeon The Executive Engineer, P. W. D. The Executive Engineer, Irrigation Department The Executive Engineer, Minor Irrigation Division The Executive Engineer, M. S. E. D. C. The Executive Engineer, MWSSB The Deputy Director of Education The Divisional Manager, Railways The Regional Transport Officer The Regional Manager, M. S. R. T. C. The District Publicity Officer The District Supply Officer The Local Station Director, A. I. R.

The Local Station Director, Doordarshan Chairman Member Member Member Member-Secy Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member 34 Coordination Structure at District level District Collector (District Disaster Manager) District Control room (Desk Officer & Officers in charge) Site operations centre CEO Transit camps Feeding camps Police Civil hospital Relief camps Cattle camps PWD MWSSB MSEDC RTO District level line departments 4. 3 District Control Room The District Control Room, under the control of the district collector, will be the nerve center. It has been set up ¦ To monitor ¦ Co-ordinate ¦ Implement the actions for disaster management 35

It works throughout the year and orders the various departments to work as per the directions during the disaster. 4. 4 Communication Mechanism On the basis of reports from the possible disaster site, or on the warning from the agencies competent to issue such a warning, or on the receipt of warning or alert from Emergency Operations Center, the Collector will exercise the powers and responsibilities of the District Disaster Manager. The list of the agencies competent for issuing warning or alert is given below : Disaster Earthquakes Floods Cyclones Epidemics Road accidents Industrial and Chemical Accidents Fires Agencies IMD, MERI Meteorology Department, Department IMD Public Health Department Police Industry, Police Fire Brigade, Police Irrigation

The warning or occurrence of disaster will be communicated to ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ Chief Secretary, Relief Commissioner, Emergency Operation Center Office of Divisional Commissioner All district level officials, Municipal Councils The Officials of central government located within the district Non-officials viz; Guardian Minister of the district, Mayor, ZP President, MPs, Local units of the Defense Services. The occurrence of the disaster would essentially bring into force the following : ¦ The District Collector will activate the District Control Room as the District Disaster Manager. ¦ The DCR will be expanded to include desk arrangements with the responsibilities for specific tasks. ¦ All district level staff from various departments will be under the direction and control of the District Disaster Manager.

These would also include the district level staff of Zilla Parishad Municipal Authorities MSEDC MWSSB PWD MSRTC Irrigation District Industrial Center Telecommunications 36 Leave of all the officers and the staff working with the above organizations, as requisitioned by the District Disaster Manager, would automatically stand cancelled and the organizations would direct their staff to report on duty immediately. ¦ The Relief Commissioner is the controlling authority in respect of Grants under “2245-Relief on account of Natural Calamities and also Loans and Advances”. He shall, therefore, ensure that adequate grants are placed at the disposal of the Collector under these budget head and that implementation of relief and rehabilitation measures is not hampered on account of paucity of funds or otherwise. The District Disaster Manager may in case of large-scale disasters get in touch with the local Defence units for assistance for rescue, evacuation and emergency relief measures. ¦ The District Disaster Manager will have the authority to requisite resources, materials and equipments from the private sector. ¦ The District Disaster Manager will have the power to direct the industry to activate their on-site or off-site disaster management plan. ¦ The District Disaster Manager will set-up Site Operation Center/s in the affected area with the desk arrangements. ¦ The District Disaster Manager will authorize establishment of transit and /or relief camps, feeding centers and cattle camps. An on-going wireless communication and contact from the DCR to the Site Operation Centers, Transit Camps, Feeding Centers, Relief Camps and Cattle Camps will be activated. ¦ The District Disaster Manager will send the Preliminary Information Report and Action Taken Report, as per the available information, to the Chief Secretary/Relief Commissioner/Emergency Operation Center and the Divisional Commissioner. ¦ The District Disaster Manager will authorize immediate evacuation whenever necessary. ¦ In the event of possibilities of the disasters in the adjoining districts, including those beyond the state borders, the District Disaster Manager will issue the alert warning to them. In multi-district disasters, if Additional Relief Commissioner is appointed at the multi-district level, the District Disaster Manager will report to the Additional Relief Commissioner. In the absence of the Collector, Additional Collector or Assistant Collector or Resident Deputy Collector will officiate and exercise all the powers and responsibilities of the District Disaster Manager listed above. 4. 5 Site Operation System During Disaster Following the ICS, the site operations would be taken into action. Depending on the nature of disaster and the type of damage, it may be necessary to set up a number of relief camps and/or cattle camps. In such a situation, the DDMA may decide to set-up a Site Operations Center (SOCs) to reduce the pressure on District Control Room for field coordination. ¦ Depending upon the disaster locations and the number of campsites, the DDMA may decide to set-up more than one Site Operations Center. 37 ¦ The Site Operations Center and the camps would be wound up after the relief and rehabilitation work is called off or a

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