Diabetes NCLEX questions

question

“1. A patient with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus asks the nurse what “”type 2″” means in relation to diabetes. The nurse explains to the patient that type 2 diabetes differs from type 1 diabetes primarily in that with type 2 diabetes a. the pt is totally dependent on an outside source of insulin b. there is a decreased insulin secretion and cellular resistance to insulin that is produced c. the immune system destroys the pancreatic insulin-producing cells d. the insulin precurosr that is secreted by the pancreas is not activated by the liver
answer

Answer B – Rationale: In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas produces insulin, but the insulin is insufficient for the body’s needs or the cells do not respond to the insulin appropriately. The other information describes the physiology of type 1 diabetes
question

18. The benefits of using an insulin pump include all of the following except: “a. By continuously providing insulin they eliminate the need for injections of insulin b. They simplify management of blood sugar and often improve A1C c. They enable exercise without compensatory carbohydrate consumption d. They help with weight loss
answer

D: Using an insulin pump has many advantages, including fewer dramatic swings in blood glucose levels, increased flexibility about diet, and improved accuracy of insulin doses and delivery; however, the use of an insulin pump has been associated with weight gain.
question

A 54-year-old patient admitted with type 2 diabetes, asks the nurse what “type 2” means. Which of the following is the most appropriate response by the nurse? “1. “”With type 2 diabetes, the body of the pancreas becomes inflamed.” 2. “With type 2 diabetes, insulin secretion is decreased and insulin resistance is increased.” 3. “With type 2 diabetes, the patient is totally dependent on an outside source of insulin.” 4. “With type 2 diabetes, the body produces autoantibodies that destroy b-cells in the pancreas.””
answer

“Right Answer: 2 Rationale: In type 2 diabetes mellitus, the secretion of insulin by the pancreas is reduced and/or the cells of the body become resistant to insulin”
question

“A client is admitted to the hospital with signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus. Which findings is the nurse most likely to observe in this client? Select all that apply: “1. Excessive thirst 2. Weight gain 3. Constipation 4. Excessive hunger 5. Urine retention 6. Frequent, high-volume urination
answer

1, 4, 6 Rationale: Classic signs of diabetes mellitus include polydipsia (excessive thirst), polyphagia (excessive hunger), and polyuria (excessive urination). Because the body is starving from the lack of glucose the cells are using for energy, the client has weight loss, not weight gain. Clients with diabetes mellitus usually don’t present with constipation. Urine retention is only a problem is the patient has another renal-related condition.
question

A client is brought to the emergency department in an unresponsive state, and a diagnosis of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome is made. The nurse would immediately prepare to initiate which of the following anticipated physician’s prescriptions? 1. Endotracheal intubation 2. 100 units of NPH insulin 3. Intravenous infusion of normal saline 4. Intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate
answer

CORRECT ANSWER: 3. Intravenous infusion of normal saline Rationale: The primary goal of treatment is hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS) is to rehydrate the client to restore the fluid volume and to correct electrolyte deficiency. Intravenous fluid replacement is similar to that administered in diabetic keto acidosis (DKA) and begins with IV infusion of normal saline. Regular insulin, not NPH insulin, would be administered. The use of sodium bicarbonate to correct acidosis is avoided because it can precipitate a further drop in serum potassium levels. Intubation and mechanical ventilation are not required to treat HHNS.
question

“A client is taking Humulin NPH insulin daily every morning. The nurse instructs the client that the mostlikely time for a hypoglycemic reaction to occur is: A) 2-4 hours after administration B) 4-12 hours after administration C) 16-18 hours after administration D) 18-24 hours after administration
answer

B: Rationale: Humulin is an intermediate acting insulin. The onset of action is 1.5 hours, it peaks in 4-12 hours, and its duration is 24 hours. Hypoglycemic reactions to insulin are most likely to occur during the peak time.
question

“A client who is started on metformin and glyburide would have initially presented with which symptoms? “a. Polydispisa, polyuria, and weight loss b. weight gain, tiredness, & bradycardia c. irritability, diaphoresis, and tachycardia d. diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss
answer

“a. Polydispisa, polyuria, and weight loss”Symptoms of hyperglycemia include polydipsia, polyuria, and weight loss. Metformin and sulfonylureas are commonly ordered medications. Weight gain, tiredness, and bradycardia are symptoms of hypothyroidism. Irritability, diaphoresis, and tachycardia are symptoms of hypoglycemia. Symptoms of Crohn’s disease include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss.”
question

A client with diabetes mellitus demonstratees acute anxiety when first admitted for the treatment of hyperglycemia. The most appropriate intervention to decrease the client’s anxiety would be to 1. administer a sedative 2. make sure the client knows all the correct medical terms to understand what is happening 3. ignore the signs and symptoms of anxiety so that they will soon disappear 4. convey empathy, trust, and respect toward the client
answer

4. The most appropriate intervention is to address the client’s feelings related to the anxiety
question

A client with diabetes melllitus has a blood glucose of 644mg/dl. The nurse intreprets that this client is most at risk of developing which type of acid base imbalance? “A. Metabolic acidosis B. Metabolic alkalosis C. Respiratory Acidosis D. Respiratory Alkalosis”
answer

“Correct Answer: A, Metabolic Acidosis Rationale: DM can lead to metabolic acidosis. When the body does not have sufficient circulating insulin, the blood glucose level rises. At the same time, the cells of the body use all available glucose. The body then breaks down glycogen and fat for fuel. The by-products of fat metabolism are acidotic and can lead to the condition known as diabetic ketoacidosis.”
question

A client with DKA is being treated in the ED. What would the nurse suspect? 1. Comatose state 2. Decreased Urine Output 3. Increased respirations and an increase in pH. 4. Elevated blood glucose level and low plasma bicarbonate level.
answer

Correct Answer: 4 Rationale: In DKA the arteriole pH is lower than 7.35, plasma bicarbonate is lower than 15 mEq/L, the blood glucose is higher than 250, and ketones are present in the blood and urine. The client would be experiencing polyuria and Kussmauls respirations would be present. A comatose state may occur if DKA is not treated.
question

A client with type I diabetes is placed on an insulin pump. The most appropriate short-term goal when teaching this client to control the diabetes is: “1) adhere to the medical regimen 2) remain normoglycemic for 3 weeks 3) demonstrate the correct use of the administration equipment. 4) list 3 self care activities that are necessary to control the diabetes”
answer

3.) is correct “1) this is not a short-term goal 2) this is measurable, but it’s a long-term goal 3) this is a short-term goal, client oriented, necessary for the client to control the diabetes, and measurable when the client performs a return demonstration for the nurse 4) although this is measurable and a short-term goal, it is not the one with the greatest priority when a client has an insulin pump that must be mastered before discharge”
question

“A diabetic patient has a serum glucose level of 824 mg/dL (45.7 mmol/L) and is unresponsive. Following assessment of the patient, the nurse suspects diabetic ketoacidosis rather than hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome based on the finding of “a. polyuria b. severe dehydration c. rapid, deep respirations ) d. decreased serum potassium”
answer

C is correct, Signs and symptoms of DKA include manifestations of dehydration such as poor skin turgor, dry mucous membranes, tachycardia, and orthostatic hypotension. Early symptoms may include lethargy and weakness. As the patient becomes severely dehydrated, the skin becomes dry and loose, and the eyeballs become soft and sunken. Abdominal pain is another symptom of DKA that may be accompanied by anorexia and vomiting. Kussmaul respirations (i.e., rapid, deep breathing associated with dyspnea) are the body’s attempt to reverse metabolic acidosis through the exhalation of excess carbon dioxide. Acetone is identified on the breath as a sweet, fruity odor. Laboratory findings include a blood glucose level greater than 250 mg/dL, arterial blood pH less than 7.30, serum bicarbonate level less than 15 mEq/L, and moderate to large ketone levels in the urine or blood ketones.
question

“A frail elderly patient with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus has been ill with pneumonia. The cliet’s intake has been very poor, and she is admitted to the hospital for observation and management as needed. What is the most likely problem with this patient? “A. Insulin resistance has developed. B. Diabetic ketoacidosis is occuring. C. Hypoglycemia unawareness is developing. D. Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma.
answer

D.Illness, especially with the frail elderly patient whose appetite is poor, can result in dehydration and HHNC. Insulin resisitance is inidcated by a daily insulin requirement of 200 units or more. Diabetic ketoacidosis, an acute metabolic condition, usually is caused by absent or markedly decreased amounts of insulin.
question

A home health nurse is at the home of a client with diabetes and arthritis. The client has difficulty drawing up insulin. It would be most appropriate for the nurse to refer the client to: “A) A social worker from the local hospital B) An occupational therapist from the community center C) A physical therapist from the rehabilitation agency D) Another client with diabetes mellitus and takes insulin”
answer

B) An occupational therapist can assist a client to improve the fine motor skills needed to prepare an insulin injection.
question

A nurse is caring for a cient with type 1 diabetes mellitus. which client complaint would alert the nurse to the presence of a possible hypoglycemic reaction? “1. Tremors 2. Anorexia 3. Hot, dry skin 4. Muscle cramps
answer

1) tremorsdecreased blood glucose levels produce autonomic nervous system symptoms, which are manifested classically as nervousness, irritability, and tremors. option 3 is more likely for hyperglycemia, and options 2 and 4 are unrelated to the signs of hypoglycemia.
question

“A nurse is caring for a client admitted to the emergency department with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). In the acute phase, the priority nursing action is to prepare to: “A. Correct the acidosis B. Administer 5% dextrose intravenously C. Administer regular insulin inraVenously D. Apply a monitor for an electrocardiogram.”
answer

C. Administer regular insulin inraVenously Lack (absolute or relative) of insulin is the primary cause of DKA. Treatment consists of insulin administration (regular insulin), intravenous fluid administration (normal saline initially), and potassium replacement, followed by correcting acidosis. Applying an electrocardiogram monitor is not a priority action.
question

A nurse is caring for a client with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Which client complaint would alert the nurse to the presence of a possible hypoglycemic reaction ? A. Tremors B. Anorexia C. Hot, Dry skin D. Muscle cramps
answer

Correct Answer A Decreased blood glucose levels produce autonomic nervous system symptoms, which are manifested classsically as nervousness, irritability, and tremors. Option C is more likely to occur with hyperglycemia. Options B and D are unrealted to the signs of hyperglycemia
question

a nurse is interviewing a client with type 2 diabetes mellitus. which statement by the client indicated an understanding of the treatment for this disorder? “1. “”i take oral insulin instead of shots”” 2. “”by taking these medications I am able to eat more”” 3. “”when I become ill, I need to increase the number of pills I take”” 4. “”the medications I’m taking help release the insulin I already make””
answer

4.)Clients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have decreased or imparied insulin secretion. Oral hypoglycemic agents are given to these clients to facilitate glucose uptake. Insulin injections may be given during times of stress-induced hyperglycemia. Oral insulin is not available because of the breakdown of the insulin by digestion. Options 1, 2 and 3 are incorrect
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A nurse is preparing a plan of care for a client with diabetes mellitus who has hyerglycemia. The priority nursing diagnosis would be: 1. Deficient knowledge 2. Deficient fluid volume 3. Compromised family coping 4. Imbalanced nutrition less than body requirements
answer

2) deficient fluid volumeAn increased blood glucose level will cause the kidneys to excrete the glucose in the urine. This glucose is accompanied by fluids and electrolytes, causing an osmotic diuresis leading to dehydration. This fluid loss must be replaced when it becomes severe.
question

A nurse is preparing a teaching plan for a client with diabetes Mellitus regarding proper foot care. Which instruction is included in the plan? 1. Soak feet in hot water 2. apply a moisturizing lotion to dry feet but not between the toes 3. Always have a podiatrist cut your toenails, never cut them yourself 4. avoid using mild soap on the feet
answer

2. The client is instructed to use a moisturizing lotion on the feet and to avoid applying the lotion between the toes.
question

“A nurse performs a physical assessment on a client with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Findings include a fasting blood glucose of 120 mg/dL, temp of 101 F, pulse of 88 bpm, respirations of 22, and blood pressure of 100/72. Which finding would be of most concern to the nurse? “1. Pulse 2. Respiration 3. Temperature 4. Blood pressure”
answer

3) temp. An elevated temperature may indicate infection. Infection is a leading cause of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome or diabetic ketoacidosis. The other findings noted in the question are within normal limits.
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“A nurse shoud recognize which symptom as a cardinal sign of diabetes mellitus? “a. Nausea b. Seizure c. Hyperactivity d. Frequent urination
answer

“D. Frequent Urination Polyphagia, polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss are cardinal signs of DM. Other signs include irritability, shortened attention span, lowered frustration tolerance, fatigue, dry skin, blurred vision, sores that are slow to heal, and flushed skin.”
question

A patient is admitted with diabetes mellitus, has a glucose level of 380 mg/dl, and a moderate level of ketones in the urine. As the nurse assesses for signs of ketoacidosis, which of the following respiratory patterns would the nurse expect to find?”A-Central apnea B-Hypoventilation C-Kussmaul respirations D- Cheyne-Stokes respirations”
answer

C-Kussmaul respirationsIn diabetic ketoacidosis, the lungs try to compensate for the acidosis by blowing off volatile acids and carbon dioxide. This leads to a pattern of Kussmaul respirations, which are deep and nonlabored.
question

“A patient with type 1 diabetes has received diet instruction as part of the treatment plan. The nurse determines a need for additional instruction when the patient says, “a. “”I may have an occasional alcoholic drink if I include it in my meal plan.”” b. “”I will need a bedtime snack because I take an evening dose of NPH insulin.”” c. “”I will eat meals as scheduled, even if I am not hungry, to prevent hypoglycemia.”” d. “”I may eat whatever I want, as long as I use enough insulin to cover the calories.
answer

“D. “”I may eat whatever I want, as long as I use enough insulin to cover the calories.”” Rationale: Most patients with type 1 diabetes need to plan diet choices very carefully. Patients who are using intensified insulin therapy have considerable flexibility in diet choices but still should restrict dietary intake of items such as fat, protein, and alcohol. The other patient statements are correct and indicate good understanding of the diet instruction.”
question

“An 18-year-old female client, 5’4” tall, weighing 113 kg, comes to the clinic for a non-healing wound on her lower leg, which she has had for two weeks. Which disease process should the nurse suspect the client is developing? “A. Type 1 diabetes B. Type 2 diabetes C. Gestational diabetes D. Acanthosis nigricans”
answer

“A: Type 1 diabetes usually occurs in young clients who are underweight. In this disease, there is no production of insulin from the beta cells in the pancreas. People with type 1 diabetes are insulin dependent with a rapid onset of symptoms, including polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia. CORRECT –>B. Type 2 diabetes is a disorder usually occurring around the age of 40, but it is now being detected in children and young adults as a result of obesity and sedentary lifestyles. Non-healing wounds are a hallmark sign of type 2 diabetes. This client weights 248.6 lbs and is short. C. Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy. There is no mention of this. D. Acanthosis nigricans (AN), dark pigmentation and skin creases in the neck, is a sign of hyperinsulinemia. The pancreas is secreting excess amounts of insulin as a result of excessive caloric intake. It is identified in young children and is a precursor to the development of type 2 diabetes.”
question

“An adolescent client with type I diabetes mellitus is admitted to the emergency department for treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. Which assessment findings should the nurse expect to note? “a) sweating and tremors b) hunger and hypertension c) cold, clammy skin and irritability d) fruity breath and decreasing level of consciousness
answer

d) fruity breath and decreasing level of consciousness”Hyperglycemia occurs with diabetic ketoacidosis. Signs of hyperglycemia include fruity breath and a decreasing level of consciousness. Hunger can be a sign of hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, but hypertension is not a sign of diabetic ketoacidosis. Instead, hypotension occurs because of a decrease in blood volume related to the dehydrated state that occurs during diabetic ketoacidosis. Cold, clammy skin, irritability, sweating, and tremors are all signs of hypoglycemia.”
question

An external insulin pump is prescribed for a client with DM. The client asks the nurse about the functioning of the pump. The nurse bases the response on the information that the pump: “a. Gives small continuous dose of regular insulin subcutaneously, and the client can self-administer a bolus with an additional dosage from the pump before each meal. b. Is timed to release programmed doses of regular or NPH insulin into the bloodstream at specific intervals. c. Is surgically attached to the pancreas and infuses regular insulin into the pancreas, which in turn releases the insulin into the bloodstream. d. Continuously infuses small amounts of NPH insulin into the bloodstream while regularly monitoring blood glucose levels”
answer

ANSWER A. An insulin pump provides a small continuous dose of regular insulin subcutaneously throughout the day and night, and the client can self-administer a bolus with additional dosage from the pump before each meal as needed. Regular insulin is used in an insulin pump. An external pump is not attached surgically to the pancreas.
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Analyze the following diagnostic findings for your patient with type 2 diabetes. Which result will need further assessment? A) BP 126/80 B) A1C 9% C)FBG 130mg/dL D) LDL cholesterol 100mg/dL
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“B) A1C 9% Rationale: Lowering hemoglobin A1C (to average of 7%) reduces microvascular and neuropathic complications. Tighter glycemic control(normal A1C < 6%) may further reduce complications but increases hypoglycemia risk."
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Blood sugar is well controlled when Hemoglobin A1C is… “a. Below 7% b. Between 12%-15% c. Less than 180 mg/dL d. Between 90 and 130 mg/dL”
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“a. Below 7% A1c measures the percentage of hemoglobin that is glycated and determines average blood glucose during the 2 to 3 months prior to testing. Used as a diagnostic tool, A1C levels of 6.5% or higher on two tests indicate diabetes. A1C of 6% to 6.5% is considered prediabetes.”
question

During a diabetes screening program, a patient tells the nurse, “My mother died of complications of type 2 diabetes. Can I inherit diabetes?” The nurse explains that “a.) as long as the patient maintains normal weight and exercises, type 2 diabetes can be prevented. b.) the patient is at a higher than normal risk for type 2 diabetes and should have periodic blood glucose level testing. c.) there is a greater risk for children developing type 2 diabetes when the father has type 2 diabetes. d.) although there is a tendency for children of people with type 2 diabetes to develop diabetes, the risk is higher for those with type 1 diabetes.”
answer

“B Rationale: Offspring of people with type 2 diabetes are at higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes. The risk can be decreased, but not prevented, by maintenance of normal weight and exercising. The risk for children of a person with type 1 diabetes to develop diabetes is higher when it is the father who has the disease. Offspring of people with type 2 diabetes are more likely to develop diabetes than offspring of those with type 1 diabetes.”
question

“Excessive thirst and volume of very dilute urine may be symptoms of: “A. Urinary tract infection B. Diabetes insipidus C. Viral gastroenteritis D.Hypoglycemia”
answer

“Correct answer: B Diabetes insipidus is a condition in which the kidneys are unable to conserve water, often because there is insufficient antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or the kidneys are unable to respond to ADH. Although diabetes mellitus may present with similar symptoms, the disorders are different. Diabetes insipidus does not involve hyperglycemia.”
question

In educating a client with diabetes, what response would reveal need for further education? “A. I should avoid tights B. I should take good care of my toe nails C. I should not go more than 3 days without washing my feet D. I should avoid going barefoot and should wear clean socks
answer

C)I should not go more than 3 days w/o washing my feet”The recommended self-care routine is to wash feet on a daily basis without soaking and carefully cleaning.”
question

Of which of the following symptoms might an older woman with diabetes mellitus complain? wps.prenhall.com 1) anorexia 2)pain intolerance 3) weight loss 4) perineal itching
answer

4) perineal itchingRationale: Older women might complain of perineal itching due to vaginal candidiasis.
question

One of the benefits of Glargine (Lantus) insulin is its ability to: “a.Release insulin rapidly throughout the day to help control basal glucose.b. Release insulin evenly throughout the day and control basal glucose levels.c. Simplify the dosing and better control blood glucose levels during the day.d. Cause hypoglycemia with other manifestation of other adverse reactions.
answer

B)Release insulin evenly throughout the day and control basal glucose levels”Glargine (Lantus) insulin is designed to release insulin evenly throughout the day and control basal glucose levels.
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Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus may require which of the following changes to their daily routine during times of infection? “a. no change b. less insulin c. more insulin d. oral diabetic agents”
answer

answer C: during times of infection and illness diabetic patients may need even more insulin to compensate for increased blood glucose levels.
question

Polydipsia and poly uria related to diabetes mellitus are primarily due to: “a.The release of ketones from cells during fat metabolism b. Fluid shifts resulting from exposure to high levels of hyperglycemia c. Damage to the kidneys from exposure to high levels of glucose d. changes in RBCs resulting from attachemnt of excessibe glucose to hemoglobin”
answer

“Coorect answer: d. Rationale: The osmotic effect of glucose produces the manifesatiaions of polydispsia and poly uria.”
question

“Polydipsia and polyuria related to diabetes mellitus are primarily due to: “a. The release of ketones from cells during fat metabolism b. Fluid shifts resulting from the osmotic effect of hyperglycemia c. Damage to the kidneys from exposure to high levels of glucose d. Changes in RBCs resulting from attachment of excessive glucose to hemoglobin”
answer

b. Fluid shifts resulting from the osmotic effect of hyperglycemia Rationale: The osmotic effect of glucose produces the manifestations of polydipsia and polyuria.
question

“Polydipsia and polyuria related to diabetes mellitus are primarily due to: “a. The release of ketones from cells during fat metabolism b. Fluid shifts resulting from the osmotic effect of hyperglycemia c. Damage to the kidneys from exposure to high levels of glucose d. Changes in RBCs resulting from attachment of excessive glucose to hemoglobin
answer

b. Fluid shifts resulting from the osmotic effect of hyperglycemia Rationale: The osmotic effect of glucose produces the manifestations of polydipsia and polyuria.
question

“Prediabetes is associated with all of the following except: ” a. Increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes b. Impaired glucose tolerance c. Increased risk of heart disease and stroke d. Increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes”
answer

“ANSWER: D Persons with elevated glucose levels that do not yet meet the criteria for diabetes are considered to have prediabetes and are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Weight loss and increasing physical activity can help people with prediabetes prevent or postpone the onset of type 2 diabetes.”
question

Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include all of the following except: “a. Advanced age b. Obesity c. Smoking d. Physical inactivity”
answer

Smoking “Additional risk factors for type 2 diabetes are a family history of diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism, history of gestational diabetes, and race/ethnicity. African-Americans, Hispanics/Latinos, Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans are at greater risk of developing diabetes than whites.”
question

“The client diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes has a glycosylated hemoglobin (A1 c) of 8.1%. Which interpretation should the nurse make based on this result? 1.This result is below normal levels.2.This result is within acceptable levels. 3.This result is above recommended levels 4.This result is dangerously high.
answer

“1.The acceptable level for an A1c for a client with diabetes is between 6% and 7%, which corresponds to a 120-140 mg/dL average blood glucose level. 2.This result is not within acceptable levelsfor the client with diabetes, which is 6% to7%. 3.(CORRECT) This result parallels a serum blood glucoselevel of approximately 180 to 200 mg/dL. An A1 c is a blood test that reflects average blood glucose levels over a period of 2-3months; clients with elevated blood glucose levels are at risk for developing long-term complications. 4.An A1c of 13% is dangerously high; it reflects a 300-mg/dL average blood glucose level overthe past 3 months.”
question

“The client diagnosed with type 1 diabetse is receiving Humalog, a rapid-acting insulin, by sliding scale. The order reads blood glucose level: 251, contact health-care provider. The unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) reports to thenurse the client’s glucometer reading is 189. How much insulin should the nurse administer to the client?
answer

3 unitsThe client’s result is 189, which is between 151 and 200, so the nurse should administer 3 units of Humalog insulin subcutaneously.
question

The client diagnosed with Type I diabetes is found lying unconscious on the floor of the bathroom. Which interventions should the nurse implement first? A. Administer 50% dextrose IVP. B. Notify the health-care provider. C. Move the client to ICD. D. Check the serum glucose level.
answer

A) admin 50% dextrose IVPThe nurse should assume the client is hypoglycemic and administer IVP dextrose, which will rouse the client immediately. If the collapse is the result of hyperglycemia, this additional dextrose will not further injure the client.
question

“The client, an 18-year-old female, 5’4” tall, weighing 113 kg, comes to the clinic for a wound on her lower leg that has not healed for the last two (2) weeks. Which diseaseprocess would the nurse suspect that the client has developed? “1.Type 1 diabetes. 2.Type 2 diabetes. 3.Gestational diabetes. 4.Acanthosis nigricans”
answer

“Correct Answer: 2 Type 2 diabetes is a disorder that usually occurs around the age of 40, but it is now being detected in children and young adultsas a result of obesity and sedentary life-styles. Wounds that do not heal are a hall-mark sign of Type 2 diabetes. This client weighs 248.6 pounds and is short”
question

“The guidelines for Carbohydrate Counting as medical nutrition therapy for diabetes mellitus includes all of the following EXCEPT: a. Flexibility in types and amounts of foods consumed b. Unlimited intake of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol c. Including adequate servings of fruits, vegetables and the dairy group d. Applicable to with either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitusb. Unlimited intake of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol”
answer

B. You want to be careful of how much you eat in any food group.
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“The nurse administered 28 units of Humulin N, an intermediate-acting insulin, to a client diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes at 1600. Which action should the nurse implement? “1. Ensure the client eats the bedtime snack. 2. Determine how much food the client ate at lunch. 3. Perform a glucometer reading at 0700. 4. Offer the client protein after administering insulin.
answer

1: ensure the client eats the bedtime snack”1. Humulin N peaks in 6-8 hours, making the client at risk for hypoglycemia around midnight, which is why the client should receive a bedtime snack. This snack will prevent nighttime hypoglycemia. (Correct) 2. The food intake at lunch will not affect the client’s blood glucose level at midnight. 3. The client’s glucometer reading should be done around 2100 to assess the effectiveness of insulin at 1600. 4. Humulin N is an intermediate-acting insulin that has an onset in 2-4 hours but does not peak until 6-8 hours.”
question

The nurse assisting in the admission of a client with diabetic ketoacidosis will anticipate the physician ordering which of the following types of intravenous solution if the client cannot take any fluids orally? ” a. 0.45% normal saline solution b. Lactated Ringer’s solution c. 0.9 normal saline solution d. 5% dextrose in water (D5W)”
answer

a. 0.45% normal saline solution Helps to hydrate patient and keep electrolyte levels balanced
question

“The nurse caring for a 54-year-old patient hospitalized with diabetes mellitus would look for which of the following laboratory test results to obtain information on the patient’s past glucose control? a. prealbumin level b. urine ketone level c. fasting glucose level d. glycosylated hemoglobin level
answer

Answer d: A glycosylated hemoglobin level detects the amount of glucose that is bound to red blood cells (RBCs). When circulating glucose levels are high, glucose attaches to the RBCs and remains there for the life of the blood cell, which is approximately 120 days. Thus the test can give an indication of glycemic control over approximately 2 to 3 months.
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The nurse is caring for a client who has normal glucose levels at bedtime, hypoglycemia at 2am and hyperglycemia in the morning. What is this client likely experiencing? “A. Dawn phenomenon B. Somogyi effect C. An insulin spike D. Excessive corticosteroids”
answer

“1. B The Somogyi effect is when blood sugar drops too low in the morning causing rebound hyperglycemia in the morning. The hypoglycemia at 2am is highly indicative. The Dawn phenomenon is similar but would not have the hypoglycemia at 2am.”
question

The nurse is caring for a client with long-term Type 2 diabetes and is assessing the feet. Which assessment data would warrant immediate intervention by the nurse? “1)The client has crumbling toenails 2)The client has athlete’s feet 3)The client has a necrotic big toe 4)The client has thickened toenails.”
answer

3) Nectrotic big toe”1)Crumbling toenails indicate tinea unguium, which is a fungus infection of the toenail. 2)Athlete’s foot is a fungal infection that is not life threatening. 3)A necrotic big toe indicates “dead” tissue. The client does not feel pain in the lower extremity and does not realize there has been an injury and therefore does not seek treatment. Increased blood glucose levels decrease oxygen supply that is needed to heal the wound and increase the risk for developing an infection. 4)Big, thick toenails are fungal infections and would not require immediate intervention by the nurse; 50% of the adult population has this.”
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“The nurse is caring for a patient whose blood glucose level is 55mg/dL. What is the likely nursing response? “A. Administer a glucagon injection B. Give a small meal C. Administer 10-15 g of a carbohydrate D. Give a small snack of high protein food”
answer

“C The client has low hypoglycemia. This is generally treated with a small snack.”
question

“The nurse is caring for a woman at 37 weeks gestation. The client was diagnosed with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitis (IDDM) at age 7. The client states, “”I am so thrilled that I will be breastfeeding my baby.”” Which of the following responses by the nurse is best? “1. You will probably need less insulin while you are breastfeeding. 2. You will need to initially increase your insulin after the baby is born. 3. You will be able to take an oral hypoglycemic instead of insulin after the baby is born. 4. You will probably require the same dose of insulin that you are now taking.”
answer

“1. breastfeeding has an antidiabetogenic effect, less insulin is needed. (correct) 2. insulin needs will decrease due to antidiabetogenic effect of breastfeeding and physiological changes during immediate postpartum period. 3. client has IDDM, insulin required. 4. during third trimester insulin requirements increase due to increased insulin resistance”
question

“The nurse is discharging a client diagnosed with diabetes insipidus. Which statementmade by the client warrants further intervention? “1.”I will keep a list of my medications in my wallet and wear a Medi bracelet.” 2.”I should take my medication in the morning and leave it refrigerated at home.” 3.”I should weigh myself every morning and record any weight gain.” 4.”If I develop a tightness in my chest, I will call my health-care provider.”
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2.”I should take my medication in the morning and leave it refrigerated at home.””1.The client should keep a list of medication being taken and wear a Medic Alert bracelet. 2. Medication taken for DI is usually every 8-12 hours, depending on the client. Theclient should keep the medication close at hand. 3.The client is at risk for fluid shifts. Weighing every morning allows the client to follow thefluid shifts. Weight gain could indicate too much medication. 4.Tightness in the chest could be an indicator that the medication is not being tolerated; if this occurs the client should call the health-care provider”
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“The nurse is discussing the importance of exercising to a client diagnosed with Type 2diabetes whose diabetes is well controlled with diet and exercise. Which informationshould the nurse include in the teaching about diabetes? “1.Eat a simple carbohydrate snack before exercising. 2.Carry peanut butter crackers when exercising. 3.Encourage the client to walk 20 minutes three (3) times a week. 4.Perform warmup and cooldown exercises
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4.Perform warmup and cooldown exercises “The client diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes whois not taking insulin or oral agents does notneed extra food before exercise.2.The client with diabetes who is at risk forhypoglycemia when exercising should carry asimple carbohydrate, but this client is not atrisk for hypoglycemia.3.Clients with diabetes that is controlled by dietand exercise must exercise daily at the sametime and in the same amount to control theglucose level. 4. [correct] All clients who exercise should perform warmup and cooldown exercises to helpprevent muscle strain and injury”
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The nurse is educating a pregnant client who has gestational diabetes. Which of the following statements should the nurse make to the client? Select all that apply. “a. Cakes, candies, cookies, and regular soft drinks should be avoided. b. Gestational diabetes increases the risk that the mother will develop diabetes later in life. c. Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the baby is born. d. Insulin injections may be necessary. e. The baby will likely be born with diabetes f. The mother should strive to gain no more weight during the pregnancy.
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“ANS: A, B, C, D Gestational diabetes can occur between the 16th and 28th week of pregnancy. If not responsive to diet and exercise, insulin injections may be necessary. Concentrated sugars should be avoided. Weight gain should continue, but not in excessive amounts. Usually, gestational diabetes disappears after the infant is born. However, diabetes can develop 5 to 10 years after the pregnancy”
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“The nurse is teaching a class on atherosclerosis. Which statement describes the scien-tific rationale as to why diabetes is a risk factor for developing atherosclerosis? (1.Glucose combines with carbon monoxide, instead of with oxygen, and this leads tooxygen deprivation of tissues.2.Diabetes stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in peripheralconstriction that increases the development of atherosclerosis.3.Diabetes speeds the atherosclerotic process by thickening the basement membraneof both large and small vessels.4.The increased glucose combines with the hemoglobin, which causes deposits of plaque in the lining of the vessels.
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3.Diabetes speeds the atherosclerotic process by thickening the basement membraneof both large and small vessels.”1.Glucose does not combine with carbonmonoxide.2.Vasoconstriction is not a risk factor for devel-oping atherosclerosis. 3.This is the scientific rationale why diabetesmellitus is a modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis. 4.When glucose combines with the hemoglobinin a laboratory test called glycosylated hemo-globin, the result can determine the client’saverage glucose level over the past three (3)months”
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“The nurse is teaching a community class to peole with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Which explanation would explain the development of Type 2 diabetes? 1. The islet cells in the pancreas stop producing insulin. 2. The client eats too many foods that are high in sugar. 3 The pituitary gland does not produce vasopression. 4. The cells become resistant to the circulating insulin.
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“1. This is the cause of Type 1 diabetes mellitus. 2. This may be a reason for obesity, which may lead to Type 2 diabetes, but eating too much sugar does not cause diabetes. 3. This is the explanation for diabetes insipidus, which should not be confused with diabetes mellitus. 4. (CORRECT) Normally insulin binds to special receptor sites on the cells and initiates a series of reactions involved in metabolism. In Type 2 diabetes these reactions are diminished primarily as a result of obesity and aging.”
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“The nurse is working with an overweight client who has a high-stress job and smokes. This client has just received a diagnosis of Type II Diabetes and has just been started on an oral hypoglycemic agent. Which of the following goals for the client which if met, would be most likely to lead to an improvement in insulin efficiency to the point the client would no longer require oral hypoglycemic agents? “a. Comply with medication regimen 100% for 6 months b. Quit the use of any tobacco products by the end of three months c. Lose a pound a week until weight is in normal range for height and exercise 30 minutes daily d. Practice relaxation techniques for at least five minutes five times a day for at least five months”
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c. Lose a pound a week until weight is in normal range for height and exercise 30 minutes daily When type II diabetics lose weight through diet and exercise they sometimes have an improvement in insulin efficiency sufficient to the degree they no longer require oral hypoglycemic agents.
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“The principal goals of therapy for older patients who have poor glycemic control are: “A. Enhancing quality of life. B. Decreasing the chance of complications. C. Improving self-care through education. D. All of the above.”
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“D. All of the above. Rationale: The principal goals of therapy for older persons with diabetes mellitus and poor glycemic control are enhancing quality of life, decreasing the chance of complications, improving self-care through education, and maintaining or improving general health status.”
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“The risk factors for type 1 diabetes include all of the following except: “a. Diet b. Genetic c. Autoimmune d. Environmental”
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A: Type 1 diabetes is a primary failure of pancreatic beta cells to produce insulin. It primarily affects children and young adults and is unrelated to diet.
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“What insulin type can be given by IV? Select all that apply: “A. Glipizide (Glucotrol) B. Lispro (Humalog) C. NPH insulin D. Glargine (Lantus) E. Regular insulin
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E) Regular insulinThe only insulin that can be given by IV is regular insulin.
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“What will the nurse teach the client with diabetes regarding exercise in his or her treatment program? 1. During exercise the body will use carbohydrates for energy production, which in turn will decrease the need for insulin. 2. With an increase in activity, the body will use more carbohydrates; therefore more insulin will be required. 3. The increase in activity results in an increase in the use of insulin; therefore the client should decrease his or her carbohydrate intake. 4. Exercise will improve pancreatic circulation and stimulate the islets of Langerhans to increase the production of intrinsic insulin.
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1. During exercise the body will use carbohydrates for energy production, which in turn will decrease the need for insuli”Rationale: As carbohydrates are used for energy, insulin needs decrease. Therefore during exercise, carbohydrate intake should be increased to cover the increased energy requirements. The beneficial effects of regular exercise may result in a decreased need for diabetic medications in order to reach target blood glucose levels. Furthermore, it may help to reduce triglycerides, LDL cholesterol levels, increase HDLs, reduce blood pressure, and improve circulation.”
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“When an older adult is admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and complaints of rapid-onset weight loss, elevated blood glucose levels, and polyphagia, the gerontology nurse should anticipate which of the following secondary medical diagnoses? “1.Impaired glucose tolerance 2.Gestational diabetes mellitus 3.Pituitary tumor 4. Pancreatic tumor
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“Pancreatic tumor Rationale: The onset of hyperglycemia in the older adult can occur more slowly. When the older adult reports rapid-onset weight loss, elevated blood glucose levels, and polyphagia, the healthcare provider should consider pancreatic tumor.”
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“When assessing the patient experiencing the onset of symptoms of type 1 diabetes, which question should the nurse ask? a. “”Have you lost any weight lately?”” b. “”Do you crave fluids containing sugar?”” c. “”How long have you felt anorexic?”” d. “”Is your urine unusually dark-colored?””
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A) lost any weight?”a. Weight loss occurs because the body is no longer able to absorb glucose and starts to break down protein and fat for energy. b. The patient is thirsty but does not necessarily crave sugar- containing fluids. c. Increased appetite is a classic symptom of type 1 diabetes. d. With the classic symptom of polyuria, urine will be very dilute.”
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When taking a health history, the nurse screens for manifestations suggestive of diabetes type I. Which of the following manifestations are considered the primary manifestations of diabetes type I and would be most suggestive of diabetes type I and require follow-up investigation? “a. Excessive intake of calories, rapid weight gain, and difficulty losing weight b. Poor circulation, wound healing, and leg ulcers, c. Lack of energy, weight gain, and depression d. An increase in three areas: thirst, intake of fluids, and hunger
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d. An increase in three areas: thirst, intake of fluids, and hunger “The primary manifestations of diabetes type I are polyuria (increased urine output), polydipsia (increased thirst), polyphagia (increased hunger). Excessive calorie intake, weight gain, and difficulty losing weight are common risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Poor circulation, wound healing and leg ulcers are signs of chronic diabetes. Lack of energy, weight gain and depression are not necessarily indicative of any type of diabetes.”
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which are symptoms of hypoglycemia? A. irritability, B. drowsiness c. Abdominal pain D. nausea and vomiting
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A. Irritability: signs of hypoglycemia include irritability, shaky feeling, hunger, headache, dizziness. Other symptoms are hyperglycemia.
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Which electrolyte replacement should the nurse anticipate being ordered by thehealth-care provider in the client diagnosed with DKA who has just been admitted tothe ICD? 1.Glucose. 2.)Potassium. 3.Calcium. 4.Sodium
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Potassium”1.Glucose is elevated in DKA; therefore, theHCP would not be replacing glucose. 2.(CORRECT)–>The client in DKA loses potassium from increased urinary output, acidosis, cata-bolic state, and vomiting. Replacement isessential for preventing cardiac dysrhyth-mias secondary to hypokalemia. 3.Calcium is not affected in the client with DKA.4.The IV that is prescribed 0.9% normal salinehas sodium, but it is not specifically orderedfor sodium replacement. This is an isotonicsolution. TEST-TAKING HINT: Option “1” should be elim-inated because the problem with DKA iselevated glucose so the HCP would not bereplacing it. The test taker should use physiol-ogy knowledge and realize potassium is in thecell.”
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“Which of the following factors are risks for the development of diabetes mellitus? (Select all that apply.) “a) Age over 45 years b) Overweight with a waist/hip ratio >1 c) Having a consistent HDL level above 40 mg/dl d) Maintaining a sedentary lifestyle
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Correct: a,b,d”Rationale: Aging results in reduced ability of beta cells to respond with insulin effectively. Overweight with waist/hip ratio increase is part of the metabolic syndrome of DM II. There is an increase in atherosclerosis with DM due to the metabolic syndrome and sedentary lifestyle.
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“Which of the following is accurate pertaining to physical exercise and type 1 diabetes mellitus? “1. Physical exercise can slow the progression of diabetes mellitus. 2. Strenuous exercise is beneficial when the blood glucose is high. 3. Patients who take insulin and engage in strenuous physical exercise might experience hyperglycemia. 4. Adjusting insulin regimen allows for safe participation in all forms of exercise.”
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1) physical exercise can slow the progression of diabetes mellitusRationale: Physical exercise slows the progression of diabetes mellitus, because exercise has beneficial effects on carbohydrate metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Strenuous exercise can cause retinal damage, and can cause hypoglycemia. Insulin and foods both must be adjusted to allow safe participation in exercise.
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“Which of the following persons would most likely be diagnosed with diabetes mellitus? A 44-year-old.. “A. Caucasian Woman B. Asian Woman C. African-American woman D. Hispanic Male
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“Correct answer: African-American woman Rationale: Age-specific prevalence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM) is higher for African-Americans and Hispanics than for Caucasians. Among those younger than 75, black women had the highest incidence.”
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Which statement by the patient with type 2 diabetes is accurate. “a. “”I am supposed to have a meal or snak if I drink alcohol”” b. “”I am not allowed to eat any sweets because of my diabetes.”” c. I do not need to watch what I eat because my diabetes is not the bad kind.”” d. The amunt of fat in my diet is not important; it is just the carbohydrates that raise my blood sugar.”””
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“Correct Answer: A Alcohol should be consumed with food to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia.”

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