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developmental psychology Chapter 6,7,8

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Symbols
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systems for representing our thoughts, feelings, and knowledge and for communicating them to other people
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language comprehension
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understanding what other say
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generativity
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refers to the idea that through the use of finite set of words in our vocabulary, we can put together an infinite number of sentences and express an infinite number of ideas
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phonemes
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the elementary units of meaningful sound used to produce languages
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phonological development
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the acquistion of knowledge about the sound system of a language
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morphemes
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the smallest units of meaning in a language, including word learning
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semantic development
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the learning of the system for expressing meaning in a language, including word learning
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syntax
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rules in a language that specify how words from different categories /nouns, verbs, adjectives etc)can be combined
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syntactic development
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the learning of the syntax of a language
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pragmatic development
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the acquisition of knowledge about how language is used
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metalinguistic knowledge
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an understanding of the properties and function of language – that is, an understanding of language as language
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critical period of language
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the time during which language develops readily and after which (sometime between age 5 and puberty) language acquisition is much more difficult and ultimately less sucessful
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infant-directed talk (IDT)
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the distinctive mode of speech that adults adopt when talking to babies and very young children
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bilingualism
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the ability to use two languages
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prosody
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the characteristic rhytm, tempo, cadence,melody, intonational patterns and so forth with which language is spoken
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categorical perception
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the perception of speech sounds as belonging to discrete categories
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voice onset time
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the length of time between when air passes through the lips and when the vocal cords start vibrating
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distributional properties
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the phenomenon that in any language, certain sounds are more likely to appear together than others
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reference
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in language and speech, the associating of words and meaning
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style
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the strategies that young children enlist in beginning to speak
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referential style
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speech strategy that that analyzes the speech stream into individual phonetic elements and words; the first utterances of children who adopt this style tend to use isolated, often monosyllabic words
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expressive (holistic) style
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speech strategy that gives more attention to the overall sound of language – its rhytmic and intonational patterns – than to the phonetic elemet of which it is composed
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wait-and-see style
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speech strategy that typically involves a late start in speaking, but a large vocabulary once speaking begins
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holophrastic period
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the period when children begin using the words in their small productive vocabulary one word at a time
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overextension
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the use of a given word in a broader context than is appropriate
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fast mapping
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the process of rapidly learning a new word simply from hearing the contrastive use of a familiar and the unfamiliar word
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pragmatic cues
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aspects of the social context used for word learning
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syntactic bootstrapping
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the strategy of using the grammatical structure of whole sentences to figure out meaning
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telegraphic speech
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the term describing childrens first sentences that are generally two-word utterances
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overregularization
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speech errors in which children treat irregular forms of words as if they were regular
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collective monologue
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conversation between children that involves a series of non sequiturs, the content of each childs turn having little or nothing to do with what the other child has just said
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narratives
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descriptions of past events that have the basic structure of a story
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universal grammar
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a set of highly abstract, unconscious rules that are common to all languages
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modularity hypothesis
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the idea that the human brain contains an innate, selfcontainged language module that is separate from other aspecits of cognitve functioning
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connectionism
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a type of informationprocessing approach that emphasizes the simultaneous activity of numerous interconnected processing units
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dual representation
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the idea that a symbolic artifact must be represented mentally in two ways at the same time – both as a real object and as a symbol for something other than itself
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concepts
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general ideas or understandings that can be used to group together objects, events, qualities, or abstractions that are similar in some way
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category hierarchy
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categories that are related by set-subset relations, such as animal/dog/poodle
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perceptual categorization
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the grouping together of objects with similar appearances
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superordinate level
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the most general level withing a category hierarchy, such as “animal” in the animal/dog/poodle example
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subordinate level
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the most specific level within a category hierarchy, such as “poodle” in the animal/dog/poodle example
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basic level
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the middle level, and often the first level learned, within a category hierarchy, such as “dog” in the animal/dog/poodle example
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naive psychology
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a commonsense level of understanding of other people and oneself
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theory of mind
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a basic understanding how the mind works and how it influences behavior
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false-belief problems
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task that test a childs understanding that oter people will act in accord with their own beliefs even when the child knows that thos beliefs are incorrect
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theory of mind module(TOMM)
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a hypothesized brain mechanism devoted to understanding other human beings
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pretend play
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make-believ activities in which children create new symbolic relations, for example, using a broom to represent a horse
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object substitution
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a form of pretense in which an object is used as something other than itself
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sociodramatic play
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activities in which children enact minidramas with other children or adults, such as “mother comforting baby”
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essentialism
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the view that living things have an essence inside them that makes them what they are
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egocentric representations
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coding of spatial locations relative to ones own body, without regard to the surroundings
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numerical equality
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the realization that all sets of N objects have something in common
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subitizing
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a process by which adults and children can look at a few objects and almost immediately know how many objects are present
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g(general intelligence)
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the part of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks
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fluid intelligence
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ability to think on the spot to solve novel problems
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crystalized intelligence
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factual knowledge about the world
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primary mental abilities
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seven abilities said by Thurstone to be crucial to intelligence
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three-stratum theory of intelligence
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Carrols model of intelligence, including g at the top of the hierarchy, eight moderately general abilities in the middle, and many specific processes at the bottom
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Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children (WISC)
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a widely used test designed to measure the intelligence of children 6 years and older
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IQ (Intelligence quotient)
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a summary measure used to indicate a childs intelligence relative to that of other children of the same age
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normal distribution
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a pattern of data in which scores fall symetrically around a mean value, with most scores falling close to the mean ad fewer scores farther from it
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standard deviation
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a meauser of the variability of scores in a distribution; in a normal distribution, 68 % of scores fall within 1 standard deviation of the mean and 95 % of scores fall within 2 standard deviations
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self-discipline
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the ability to inhibit actions, follow rules, and avoid impulsive reactions
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practical intelligence
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mental abilities not measured on IQ tests but important for success in many situations, such as accurately reading other peoples emoptions and intentions and motivating others to work effectively as a team
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flynn effect
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the rise in average IQ scores that has occured over the past 75 years in many countries
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Carolina Abecedarian Project
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a comprehensive and successful enrichment program for children from low-income families
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multiple intelligence theory
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Gardners theory of intellect, based on the view that people process at least eight types of intelligence
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theory of successful intelligence
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sterbergs theory of intellect, based on the view that intelligence is the ability to achieve success in life
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phonemic awareness
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ability to identify component sounds with words
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phonological recording skills
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ability to translate letters into sound and to blend sounds into words
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visuality based retrieval
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proceeding directly from the visual form of a word to its meaning
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strategy-choice process
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procedure for selecting among alternative ways of solving problems
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mental model
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processes used to represent a situation or sequence of events
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comprehension monitoring
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the process of keeping track of ones understanding of a verbal description or text
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Pre- K mathematics
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a program designed for preschoolers, especially those from low income families, to prevent mathematics disabilities through exposure to a variety of numerical activities
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mathematical equality
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the concept that the values on each side of the equal sign must be equivalen
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gesture- speech mismatches
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a phenomenon in which hand movements and verbal statements convey different ideas
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analytic, practical, creative
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the three components to stern bergs theory of successful intelligence
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phonological recording, visually based retrieval
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words can be identified in two main ways
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referential style, expressive style, wait and see style
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the three different styles in language development
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mesosystem
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relationships among the entities involved in the child’s microsystem: parents’ interactions with teachers, a school’s interactions with the daycare provider
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microsystem
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activities and interactions in the child’s immediate surroundings: parents, school, friends, etc.
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Broca’s area
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language production
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Wernicke’s area
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understanding of meaning.
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vygotskys approack
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language develops specifically for every culture, children are internalizing language
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piagets approach
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language is universal, and a personal approach