Developmental Psych Test 1 Chapter 1

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According to the life-span perspective, human development
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includes biological, cognitive, and socioemotional dimensions.
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Genetic inheritance, brain development, and exercise are all examples of _________ processes that affect development.
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biological
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Children learn to become more self-sufficient and develop school readiness skills during
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early childhood
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The _________ issue involves the extent to which development is influenced by an organism’s biological inheritance and its environmental experiences.
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nature-nurture
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According to Erikson’s psychoanalytic theory, adolescents experience a developmental stage known as
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identity versus identity confusion.
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Which of the following is NOT one of Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development?
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post-operational stage
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Which of the following is NOT a key factor of development in social cognitive theory?
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locomotion
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Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of conducting laboratory research?
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There is less control over variables in the experiment.
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Cohort effects are due to all of the following, EXCEPT
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actual age
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The cross-sectional approach to research
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simultaneously compares individuals of different ages.
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Life-span development includes which of the following?
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physical/cognitive development and decline
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Melissa is reflecting on how her current and past experiences will impact her development through the remainder of her adult life. She is examining
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life-span development
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Cory is studying to be a teacher. She wants to take a course that will help her gain insight into the growth and development of young children. Cory would benefit most from studying
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life-span development
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When psychologists speak of life-span development, they are referring to an approach that emphasizes
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both the periods of the human life span involving growth and those involving decline.
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The upper boundary of the human life span has historically been, and continues to be, __________ years.
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122
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During the 20th century, life expectancy increased _________ years.
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30
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Unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individual’s life and are usually not applicable to many people are called
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non-normative life events
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Baltes and his colleagues assert that the mastery of life often involves conflicts and competition among three goals of human development:
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growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss.
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The Minnesota Family Investment Program was designed to
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primarily influence the behavior of adults through employment
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All of the following are characteristics of resilient children, EXCEPT having
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wealth and privledge
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In 2009, _____ of U.S. children were living in families below the poverty line.
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20.1%
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Which of the following would be used to improve the lives of children in poorer homes by creating government programs that provide better health care and housing allowances?
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social policy
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As a developmental psychologist, you are asked to provide input on developing social policies to help increase school achievement for children from poor families. Based on information provided in the Minnesota Family Investment Program, which of the following would you suggest?
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increase parents job skills
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The study conducted in by Wenger et al. (2003) indicated that older adults received the recommended care for general medical conditions such as heart disease only ____ of the time.
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52%
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The process we refer to when we speak of changes in an individual’s thoughts, intelligence, and language is the
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cognitive process
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The process we refer to when we speak of changes in an individual’s relationships, emotions, and personality is the
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socioemotional process
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Brain development, height and weight gains, changes in motor skills, and hormonal changes are all examples of
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biological processes
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Rapid physical changes and the quest for independence and identity are characteristic of
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adolescence
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Which of the following shows developmental periods in correct chronological order?
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prenatal period; infancy; early childhood; middle and late childhood
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A person’s age in terms of physical health is called
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biological age
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A person’s age in terms of his or her adaptive capacities compared with others of the same chronological age is called
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psychological age
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The social roles and expectations related to a person’s age refers to one’s
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social age
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The most important issues in the study of development include all of the following, EXCEPT
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masculinity and feminity
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Questions such as “Is the loud, talkative child bound to have difficulties in school?” reflect the
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continuity-discontinuity issue
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Psychologists who emphasize the role of environmental experiences in development value
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nurture
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Freud is associated with which theoretical perspective?
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psychoanyalical
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What is the correct sequence of stages in Freud’s personality theory of development?
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oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
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Which psychologist contended that “trust versus mistrust” is the first psychological stage?
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Erik Erikson
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Which of the following is NOT a criticism of psychoanalytic theory?
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There is too much emphasis on unconscious processes.
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Piaget’s theory states that children actively construct their understanding of the world and that they go through _______ stages of cognitive development.
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4
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Which of the following is an assumption of Vygotsky’s perspective on development?
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Children’s cognitive skills cannot be understood when they are only developmentally analyzed and interpreted.
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Robert Siegler emphasizes that an important aspect of development is
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learning good strategies for processing information.
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According to B.F. Skinner, a behavior followed by a ______ stimulus is more likely to recur, whereas a behavior followed by a _____ stimulus is less likely to recur.
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rewarding and punishing
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Which theory supports the view that behavior, environment, and cognition are key factors in development?
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social cognitive theory
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Bandura’s most recent model of learning and development includes all of the following elements, EXCEPT
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language
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__________ is to operant conditioning as __________ is to social cognitive theory.
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skinner, bandura
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Who was the psychologist responsible for originating the theory of attachment?
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John Bowlby
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Specific time frames during which the presence or absence of certain experiences has a long-lasting influence on individuals are known as
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critical or sensitive periods.
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While ethological theory stresses _________ factors, ecological theory emphasizes ________ factors.
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biological; environmental
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The setting in which an individual lives is called the
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microsystem
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The relation of family experiences to school experiences, school experiences to church experiences, and family experiences to peer experiences are examples of the
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mesosystem
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Which theory does not follow any single theoretical approach but rather selects from each theory whatever is considered its best features?
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eclectic theoretical orientation
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The belief that each theory of development has contributed to our understanding of development is the
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eclectic theoretical orientation.
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Piaget believed that a child’s ability to think:
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develops in stages.
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Three-year-old Leo and his mother are shopping for his father’s birthday gift. When Leo is asked what he thinks his father would like, Leo responds, “A choo-choo train!” Leo is demonstrating which of Piaget’s concepts?
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symbolic thought
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When Sadie’s favorite toy doll is covered up with a blanket, Sadie begins to cry because she thinks it has disappeared. Sadie lacks
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object permanance
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Children master ________ when they understand that an object retains its quantity even if its appearance changes.
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conservation
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The __________ stage of development is marked by egocentric thought and a lack of conservation.
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preoperaional
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Which of the following is NOT a method used in life-span development research to collect data?
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bias
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For observations to be effective, they have to be
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systemic
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Observing behavior in real-world settings and making no effort to manipulate or control the situation is known as
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naturalistic observation
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A(n) ______ is a carefully regulated procedure in which one or more factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factors are held constant.
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experiment
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Regarding correlational research, which of the following statements is TRUE?
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It provides information that helps researchers predict how people will behave
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To study causality, the best research design is
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experimental research.
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A researcher is comparing IQ and poverty rates among a group of 15-year-olds, 25-year-olds, and 45-year-olds. This is an example of a(n)
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cross sectional study
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A researcher is studying the association between cancer rates and employment status in a group of adults. The same adults are assessed over a 55-year time span at the ages of 25, 35, 45, 55, 65, and 80. This is an example of a(n)
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longitudinal study
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After a study is complete, participants should be informed of its purpose and the methods that were used. This APA ethics guideline is
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debriefing
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The goal of the APA ethics guidelines is:
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to protect participants in research studies from mental and physical harm.
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At first Jake cries when his mother leaves the room, but then he plays contentedly with the toys. Upon his mother’s return,Jake happily runs to her. Jake is demonstrating which style of attachment?
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secure
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Zoe does not notice when her mother leaves the room. When Zoe’s mother returns, Zoe continues to play with the toys and does not respond to her mother’s calls. Zoe is demonstrating which style of attachment?
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avoident
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Claire is distressed when her mother leaves the room. When her mother returns, Claire goes to her but then pushes her away. Claire’s mother can’t seem to calm Claire down. Claire is demonstrating which style of attachment?
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resilient
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One disadvantage to naturalistic observation is that
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the experimenter must wait for the appropriate conditions to occur.
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Which of the following is the best example of a naturalistic observational study?
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Paige sits in the back of a classroom and systematically records the behavior of the students during a lecture.
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Becca has been training for a marathon for several weeks. When she began her training, she could run a mile in 12 minutes. After 2 weeks of training, she could run a mile in 10 minutes. After 6 weeks of training, she could run a mile in 8 minutes. In this example, a(n) ____________ exists between the number of weeks of training and the time to run a mile.
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negative correlation
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Candace has been feeling sad lately, so she decides to volunteer at a soup kitchen in an attempt to lift her mood. Indeed, the more hours Candace spends at the soup kitchen, the happier she feels. Candace has noticed a(n) ___________ correlation between the number of hours she spends volunteering and her feelings of happiness.
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positive correlation
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Matt believes that one good pair of shoes is all a person really needs. Matt has blond hair and the number of shoes Ellen believes that a person needs a good pair of running shoes, a pair of dress shoes, and a pair of slippers. Ellen has black hair and three pair of shoes. Imelda believes that the more shoes you own, the better! Imelda has brown hair and 79 pair of shoes. In this example, hair darkness and the number of shoes a person owns are ___________ correlated.
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not
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Research has demonstrated a positive correlation between the number of hours of violent television watched and the amount of aggression in children. Based on these findings and what we know about correlational research, we can conclude that
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we cannot make any of these conclusions.
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Dr. Humor wonders if knock-knock jokes are funnier than jokes involving “crossing the road.” He has several people tell participants a series of both types of jokes and has the participants rate how funny they believe each joke to be. In this example, the dependent variable is
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participants rating humor
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The variable that a researcher manipulates in an experiment is called the _______ variable.
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independent
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After reading that aerobic exercise increases memory performance in older adults, Hilda wonders if lifting weights would have the same effect. Hilda has generated a(n)
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hypothesis
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Researchers have found that using flash cards is a better study method than highlighting key terms in a textbook. In this example, the independent variable is
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study method
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Events such as the terrorist attacks of 9/11/2001 influence the development of individuals. This supports the life-span perspective that development is
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contextual
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Changes in relationships, emotions, and personality are examples of __________ processes that affect development.
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socioemotional
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Jamie is establishing personal and economic independence and hopes to start a family within a few years. Jamie most likely is in
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early adulthood
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The __________ issue involves the extent to which early traits and characteristics persist throughout life or alter one’s life.
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stability–change
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According to Erikson’s theory, individuals reflect on the past during their final stage of development, which is known as
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integrity versus despair.
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Chanel is writing a research paper about the impact of early designers on modern fashion. She most likely is in the
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formal operational stage.
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Whereas __________ theory emphasizes biological factors, ___________ theory stresses environmental factors.
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ethological, ecological
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A research method that provides an in-depth look at a single individual is known as a(n)
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case study
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The best way to study causality is through
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experimental research
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Researchers should tell all participants what their research participation will involve and its potential risks. This is known as
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informed consent

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