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Developmental Psych 1-6

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Developmental science is a field of study devoted to
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Understanding constancy and change throughout the lifespan
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Dr. kostel believes that development takes place in stages. This belief is consistent with the
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Discontinuous
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Although Justin spent his first 18 months in an orphanage, his adoptive mother believes that sensitive caregiving will help Justin overcome his early experiences. Justin’s mother emphasizes the role of ___ in development
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Nurture
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The lifespan perspective on development assumes that
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Development is affected by a blend of biological, psychological, and social forces.
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Max, age 65, learn to play the piano at a local senior center. Max’s demonstrates that
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Development is plastic at all ages
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Which of the following is an example of age graded influence
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Frank got his drivers license at age 16
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Which of the following is an example of nonnormative influence
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Patty learn to speak Spanish and French in college
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Charles Darwin’s theories led other researchers to study all aspects of children’s behavior and, therefore, Darwin is considered the forefather of
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Scientific child study
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According to the psychoanalytic perspective, personality development is greatly influenced by
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How children resolve conflicts between biological drive and social expectations
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Sigmund Freud’s theory was first to emphasize the role of ____ in child development
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The early parent-child relationship
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Behaviorism focuses on
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Stimuli and responses
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Garrett hit a playmate in the same late honey sent home. this is an example of
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Modeling
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Jean piaget believed that
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Children move through four broad stages of cognitive development
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Dr. Marx believed that early childhood is a sensitive. For language development. Dr. Marx’s believe it’s consistent with
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ethology
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lev vygotsky believed that ___ is necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community culture
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Social interaction
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According to ecological systems theory interactions between a mother and her child occur in the
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Microsystem
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Cognitive development tool theory, information processing, and social cultural, all stress
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Changes in thinking
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a major limitation of systematic observation is that it
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Tell investigators little about the reasoning behind responses and behaviors
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One limitation of correlation studies is
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Investigators cannot infer cause-and-effect
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To examine whether depression is stable or changes with age, Dr. blue followed a group of children from age 8 to age 40. this is an example of ___ design
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longitudual
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Directly observable characteristics, such as eye color and height, are called
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Phenotypes
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Lynn, Canadian, and Sasha, a Russian, are probably about ___ percent genetically identical
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99.1
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The exchange of chromosome segments during meiosis results in
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Incredible variability among siblings
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The sex of the baby is determined by whether
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And X bearing or a Y bearing sperm fertilizes the Ovum
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dizgotic twins
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Are no more like an ordinary siblings
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The one allele that affects the child’s characteristics it’s called
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Dominant
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Down syndrome most commonly results from
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a failure of the 21st pair of chromosomes to separate during meiosis
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With ____, a woman is given hormones that stimulate the ripening of several ova. These are removed surgically in place in addition of nutrients, to which sperm are at.
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In vitro fertilization
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The communication process of blank can help couples understand genetic principles, genetic testing, and prevention of genetic disorders
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Genetic counseling
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Except for ____, prenatal diagnosis should not be used routinely because these methods have some chance of injuring the fetus
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Maternal blood analysis
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Most adopted children
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Become well-adjusted adults
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Higher SES parents tend emphasize the importance of ____for the children, where is lower SES parents tend to emphasize ____.
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Psychological traits; external characteristics
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Compared with large urban areas, small towns
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Stronger connections between settings that influence children’s lives
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Which of the following countries have a higher infant death rate
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The United States
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Neighborhoods have a ____ impact on economically disadvantaged than well-to-do young people
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Greater
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Senior citizens in the United States today are
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More likely than any other group to be among the near poor
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Two in for the role of heredity and complex human characteristics, researchers use special methods, the most common being
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heritability estimate
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Angela, a cooperative inattentive child, receives more patient and sensitive in directions from her parents and Carlos who is inattentive and hyper. Is an example of ____ genetic environmental correlation
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evocative
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Development is best understood at
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a series of complex changes between nature and nurture
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A genotype is a
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Complex blend of genetic information that determines the species and influences unique characteristics
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Implantation occurs ____ after fertilization
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Sometime between seventh and ninth
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The placenta
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Delivers food and oxygen to the developing organism
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Katie wonders when she will first be able to hear her fetus heartbeat through stethoscope. You tell her that they should happen by the
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Third month
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In eight months pregnant
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a layer of fat is added to assist with temperature regulation
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The effect of teratogens
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Very with age of the organism at the time of exposure
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Which of the following statements is true about regular aspirin used during pregnancy
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It is linked to low birth weight, infant death around the time of birth, poor motor development, and lower intelligence scores in early childhood
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Which of the following is true about the consequences of smoking during
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Smoking during pregnancy can increase the likelihood of miscarriage, prematurity, asthma, infant death, and childhood cancer
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Which of the following is true about fetal alcohol syndrome
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It is distinguished by slow physical growth, a pattern of three facial abnormalities, and brain injury
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Taking a blank supplement around the time of conception greatly reduces by more than 70% abnormalities of the neural tube
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Folic acid
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Infants born to mothers who did not seek timely prenatal care are five times more likely to ____than those whose mother received early medical attention
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Die
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During the third stage of labor
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The placenta separates from the wall of the uterus is and is delivered
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Mark Apgar ratings were seven and nine this indicates that Mark
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Was in good physical condition & five minutes afterwards
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Mothers who ____ have fewer birth complications and shorter labors
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Are supported by a trained companion during childbirth
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Kangaroo care
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Involves placing the infant in a vertical position on the parents chest, under the clothing, to the parents body operates as a human incubator
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When baby Ian is held horizontally on the back, he sometimes makes in embracing motion by arching his back, extending his legs, throwing his arms outward, and then bringing his arms in toward his body. Ian is demonstrating that
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Moro reflex
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Which of the following is true about REM sleep
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REM sleep is vital for Growth of the central nervous system
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The most effective way to soothe the crying baby is
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Lifting the baby to the shoulder and rocking or walk
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Parents can reduce the likelihood of SIDS by
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Placing infants to sleep on their back
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Is the least developed of a newborn baby senses
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Vision
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Research suggests that more active fetuses during the third trimester are more likely to become two-year-olds who
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are less fearful
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Piaget believe that infants and toddlers
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think with her eyes ears and hands
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according to Piaget first schemes
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our sensorimotor action patterns
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during ___, children use their current schemes to interpret the external world, whereas in ___
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assimilation; accommodation
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baby Kate now relate stropping and throwing to her developing understanding of nearness and foreigners. Piaget theory this achievement is an example of
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Organization
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baby Luigi retrieves his pacifier, which his mother has hidden behind hello. Baby Luigi has begun to master
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object permanence
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in substage six of the sensorimotor period, the ability to create mental representations enables toddlers to ___ and ___
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engage and deferred imitation; use make-believe play
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unlike Piaget who thought young babies constructed all mental representations out of semi motor activity most researchers have
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infants have some Belkton cognitive and equipment for making sense of experience
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according to the information processing approach the longer person holds information and working memory
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The more likely it will transfer to the permanent knowledgebase
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with the transition to toddlerhood attraction to blank declines and blank in improves
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novelty; sustained attention
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blank helps infants produce the enormous amount of new information they encounter every day so they can learn and remember
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catergorization
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research on infantile amnesia suggest that adults typically cannot remember event that happened during the first few years of life because
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adults cannot translate early preverbal memories into language
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children master activities through
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joint activities with more mature members of the society
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when Sarah was 18 months old her mother stood behind her helping her throat being back Sara skills improved her mother stepped back this is an example best illustrated by the concept of
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The zone of proximal development
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which of the find is true about make-believe play
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make-believe is a major means there with children extender conative skills and learn about important activities in their culture
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knowing Niraj IQ score help.
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no whether Niraji is ahead behind or on time in mental development compared with his agement
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research using the home checklist reveals that the extent to which parents blank is especially important infant facilitating covers intelligence test
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talk to their infants and toddlers
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blank is much better indicator going in early mental test score of how children will do later
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warm responsive parenting
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research on childcare in the United States shows that
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only 20 to 25% of childcare settings in the United States provider level of care sufficient to promote healthy psychological development
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Young toddlers add to their spoken vocabularies at a rate of
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123 words per week
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Child directed speech and parent-child conversation
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create a zone of proximal development in which children’s language skills expect
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according to Ericsson’s theory in mistrustful baby
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protect herself by withdrawing from people and things around her
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according to Ericsson and mother who blank is likely to promote autonomy in toddlerhood
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gives a child next your five minutes to finish playing before they leave the park
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Basic emotions are
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universal in humans
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which of the following is supported by research on instant anger
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The rise in anger among older incidents in adaptive because new motor abilities enable them to defend themselves or overcome obstacles
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which of the following is supported by research on infant fear
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The most frequent expression of fear is stranger anxiety
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once wariness of strangers develops after six months
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baby use the familiar caregiver as a secure base from which to explore
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orisons parents smile and say yummy when he tries new vegetables his parents are using blank to try to influence orisons food preferences
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social referencing
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20 month old Stephanie is firmly aware of herself as a separate unique individual. Which of the following emotions is Stephanie likely to display
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embarrassment
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Thomas became angry after a playmate took his truck away. How can Thomases father help him to regulate his emotions
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label Thomases feelings encourage him to describe his internal state and offer a comforting hug
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infants whose parents blank tend to be less fussy
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read and respond contingently and sympathetically to their emotional cues
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Thomas and chassis New York longitudinal study demonstrated
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temperament can protect the child from the negative effects of a highly stressful Homelite
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to acquire effective social skills in inhibited children need
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parenting tailored to their temperaments
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Long term prediction of temperament can be best achieved after age 3 because
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temperament in South develops with age
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blank involves creating child-rearing environments that recognize each child’s temperament while encouraging more adaptive functioning
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goodness of fit
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toddlers who sleep alone and experience frequent daytime separation from their parent
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sometimes develop strong emotional ties to comfort objects such as blankets and stuffed animals
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according to Bowlby the blank becomes a vital part of personality serving as a guide for all future close relationship
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internal working model
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in the strange situation fillet for seeks closeness to his mother and fails to explore. When his mother leaves Philip is distressed and on her return he hits her. Philip is displaying characteristics of blank attachment
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resistant
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Carmen adopted her son chest after his second birthday. What can you tell Carmen about the opportunity for attachment
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The first attachment bond can develop as late as 4 to 6 years of age
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A researcher place is a red dot on two-year-old ravens knows. When she looks and Tranmere she tries to run that off of her nose rather than offer the mayor. This behavior indicates that she has developed
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self recognition
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which of the following is supported by research and early self-development
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babies whose parents respond sense Tivolli to their signals and encourage exploration tend to be advanced in self-development