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Dev. Psych 11-16

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Retrieve the correct spelling of words from long-term memory
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Emma studied for the spelling test all week and spelled each of the tested words correctly. Emma’s ability to do well on her spelling test was based on her ability to _____.
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Concrete operational
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A child is shown a large box and a small box. The large box contains a 5-pound weight and the small box contains a 10-pound weight. The child picks up the boxes and looks at them closely, and then is asked which weighs more. The child is no longer focused only on appearances, so he answers that the small box weighs more. Piaget would say that this child is in the_____ stage of cognitive development.
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Metacognition
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Evaluating a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish and monitor one’s performance is called _____.
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Seriation
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The knowledge that things can be arranged in a logical order is the logical principle of _____.
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10
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Sensory memory improves until about age _____ and then remains adequate until late adulthood.
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Sensory
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The memory system in which signals are held for a split second is called _____ memory.
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Personal motivation
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Which factor contributes to increases in a child’s knowledge base?
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Long term memory
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The component of the information-processing system in which virtually limitless amounts of information can be stored indefinitely is _____.
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process the information
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To retain information in working memory, individuals must _____.
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High intelligence
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Which of the following factors does NOT facilitate increases in the knowledge base?
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Sensory memory, working memory, long-term memory
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From an information-processing approach, the memory process has three major steps. What is the correct order of this process, beginning with the first component?
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Base
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A body of knowledge in a particular area that makes it easier to master new information in that area is referred to as knowledge _____.
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Retrieval
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How readily past learning can be brought into working memory from long-term memory is referred to as _____.
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Seriation
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Seven-year-old Hannah can arrange 10 buttons in order from smallest to largest. Her understanding of _____ allows her to accomplish this.
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Can be culturally specific
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Strategies for processing information within working memory _____.
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Working memory
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Tony came to walk with JosĂ© to school. When JosĂ© saw Tony’s notebook in his backpack, JosĂ© rushed back into his house to retrieve his own notebook, which contained his homework. JosĂ©’s sensation upon seeing Tony’s notebook became a perception, which triggered JosĂ©’s _____.
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Control processes
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Mechanisms that combine memory, processing speed, and knowledge to regulate the analysis and flow of information within the information-processing system are referred to as _____.
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children who received instruction designed better experiments than those who did them on their own
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To determine if children benefit from instruction with respect to metacognition or if they are able to develop metacognition spontaneously, children were asked to design four scientific experiments (Klahr & Nigam, 2004). Children were first allowed to design the experiments on their own to determine if they spontaneously used metacognition. Then some children were provided with direct instruction about scientific testing. Finally, all of the children were asked to design four experiments. The results of the study suggested that ____.
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Working memory
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The component of the information-processing system in which current conscious mental activity occurs is the _____.
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The answer to this question
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Which information is most likely to be in your current working memory?
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Metacognition
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Addie has weekly spelling tests. On Monday she gets the list of 10 words and realizes she knows how to spell four of the words. Rather than studying these four words, she spends Tuesday and Wednesday studying the six new words. On Wednesday evening she quizzes herself on the six words and learns she now knows how to spell three more. Thursday she studies the three words she still did not know how to spell. Friday morning before the spelling test she quizzes herself on all 10 words and correctly spells all 10 words. Addie’s ability to evaluate the task of learning words and monitor and adjust her performance throughout the learning process is due to _____.
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Age and experience
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Control processes improve with _____.
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Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
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Dr. Holiday is doing a study to determine how 9-year-olds think. Based on theory, he believes that the 9-year-olds should be able to reason logically about concrete situations, situations that are real, tangible, and visible. Dr. Holiday’s belief is based on _____.
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Knowledge base
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Ten-year-old Billy loves baseball and has studied baseball statistics since he was 5 years old. Billy is currently reading this year’s statistics for some of his favorite players. He will easily remember the new statistics because of the _____ he has for baseball statistics.
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Classification
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Nine-year-old Pete sorted screws, bolts, and nails into three piles by type. He is able to correctly sort the objects into separate piles because of the logical principle of _____.
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Resilient
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The child who weathers severe family problems, even abuse, and yet emerges from those experiences unscathed is said to be _____.
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His circle of friends
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Since Carter’s mother suffers from depression and his father is an alcoholic, Carter is often neglected, but he has a supportive group of friends. Despite his circumstances, he maintains a positive outlook. What may be helping Carter to maintain his positive attitude?
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Members of their own sex
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Most bullies pick on _____.
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Independence
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Children’s “increasing ability to regulate themselves, to take responsibility, and to exercise self-control” contributes to their _____.
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Social comparison
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When one assesses one’s abilities, achievements, social status, and other attributes by measuring them against one’s peers, one is engaging in _____.
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Repeated
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Bullying differs from ordinary aggression because bullying attacks are _____.
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Alberto, who is being raised by his biological mother and father
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Who is MOST likely to experience few psychological problems during middle childhood?
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Popular
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Jenny is always friendly. When someone tells her a secret she does not tell other friends. She also is helpful and cooperates with others to get class projects done. Other students like working with Jenny. Jenny could be defined as a _____ child.
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Nuclear family
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Joshua and Jeanette are brother and sister who live with their biological parents. They live in a(n) _____.
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Use words to attack
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Girls who bully typically _____.
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The United States
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Jenny was the only student in her class to get all the questions right on the math test. She announced to the class, “I am perfect! I am better than everyone!” Given this display, Jenny is most likely from which of the following countries?
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reduces; lower
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Academic and social competence are aided by realistic self-perception. Unrealistically high self-esteem _____ effortful control, which leads to _____ academic achievement.
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Industrious
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According to Erikson, if 9-year-old Anna is successful in solving her psychosocial conflict, she should be developing a(n) _____ view of herself.
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differential sensitivity
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Marissa and Jessica, sisters born two years apart, grew up in an impoverished, violent neighborhood. As adults, Marissa is chronically jobless and is addicted to drugs while Jessica is a professor of economics at a community college. What might explain their different life outcomes?
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parentificiation
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When children act as parents and try to take care of everyone, it is called _____.
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low income and high conflict
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Two factors that universally interfere with family function in every nation are _____.
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Using religion as a source of support
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Alisha’s family is experiencing multiple problems, including her mother’s illness, her father’s loss of employment, and two relatives moving into their home. Despite the stress of home life, Alisha does attend weekly church and feels welcomed by the congregation. Overall, Alisha seems to be doing fairly well despite her home life. Alisha may be _____.
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withdrawn-rejected child
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Olivia is an extremely timid and anxious 8-year-old girl. Other children seem to dislike her. She appears to be a(n) _____.
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industry
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Barbara is in the third grade. She spends many hours rehearsing her math skills, reading books, and collecting bugs. According to Erikson, Barbara is developing a healthy sense of _____ through these tasks.
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step parent family
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Dimitri has been married before and has two biological children. He has just married Natasha, who has also been married before and has a biological son. Their family is an example of a _____.
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culture and cohort
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What factors generally determine whether a child is well liked by his or her peers?
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higher income
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Compared with single-parent homes, two-parent homes usually have _____.
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decrease her self esteem
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Andrea is a typical 11-year-old whose growing self-consciousness and self-criticism drive her to frequently compare herself with her peers. If Andrea is like most children, such comparisons will _____.
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effortful control
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The ability to regulate one’s emotions and actions through effort, not simply through natural inclination, is referred to as _____.
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transitions should be minimized
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To reduce the impact of divorce on children, which of the following should take place?
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Anxiety about their body image
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One reason adolescents’ nutritional habits may be poor is _____.
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There is a positive correlation between body fat and onset of puberty among females.
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Which statement about the correlation between body fat and onset of puberty among females is correct?
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Bulimia Nervosa
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Josefina is obsessed with her weight. She sometimes eats a whole package of Oreos at once and then makes herself vomit. Josefina is of normal weight, but she constantly has heartburn. She MOST likely suffers from _____.
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Anorexia Nervosa
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Patty is 5 feet tall and weighs 87 pounds, yet when she looks in the mirror she thinks she is too fat. She does aerobics for two hours daily and eats very little. Patty appears to suffer from _____.
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Rebecca, who is African American
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Statistically, which adolescent is MOST apt to experience menarche first?
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inner brain to the cortex and from back to front
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In adolescent brain development, myelination and maturation occur in sequence, proceeding from the _____.
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Prefrontal Cortex
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Adolescents are more likely than adults to choose to stay up all night, go through a day without eating, exercise in pain, or text while driving because of an immature _____.
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8;14
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For both girls and boys, puberty typically begins as young as _____ years of age or as late as _____ years of age.
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Hypothalamus
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The first hormones to begin the process of puberty are triggered in the child’s _____.
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lose weight
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Research indicates that a majority of adolescent girls in the United States are trying to _____.
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growth of fingers and toes
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One of the first signs of the growth spurt is _____.
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the shrinkage of the lymphoid system
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Which change contributes to an adolescent’s lessening susceptibility toward respiratory infections?
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family based therapy
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The more successful therapy for eating disorders during adolescence appears to be _____.
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worldwide
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Unhappiness with one’s physical appearance is a _____ phenomenon.
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aggression and antisocial behavior in boys
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In the twenty-first century, early puberty positively correlates with _____.
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Peers
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Many adolescents think carefully and answer correctly when responding to paper-and-pencil questions about hypothetical risk-taking situations, yet in the real world they engage in risky behavior. This is due in part to their _____.
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precocious puberty
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Latisha experienced menarche when she was 8 years old. She experienced _____.
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changes in myelination in his brain and the guidance of an experienced coach
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José enjoys sports, especially running. As an adolescent, he has the potential to become a star athlete. Which pair of influences will be MOST beneficial to him in reaching his full potential?
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poor body image
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Mila told a friend that she doesn’t like the way her legs look in her new volleyball uniform. She said she hates her figure, and expressed a desire to lose a lot of weight. From this discussion, you might think that Mila has a _____.
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growth of heart and lungs
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Some teenagers seem able to skate, play basketball, or dance for hours without rest. This increased endurance is best explained by _____.
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higher proportion of body fat
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Janet and Carlos are both experiencing a growth spurt. If they are typical adolescents, Janet will have _____ than Carlos.
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hormones
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Body chemicals that regulate sleep, moods, hunger, and stress are called _____.
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puberty
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The period when children’s bodies become adult in terms of size, shape, and sexuality is called _____.
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Limbic system; prefrontal cortex
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During adolescence, the _____ matures before the _____ in the brain.
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torso
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During the adolescent growth spurt, what is the last part(s) of the body to grow?
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adolescents; adults; with peers
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Albert et al. (2013) ran a series of experiments in which adults and adolescents, alone or with peers, played a video game. In the game, taking risks could lead to crashes or gaining points. The experiments found that _____, unlike the _____, were much more likely to take risks and crash when they were _____.
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Themselves
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During puberty, adolescents’ thoughts center on _____.
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personal fable
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Many adolescents feel that their own thoughts and experiences are far more extraordinary than those of other people. This is part of their _____.
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dual process model
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The notion that two networks exist within the human brain, one for emotional and one for analytical processing of stimuli, is called _____.
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adolescent egocentrism
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A 15-year-old girl realizes that the dress she has worn to school has a small stain on it. Her belief that everyone will notice it is an example of _____.
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hypothetical thought
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Reasoning that includes propositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality defines _____.
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increases
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During adolescence, impulsivity declines and analytic thinking _____.
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analytic thought
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Aaron has a busy week of school ahead. He has a report due in history, a paper due in English, a test in biology, a concert for music, and two basketball games. In order to effectively manage all of these activities, Aaron will need to engage what type of thought?
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their active resistance of logical thinking
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Adolescents are capable of analytic thought, yet they do not consistently use it. All of the following are possible reasons for the inconsistent use of analytic thought by adolescents EXCEPT _____.
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egocentrism
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Ron thinks he is more unique and admired than other adolescents his age, and is certain that everyone is paying attention to his every action. It appears that he has started to experience adolescent _____.
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think of terms of possibilities
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One of the most prominent aspects of formal operational thought is the ability to _____.
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intuitive
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Fifteen-year-old Richard wants to be allowed to drive the family car, even though he does not yet have a driver’s license. When his parents ask him why he thinks he should have driving privileges, he answers, “I know other kids who do it, and it’s just stupid that I have to wait another three months until I turn 16.” This is an example of what kind of thinking?
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hypothetical thinking
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Justine is 14 years old. Her parents are frequently annoyed because Justine tends to ask critical questions such as, “Why can’t I have wine with dinner? You do,” or “I don’t understand why I’ll be able to vote when I’m 18, but I have to wait until I’m 21 to buy alcohol!” This demonstrates Justine’s _____.
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deductive reasoning
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Elle, an adolescent, believes that government should pay for all citizens’ health care. From this premise, she reasons about the particulars of how and why government-funded health care would work. This is an example of _____.
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egocentrism
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Avery, who is 14 years old, is attending her first swim team practice. She is very sensitive to the facial expressions, body language, communication styles, and other social cues given by her new teammates. Avery’s sensitivity to these social cues is aided by her adolescent _____.
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inductive
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Using _____ thinking, a person might think, “If it barks like a dog and wags its tail like a dog, it must be a dog.”
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12 to 14
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A longitudinal study (Harden & Tucker-Drob, 2011) that traced the development of sensation-seeking, which can lead to intuitive thinking, from early adolescence to the mid-20s found that increases in sensation-seeking were notable from ages _____.
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Hypothetical thought involves imagined possibilities.
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Which statement is TRUE?
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hypothetical thought
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“If-then” propositions require _____.
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the imaginary audience
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Marsha says, “There is no way I am going to school today with this bruise on my cheek. Everybody is going to laugh at me.” Marsha is demonstrating _____.
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young military recruits who hope to be sent into combat
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The power of the invincibility fable may be observed in _____.
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intuitive thought
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Blair has heard repeatedly from her parents about the potential dangers of drinking alcohol, yet at a party she gladly accepts a beer from a classmate. Blair thinks that this classmate is one of the most popular students at school. In this situation, what type of thinking is most likely dominating Blair’s decision to accept the beer?
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inductive reasoning
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Three different girls tell Brian that Titanic is their all-time favorite movie. He concludes that all girls love that movie. Brian has just used _____.
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inductive
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Bottom-up reasoning is also referred to as _____ reasoning.
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intuitive thought
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Kristy and her friends come up with several options of things to do on Friday night, and ultimately decide to go to a new movie because it received positive reviews. In making this decision Kristy and her friends are using what type of thought?
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mothers and daughters
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In typical relationships, one would expect the MOST bickering between _____.
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negative identity
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Without any thoughtful consideration, Sean took on an identity that is the opposite of what his parents want for him. Sean has adopted a(n) _____.
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facilitating constructive behaviors
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Several of Jamel’s friends agree to gather Thursday evening and study for their physics exam, and they invite him to come along. Jamel’s friends are _____.
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foreclosure
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When a person adopts parents’ or society’s roles and values without questioning and exploring a personal identity, it is referred to as identity _____.
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her parents have adjusted to her independence
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Shortly after Brittany turned 18, she developed a newfound appreciation of her parents. What contributed to her change in attitude?
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understanding of oneself
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Psychosocial development during adolescence involves the search for a(n) _____.
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best predictor of later drug abuse
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Drug use before the age of 18 _____.
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rumination
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Elyse broke up with her boyfriend after a fight. She has spent the last week repeatedly going over the fight in her mind, which has caused her to sink into depression. Her continual reliving of the fight is known as _____.
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parasuicide
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Alisha took an overdose of prescription pills, but before she lost consciousness she called her mom for help. Alisha was rushed to the hospital for medical attention. Alisha’s behavior is defined as _____.
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take on a temporary role and postpone identity-achievement decisions
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During an identity moratorium, adolescents typically _____.
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damaging the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex
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Heavy drinking impairs memory and self-control by _____.
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parental monitoring
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Parents’ awareness of where their adolescents are, what they are doing, and with whom they are doing it is referred to as _____.
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diffusion
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The identity status characterized by a lack of commitment to any goals or values is _____.
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completed suicide
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With respect to suicide, what is more common in adolescent boys than in adolescent girls?
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authoritative
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Which type of parenting is most effective during adolescence?
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bickering
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Sandra is in her bedroom with her mother. Sandra’s mother exclaims, “You need to get these clothes off the floor right now!” Sandra replies, “It’s my room and I will leave things where I want.” Sandra’s mother responds, “I am your mother and you will do what I say.” This is an example of _____.
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cluster
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Several suicides within the same group of people in a brief period are called _____ suicides.
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lenient drug laws
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According to the text, which is NOT a possible reason for the decrease in juvenile criminal behavior?
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constructive
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Healthy communication and support from parents make _____ peer relationships more likely.
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come from low-socioeconomic status communities
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One study found that the short allele of the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR) contributes to increased rates of depression in all girls, but only in boys who _____.
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Their son chose this group because he shares their interests.
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Mr. and Mrs. Cortina have discovered that their son has been skipping classes and cutting school with a group of boys. Which conclusion is MOST likely true?
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early adolescence
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In the United States, parent-child conflict is most common when children are in _____.
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life-course-persistent offender
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Ty started to behave aggressively at age 5, and by age 8 was caught shoplifting several times. Ty is now age 25 and has committed armed robbery. Ty would be considered to be a(n) _____.
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identity foreclosure
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Angel’s parents wanted him to be part of the family business—and Angel planned to do so. Then, at age 21, he decided to leave the business to study to be a lawyer. Angel resisted _____.
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decreasing
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With respect to parental control over adolescents, _____ control over the years of adolescence is best for adolescent emotional functioning