– Object of study in its own right
– What it reveals about cultures
We usually think of spoken language (______) when we use the term language, but English can be communicated in writing Morse code, or __________ to name just three nonspoken media.
American Sign Language
They generally have larger _______ for the aspects of life that is most important to them.
(EX: The Aymara who live in the Andes of South America, have hundreds of words for the many varieties of potatoes they grow)(EX: Contrast Americans with words for computers)
– The importance of openness for human verbal communication is striking when we compare for example, ____ human language to the ___communication systems (or call systems) of monkeys and apes.
This point is stressed in the work of _____ anthropologists who point out that modern human beings still possess a set of six calls: laughing, sobbing, screaming with fright, crying with pain, groaning and sighing.
– One aspect of linguistic creativity is the ____, creative production of new links between sounds and meanings. Thus, arbitrariness is the ____of openness.
– Arbitrariness is evident in the design feature of language that is called ______(human language is patterned on two different levels: sound and meaning).
duality of patterning
(EX: Boy in English in other languages means many)
– The second level is where grammar puts the sound units together according to an entirely different set of rules: The resulting sound clusters are the smallest meaning bearing units of the language, called (______)
– Languages that only have ___pronouns for males and females
– If language determined ____, we wouldn’t be able to translate or learn another
– Every language provides its native speakers with _____ ways of describing the world
– One language is the _____ rather than the rule (monolinguals)
To make sense of the structure of languages, linguists needed a concept that could refer to ______and not be ______ into words. This led to the development of _____ (“the minimal units of meaning in a language”)
strings of words
This means that meaning must be constructed in the face _____.
Two kinds of context must be considered: ____ and ___
linguistic and nonlinguistic
Phonemes, morphemes, syntax and semantics are viewed as ______
_______(making value judgements about other people’s speech in a context of dominance and subordination.)
– Case of African children with a supposed “______” as opposed to Eastern Americans (Found that it was not defective, and they used sophisticated language)
– ____ to them represented both the oppression of slavery and the resistance to that oppression
They also developed a _____ based on indirectness that could only be fully enacted before an audience that included both people who had been socialized within the African American setting and outsiders who had not. (EX: when asking why, they answered where)
Gender-based differences in linguistic habits are not ______.
When studied, the speech between genders was ____. (Ritual speech (elaborate metaphors in poetic form), and some varieties of it are so demanding that the men and women were sometimes paid for performing)
EX: Men were to talk to spirits in this, while women were to cause emotion and never paid.
Metaphor in Azande Central Africa is called ___ in which can be used to disguise a speech that might be taken wrong.
Sanza adds greatly to the difficulties of anthropological ____.
Human language is an ____and as long as human history continues, new forms will be created and old forms will continue to be put to new use.