Critical Thinking Final Exam

central claim
another word for thesis.

uncontested claims
1. claims consistent with our experiences. 2. claims independent of interpretation. 3. areas in which there is agreement among experts. 4. technical or mathematical claims.

contestable claim
claims that are not commonly accepted knowledge.

concept map
claim can be presented as a diagram or drawing.

argument
a combination of the claim and the evidence for it. (because, as a result, in the first place, in the second place, for example, in addition, given that, studies show, etc.)

precision
Overuse of ambiguous and abstract words such as “a great deal, many, often, a high probability,” and so on are indicative of-

fallacy of hasty generalization
when the evidence is not sufficient to support a claim, the author is guilty of-

fallacy
an erroneous but frequently persuasive way of being led from a reason or circumstance to a conclusion.”

fallacy of false appeal to authority
we commit this when we accept the testimony of someone who has no expertise in the relevant area.

reality assumptions
our beliefs about what events have taken place, what exists or how things work in the world.

valid
If a statementit has modens or syllagism in the name, it is-

causal claims
certain events or factors are responsible for bringing about other events or situations.

three types of rival causes
1) related to differences between groups. 2) correlation between characteristics. 3) the post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy.

reasoning
the essential ingredient in problem solving.

cogent
another word for “good” in reasoning

fallacious
another word for “bad” in reasoning.

premise
Words such as “because, since, for” usually indicate that what follows is a ___ of an argument

expository
A passage that is purely ______ gives us no reason to accept any “facts” it may contain (other than the implied authority of the writer or speaker.”

validity
concerns the nature of the connection between the premises and conclusion of an argument, not the truth or believability of its premises.

deductively
A(n) ______ valid argument: “If all of its premises are true, then its conclusion must be true, also, because the claim asserted by its conclusion already has been stated in its premises, although usually only implicitly. (FORM)

modus ponens
1. If A then B.
2. A.
3. B.

Inductively
_________ valid arguments have conclusions that go beyond what is contained in their premises, projecting patterns stated in the premises onto additional cases. (experience)

induction by enumeration
“The tooth fairy turned out not to be real. The Easter Bunny turned out not to be real. So I’m beginning to wonder about Santa.” An example of:______

deductive and inductive
two kinds of valid reasoning.

modus tollens
1. If A then B.
2.Not B.
3. Not A.

hypothetical syllogism
1. A then B.
2. If B then C.
3. If A then C.

disjunctive syllogism
1. A or B.
2. Not A.
3. B.

deductively valid
modus ponens, modus tollens, hypothetical syllogism, and disjunctive syllogism are all examples of _______ ______ argument forms.

deductively invalid
Any argument that doesn’t have a deductively valid form.

denying the antecedent
1. If A then B.
2. Not A.
3. Not B.

affirming the consequent
1. A then B.
2. B.
3. A.

categorical proposition
Subject-predicate proposition that asserts or denies a relationship between a subject class and a predicate class.

Universal Affirmative
“All S are P.”

universal negative
“No S are P.”

Particular affirmative
“Some S are P.”

particular Negative
“Some S are not P.”

indirect proof
also called reductio ad absurdum (reduce to an absurdity). We reason this way when we assume the opposite of what we wish to prove and then deductively derive a conclusion claimed to be false.

tautology
a statement that is logically, or necessarily true or is so devoid of content as to be practically empty. “Barry Bonds did take steroids, or he didn’t.

contradiction
a statement that is necessarily false (because it contradicts itself.) “Barry Bonds did take steroids, and he didn’t take them.”

Reverse causation
When two factors, A and B, are correlated, it may be that A is causing B, but it is also possible that B is causing A.

pattering
We can think of induction as a kind of ______.

probability
greater sample size yields greater _______

representative
More representative samples yield higher probabilities than those that are less _________.

enumerative
One definite counterexample shoots down an _________ induction.

reasoning by analogy
we reason from the similarity of two things in several relevant respects to their similarity in another.

statistical induction
Having found that a certain percentage of the As examined have the property in question, we can conclude that the same percentage of the total population of As have that property.

higher-level
More general, ___________ inductions can be used to evaluate those that are less general.

concatenated
a joining together of inductions and deductions in the discovery of a pattern that fits what has been observed or previously reasoned to.

deductively invalid
affirming the consequent and denying the antecedent are examples of _______ argument forms

syllogism
an argument containing three categorical propositions, two of them premises, one a conclusion.

questionable premise
accepting premises that we should doubt makes us guilty of the fallacy of ______.

suppressed evidence
neglecting relevant evidence makes us guilty of the fallacy______

inconsistency
We commit the fallacy of ______ when we are persuaded to accept the conclusion of an argument that contains self-contradictory statements or statements that contradict each other.

inconsistent
Another way to be _____- is to argue one way at a given time and another way at some other time, or when talking to one person and then to another.

organizational inconsistency
thinking of a large organization as a kind of artificial person; have one representative speak out of one side of the mouth while the other speaks from the other side.

false
The importance of fallacy of inconsistency- it lies in the crucial importance of consistency to cogent reasoning. At least one of a set of inconsistent statements must be ______!

straw man
committed when we misrepresent an opponent’s position, or a competitor’s product, or go after a weaker opponent or competitor while ignoring a stronger one.

dilemma
an argument that presents two alternatives, both claimed to be bad for someone, or some position.

form
Dilemma _____:
Either P or Q.
If P then R.
If Q then S.
Therefore, either R or S.

false dilemma
a dilemma that can be shown to be false.

either-or-fallacy
sometimes called the black-or-white fallacy) is very similar to that of false dilemma. We’re guilty of this fallacy when we mistakenly reason from two alternatives, one claimed to be bad (that is, to be avoided) so that we ought to choose the other alternative.

either-or-fallacy form
Either P or Q.
Not P.
Therefore, Q.

begging the question
when we assume as a premise some form of a very point that is at issue- the very conclusion we intended to prove– we are guilty of the fallacy of _____.

questionable
The fallacy of begging the question usually falls into the broad category questionable premise because a statement that is ______ as a conclusion is equally _______ as a premise.

evading the issue
One effective way to beg the question at issue is simply to avoid it entirely. Doing this makes one guilty of the fallacy of ________.

tokenism
mistaking a token gesture for the real thing, or accepting a token gesture in lieu of something more concrete. Another common fallacy.

ad hominem
attacking an opponent rather than the opponent’s evidence and arguments.

difference
the ________ between ad hominem and straw man is that straw man attacks misrepresent an opponent’s position, whereas those that are ad hominem abuse an opponent directly.

guilt by association
people judged by the company they keep.

two wrongs make a right
Those who try to justify a wrong by pointing to a similar wrong perpetrated by others often are guilty of the fallacy of _____.

common practice
committed when a wrong is justified on the grounds not that one other person or group, but rather lots of, or most, or even all others do the same sort of thing.

traditional wisdom
committed when a wrong or an unsuitable practice is justified on grounds that it follows a traditional or accepted way of doing things.

irrelevant reason
used to refer to reasons or premises that are irrelevant to a conclusion when the error doesn’t fit a narrower fallacy category such as ad hominem argument or two wrongs make a right.

equivocation
Accepting an argument that is invalid because we are fooled by an equivocal use of language.

appeal to ignorance
When good reasons are lacking, the rational conclusion to draw is that we just don’t know. But when we greatly desire to believe something, it’s tempting to take the absence of evidence, and thus absence of refutation, as justification for believing that it is true.

composition
The fallacy of ______ (“salesman’s fallacy”) or “the consumer’s fallacy, is committed when someone assumes that a particular item must have a certain property because all of its parts have that property.

slippery slope argument
an action is objected to on the grounds that once it is taken, another, and then perhaps still another, are bound to be taken, down a “___________” until some undesirable consequence results.

hasty conclusion
committed when we draw a conclusion from relevant but insufficient evidence.

small sample
the fallacy of ________- when we accept a conclusion based on a sample too small to be a reliable representation of the population from which it was drawn.

unrepresentative sample
when we reason from a sample that isn’t sufficiently representative, we commit the fallacy of _______.

biased statistics
sometimes called unrepresentative sample, but this name also applies to cases where known statistics that are unfavorable to a theory are deliberately suppressed.

questionable cause
when we label something as the cause of something else on the basis of insufficient or unrepresentative evidence, or when doing so contradicts well-established, high-level theories.

analogy
We reason by ______ when we conclude from the observed similarity of two or more items in some respects to their similarity in another.

questionable analogy
We aren’t always justified in reasoning by analogy. When we do so anyway, we are guilty of the fallacy of ________, sometimes referred to as faulty comparison.

false charge of fallacy
erroneously accusing others of fallacious reasoning.

quibbling
We don’t want to be overly critical of the reasoning of others to the point that we are guilty of ________.

conclusion
The claim in the argument is also called, “the thesis.” Another term for the claim in an argument is:

true
In an argument such as the one below, if the premises are true, the conclusion must necessarily be which of the following? :
If A then B.
If B then C
If A then C

value assumption
The idea that corporations ought to be responsible in the argument, “Corporate responsibility ought to be a higher priority for big companies because they have a larger impact on the community, the environment and the economy” is an example of:

inductive reasoning
The argument below contains which kind of reasoning:
“Pickles Deli, the new restaurant on Redwood Road, is going to fail. Consider, Alfalfa Diner, Luigi’s, and the Hotdog Hut all failed in that location.”

Private consumers do not buy many laptops at the same time.
Which of the statements below is an example of a reality assumption for the following claim:
“It is not a good marketing strategy to sell laptops in ten-pack units if you are only selling to private consumers.”

it must contain exposition
Which of the following is NOT a criterion of cogent reasoning?

learning from experience
What kind of evidence is offered in valid induction?

Alfalfa Diner, Luigi’s, and Hotdog Hut are other restaurants.
Which of the statements below is an example of an underlying assumption for the claim:
“Pickles Deli, the new restaurant on Redwood Road, is going to fail. Consider, Alfalfa Diner, Luigi’s, and the Hotdog Hut all failed in that location.”

None but that it is said.
What sort of evidence is offered for an expository claim?

good
Cogent reasoning is reasoning that is:

Ruby returned after 1:45.
Which of the statements below is an example of explicit evidence in the following claim:
“Ruby left for lunch at 12:30 and returned after 1:45. She will be written up for taking too long for her break.”

contingent
The statement, “Jerry ate all of the pizza” is an example of which kind of statement?

modus tollens
Which of the following are deductively valid argument forms?

A subject-predicate proposition that asserts or denies a relationship between a subject class and a predicate.
A categorical proposition is which of the following types of arguments?

modus ponens
If it’s the holidays, then stores will have sales.
It is the holidays.
Therefore, stores will have sales.
The previous argument is an example of which deductively valid form?

Hypothetical Syllogism
If we successfully market silly bands, then lots of people will buy silly bands.
If lots of people buy silly bands, then our company will make a profit.
Therefore, if we successfully market silly bands then our company will make a profit.
The previous argument is an example of which type of deductively valid argument form?

particular negative
“Some lawyers don’t lie,” is an example of which kind of categorial proposition?

contradiction
“Jim sold more cars than Sally and Sally sold more cars than Jim,” is an example of which of the following statements?

tautology
“Bachellors are unmarried men” is an example of which kind of statement?

Universal Affirmative
The claim, “All S are P,” is an example of which kind of categorical proposition?

Disjunctive Syllogism
Tom will buy a car or Tom will buy a house.
Tom will not buy a car.
Therefore, Tom will buy a house.
The previous argument is an example of which type of deductively valid argument form?

Affirming the consequent
If Chris quits her job then she will be broke.
Chris is broke.
Therefore Chris quit her job.
Therefore Chris quit her job.
The previous argument is an example of which type of deductively invalid argument form?

True
True or False: With Induction, Greater sample size yields greater probability.

False
True or false: Higher-level inductions can be overruled by low-level inductions because low-level inductions are more general.

Concatenated
What kind of reasoning is used if one joins together inductions and deductions in the discovery of a pattern that fits what has been observed or previously reasoned to?

false
True or false: With Induction, more representative samples yield lower probabilities than those that are less representative.

Induction by Enumeration
If I conclude from surveying 700 people that, because all 700 people I interviewed believed that Pepsi tasted better than Diet Pepsi, all people believe that Pepsi tastes better than Diet Pepsi, what kind of induction am I using?

false
True or false: It is the case that if an argument is inductively correct then the conclusion is factually correct as well.

analogy
A type of reasoning where we reason from the similarity of two things in several relevant respects to their similarity in another.

induction by enumeration
If we reason from the fact that all As observed so far are Bs to the conclusion that all As whatsoever are Bs, which kind of induction would we be utilizing?

false
True or false: With Induction, no single counterexample shoots down an enumerative induction.

Statistical Induction
Having found that 490 of the first 1,000 observed tosses of a given coin land face up, we can conclude that 49 percent of all of the tosses with that coin will land face up.
The above claim is an example of which kind of induction?

Appeal to Ignorance
Taking the absence of evidence, and thus the absence of refutation, as justification for believing that a claim is true.

equivocation
Accepting an argument that is invalid because we are fooled by an equivocal use of language.

traditional wisdom
When a wrong or unsuitable practice is justified on ground that it follows a traditional or accepted way of doing things.

ad hominem
Attacking an opponent rather than the opponent’s evidence and arguments.

tokenism
Mistaking a token gesture for the real thing, or accepting a token gesture in lieu of something more concrete.

Begging the Question
When we assume as a premise some form of the very point that is at issue.

Straw Man
When we misrepresent an opponent’s position or a competitor’s product, or go after a weaker opponent or competitor while ignoring a stronger one.

Inconsistency
When we are persuaded to accept the conclusion of an argument that contains self-contradictory statements or statements that contradict each other.

Appeal to Authority
Accepting the word of an authority, alleged or genuine, when we shouldn’t.

False Dilemma
A dilemma that can be shown to be false.

Nitpicking every detail in an argument where certain assumptions can be reasonably made.
What is one doing when one quibbles?

true
There is no such thing as a “Poll Fallacy”.

hasty conclusion
Accepting an argument on the basis of relevant but insufficient information.

small sample
Drawing conclusions about a population on the basis of a sample that is too small to be a reliable measure of that population.

unrepresentative sample
Reasoning from a sample that is not representative (typical) of the population from which it was drawn.

questionable analogy
Drawing an analogical conclusion when the cases compared are not relevantly alike.

false charge of fallacy
Erroneously accusing others of fallacious reasoning.

false
Good statistics will necessarily result in good reasoning about those statistics.

appeal to ignorance
Which of the following is NOT one of the other fallacies that your text suggests “Questionable Cause” is related to or overlaps with?

more persuasive
Your text argues that acknowledging limitations makes your writing ______. Fill in the blank:

Concede that your claim is false.
Which of the following is NOT a way to limit your claim that your text discusses?

Anticipate and counter-argue readers’ objections.
Most claims in business, and in persuasive writing more generally, tend to be contestable claims. This requires the author of the argument to do which of the following “destructive testing” on their ideas?

the use of language to convince
What does the word “Rhetoric” mean?

Present the negative evidence in order to show that you have given it consideration.
Which of the following is one of your text’s suggestions for how to handle negative evidence?

false
True or False: For business writing, it is always best to present the most analytical, matter-of-fact writing in order to be convincing.

vague words
Words that are imprecise and do not stimulate reader’s imaginations.

cliches
Metaphorical phrases that, while formerly vivid, are now over-used.

narrative tone
Style of writing characterized by stories and anecdotes.

limit your claim
If you have no rebuttal, what does your text suggest you should do?

42.3% of Samsung A670 users reported problems with their cell phones within the first 30 days of use.
Which of the following is the best example of “negative evidence” for the claim, “Samsung makes excellent quality phones”?

self deception
Consciously believing what at a deeper level we know to be dubious.

culture lag
The tendency of practices and beliefs to persist long after whatever conditions made them useful or sensible have disappeared.

delusion
An extreme example of self-deception where the individual persists in deceiving themselves despite mounting evidence.

procrastination
Putting off for tomorrow what common sense tells us needs to be done today.

scapegoats
Others (often minorities within a larger culture) we can blame for the ills of the world when in fact we ourselves may bear a large measure of responsibility.

suppression
Avoiding thoughts that are stressful by either not thinking about them or, more commonly, by thinking nonstressful thoughts.

psuedoscience
Theories put forth by “scientists” that continue to be accepted by a significant number of people in spite of the fact that they produce no postive results whatsoever.

provincialism
Stemming from the natural tendency to identify with the ideas, interests, and kinds of behavior favored by those in groups with which we identify, this impediment causes us to tend to see things from the point of view of and interests of our primary culture.

partisan mind-set
The tendency to perceive evidence and to judge arguments via an “us against them” or a “my right view against your wrong view” attitude.

rationalization
A psychological ploy that we use to ignore or deny unpleasant evidence so as to feel justified in doing what we want to do or in belieiving what we find comfortable to believe.

questionable statistics
employing statistics that are questionable without further support. Example: Accepting government statistics on short-term business trends as completely accurate rather than just educated approximations. Extreme example: Employing unknowable statistics about how many wars have been fought in the past 5,000 years and how many casualties there have been.

questionable uses of statistics
Perfectly good statistics also sometimes are a problem– for two reasons. The first is the inability of so many people to understand the significance of this statistic or that, made worse by the natural tendency in all of us to see statistics as favoring conclusions we already have drawn. The second is the ability of charlatans to bamboozle the rest of us via cleverly employed statistics. Ex: Accepting evidence that the murder rate in states that have adopted a death penalty for serious crimes is higher than in states that have not done so as proof the the death penalty does not deter crime, without further evidence that this statistical evidence has a causal foundation

polls
although _____ are an important source of information, they need to be dealt with cautiously. They can be misleading because of the way in which questions are worded-often deliberately, to obtain the desired statistics; because they ask the wrong questions; because respondents don’t want to appear ignorant, immoral, odd, or prejudiced; or because they are based on a sample that is too small or unrepresentative.

loyalty, provincialism, herd instinct
our reasoning sometimes is skewed from the truth because of _________, which inclines us to see our own society and its beliefs in a more favorable light that the evidence may warrant, because of _______, which narrows our interests and knowledge of what goes on in a world, and because of the _____ _____, which makes it easy and natural for us to believe what most others in our society believe.

prejudice
loyalty and provincialism are related to _____, in particular, to it against members of other groups, and to thinking in terms of unverified stereotypes.

scapegoats
prejudice against others often is conjoined with an overtolerance of the defects and foibles of one’s own group and its members, and it may be reinforced by the need to find _____- others who can be blamed for our own troubles and mistakes.

partisan mind-set
thinking in terms of stereotypes and scapegoats often stems from a _____ ____- viewing everything in terms of “us against them” or “my right opinions against your wrong ones.”

superstitions
____ often are supported by a small amount of evidence. What makes them this is what we believe them on the basis of insufficient and, frequently, biased samples from which all negative evidence has been eliminated.

self-deception
_______ ______- believing what we want to believe, no matter what the evidence- or from its variant, called self-deception- consciously believing what, at some deeper level, we know to be dubious.

rationalization, suppression, and denial.
Three other important ways to cut the wishful thinking pie are _____, _____, and _____.

rationalization
_______ often supports procrastination- putting off until tomorrow what ought to be done today.

anxiety, stress
self-deception frequently aids in the reduction of _____ and _____, both of which can be harmful to health.

pseudoscientific beliefs
______ ______ are adopted, and endure, in spite of their failure to help us deal successfully with everyday problems, because of wishful thinking, self deception, and similar psychological mechanisms.

pseudoscience
_____ is comforting and upbeat concerning our own welfare and the satisfaction of our deepest desires.

manipulate
Pseudosciences also gain widespread acceptance because charlatans have learned how to _____ us in our ungaurded or weak moments. (ex- Hitler)

proportion
on occasion, most of us lack a good sense of _____, a defect in reasoning that critical reasoners try to minimize.

prudence
being _____, in a sense of provident- acting so as to maximize long-run interests- is an important component of a good sense of proportion that we often lack.

emotive
most words have _____ meanings (in addition to cognitive meanings). Words like oppression, kike, and bitch have more or less negative (con) overtones; words like spring, free, and satisfaction have positive (pro) overtones; and words like socialism, marijuana, and God have mixed overtones.

con artists
____ _____ use the emotive side of language to mask cognitive meaning by whipping up emotions so that reason is overlooked and to dull the force of language so as to make acceptable what otherwise might not be. The latter purpose often is accomplished by means of euphemisms (less offensive or dullar expressions used in place of more offensive of emotively charged locutions.)

euphemisms
________= (less offensive or dullar expressions used in place of more offensive of emotively charged locutions.)

slippery
common rhetorical devices often are used in a _____ manner. Ex- slanting words and expressions (“all this proves is that…”) weasel words, fine-print disclaimers, obfuscation.

weasel words
_____ ____ suck out all or part of the meaning of a sentence (“economic success may be….”)

fine-print disclaimers
__-_____ ________= take back part of what was originally asserted (“tickets must be purchased 30 days in advance, subject to availability”)

obfuscation
_____= may mask failure to respond to questions (Sarah Palin wandering from the point of the question about whether she had the national security credentials to serve as vice president.

tone
employing the right ____ can be used to mask lack of cogent reasoning or content or to sway audiences via emotional appeals.

True
True or False: To obfuscate means to make so confused or opaque as to be difficult to perceive or understand, to render indistinct or dim.

Innuendo
Slanting is also referred to by which of the following terms?

sexist language
Which major reform of language does your text cite as an example of language revision in our society? The reform of _____ _______.

government official
Which of the following terms has approximately the same cognitive meaning as “bureaucrat” but has a different emotive meaning according to your book?

true
True or False: Slanting is a form of misrepresentation.

true
True or False: Technical jargon used by people in the same field can be an acceptable use of language.

False
True or False: Tone informs or states a fact about things, events or properties of one kind or another.

prisoner of war
According to your text and as argued in the case of Boumediene v. Bush, the term “Enemy Combatants” is an equivocation of which of the following terms?

euphemism
Locutions from which as much negative emotive content as possible has been removed.

exactly
Which of the following is NOT an example of a weasel word?

true
True or False: Qualitative research grew, in part, out of Freudian psychological theories of the unconscious mind.

demand by patients
Which of the following, according to your book, is the reason most often cited by physicians for inappropriately prescribing medications in the New England Journal of Medicine?

false
True or False: Quantitative research gathers thoughts and feelings on an unconscious motivation level.

because they work
What reason does your book offer for why negative campaign ads continue despite voter outcry against them?

true
True or False: Advertisers will sometimes appeal to people’s sense of patriotism to sell a product.

advertisements pound home slogans
Your text uses the “Chevrolet. Like A Rock,” slogan as an example of which of the following techniques?

false
True or False: Promise advertisements get us to identify with the product.

true
promise advertisements promise to satisfy desires.

false
True or False: Making generalized, vague, or exaggerated claims humorously in advertising is illegal.

true
puffery is legal

GE
As an example of Corporate Image Whitewashing, your text references the “eco imagination” campaign. Which company launched that campaign?

false
True or False: Qualitative Research gathers information by observation, experimentation and surveys.

save money
News-gathering methods are designed to do which of the following, according to your text?

more information matters
According to your text, human interest stories tend to crowd out which of the following?

day-to-day occurences
News tends to get slanted to cover the new, but not the:

the consumer
According to your text, those who have the most important say as to what sort of news stories are presented in the media are:

coverage of events will be automatic
When the interests of politicians or big business moguls coincide with those of the masses which of the following is the consequence?

Being strict about the rules it sets up and the licenses it requires
Government can sometimes harass a news agency by doing which of the following?

separate fact from fiction
Often the press can report political spin without analyzing it to do which of the following?

advertisers
The media is not only beholden to the people but also to which of the following?

preventing conflicting viewpoints from being expressed
Corporate power affects the dissemination of news by:

tactic that provides a large source of media information
According to your text, Leaks are which of the following: