Criminology Quiz 1

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moral entrepreneur
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discover a problem, make statements about right or wrong, broadcasting what they know-making people aware of something
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when was the first criminology book publish?
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1885 in italian
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where do criminologists mainly live?
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3/4 of criminologists live in the US
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criminology vs criminal justice
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criminology-crime criminal justice-correctional system
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Criminology is…
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interdisciplinary(sociology, law, psychology, economics, history, philosophy, sociobiology, animal studies)
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-cide
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to kill (homicide, suicide pesticide, femicidie, insecticide, genocide, correnticide,)
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what percentage of killings are done by men?
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90%
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what did the economic recession cause?
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more needy people to kill wealthy people for money
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What is the homicide rate like compared to other years?
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it is at the lowest point it’s been in 50 years
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which society has the highest imprisonment?
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united states–2 billion
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what is the annual cost of crime in the US?
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$1.7 trillion–including crime induced production the opportunity costs of crime, the value of risks to life and health, economic transfers
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How is a social problem constructed and defined?
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1.) arguments, rhetoric and power of claim makers+moral entrepreneurs 2.) the pressure tactics of powerful private interest groups 3.) the professional utterances of public officials
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what contributes to widespread public support for harsh punishment for criminals?
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outsourcing of jobs, economic insecurity, anger, and fear of crime
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what age groups are most fearful of crime?
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elderly and youth
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what is fear of crime associated with?
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one’s position in society, one’s gender, age, race, social class, education, lived experiences, mass media
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what does mass media provide us?
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certain info about crime+instills fear
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what is the triangle relationship between?
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fear of crime, crime itself, and the images of crime constructed by the media
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what fraction of TV programs in the US are devoted to crime+law enforcement?
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1/3
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By 18, kids will have seen how many acts of violence?
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200,000
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moral panics
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a condition, episode, person or group of persons emerges to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests
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newsmaking criminology
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the conscious efforts and activities of criminologists to interpret, influence, or shape the representation of \”newsworthy\” items about crime and justice, the mass media portrayals of incidents of serious crimes in the context of all illegal and harmful activities
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crime
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a behavior which is prohibited by the criminal code
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criminal
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a person who has behaved in some way prohibited by the criminal law
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what’s the purpose of criminal law?
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to protect members of the public form the wrongdoing of others
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civil law
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private wrongs
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\”mala in se\”
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acts that are evil in themselves
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\”mala in se\”
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acts that are merely prohibited
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felonies
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punishable by either death or imprisonment
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misdemeanor
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punishable by fine or by a term in a local jail of less than 1 year
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culpability
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depends on a defendants mental state (criminal intent or mensa rea)
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what’s entrapment?
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it’s when police methods entire an average law-abiding citizen to commit a crime
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what influences individuals actions?
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their position in society
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law
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a social phenomenon created by members of society under specific historical conditions
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state
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the central political institution of a given society(government, legal system, military, bureaucracies for collection of taxes, public health, maintenance of law and order
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social control
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it’s object is to manufacture conformity and to supress what the state defines as deviance
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law
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governmental social control
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4 basic styles of law
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penal, compensatory, therapeutic, conciliatory
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criminalization
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the process whereby criminal law is selectively applied to social behavior
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3 fold process
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enactment of legislation, surveillance, and policing of behavior, punishment of behavior
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what can criminology be traced back to?
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rise of the classical(1760-1820) and the positivist(1820-1890)
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what does the word criminology derive from?
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latin word crimen, meaning judgement, accusation, or offense
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what are the four definitions of crime by sociologists?
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1.)crime as a violation of conduct norms 2.)crime as a social harm and analogous social injury 3.)crime as a a violation of rights 4.)crime as form of deviance 5.)crime as a violation of global conduct norms
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conduct norms
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for every person there are normal(right) and abnormal(wrong) forms of conduct and the norm depends on the social values of the group that formulations it (custom, tradition, ethics, religion, rules of criminal law)
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analogous social injury
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legally permissible acts or social conditions that result in: 1.) bodily harms 2.) significant deprivations 3.) intentional or structural limitations
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two sorts of human rights
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personal rights that are essential to life AND rights essential to a dignified human existence
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animal abuse
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abuses routinely committed against them in factory farms, rodeos, circuses, zoos, and labs
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deviance
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any social behavior or social characteristic that departs from a society’s conventional norms and standards(bank robbery, witch craft)
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globalization
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worldwide process whereby individuals, peoples, economics, and nation-states are becoming increasingly interconnected and interdependent -promotes a host of new opportunities for crime
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global conduct norms
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rules of conduct that allow for prosecution of certain coercive relationship between a state and its citizenry between state and another
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theriocide
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killing of animals
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what are 70% of all homicides committed with?
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guns
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who invented the word moral panic?
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stanley cohen
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what’s the most reported crime?
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auto theft
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most neglected crimes
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environmental pollution, hazardous waste dumping and siting
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3 Common Features of Environmental Crimes
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-victimize people through environmental damage and manipulation -type of victimization -not conceptualized as a crime
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newsworthiness
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media attention to specific events and stories
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what’s the murder rate in the US?
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4.8
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What state has the highest rate of admission for addiction to painkillers?
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Maine
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official crime data
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those collected by the government and by government agencies, FBI+Department of justice
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unofficial crime data
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the nongovernmental data usually collected by private or independent agencies and researchers
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positivist criminology
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based on the idea that the collection of data about human beings follows the same scientific procedures as the collection of data in natural sciences
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Uniform Crime Reports Program (UCR)
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-most reliable set of crime data in the US -first collected in 1930 -most expensive and largest police based data in the world -95.7% coverage in cities, 90% in rural -focuses on # of offenses, offense rate per 100,000, % change from previous year, offense rate by region, nature of offense, and the arrest rate for offense
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Part 1 Crimes
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murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, aggregated assault, burglary, larceny-thefy, motor vehicle theft, and arson
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Part 2 Crimes
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simple assault, forgery and counterfeiting, fraud, embezzlement, buying, receiving, possessing stole property, carrying and possessing weapons, drug abuse violations
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National Incident-BAsed reporting system
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a modified and far more detailed version of the traditional UCR
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What are the criticisms of UCR?
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dark figure of crime, police participation in the UCR is voluntary, no federal crimes in the UCR, hierarchy rule, criminal law rules, measurements of seriousness
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hierarchy rule
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only the most serious crime reported to police is included in the UCR–understates volume of crime
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how many murders are serial killers accounted for?
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no more than 350-400 murders each year during the 1980’s
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After a victim or an observer of a crime has reported the crime are the 5 conditions that influence whether a crime is accepted and formally recorded as crime?
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1.) the legal seriousness of the crime 2.)the complainants preferences 3.)the relational distance 4.)the complainant’s deference 5.)the complainant’s status
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victimization surveys
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examine representative samples of a general populatio in an attempt to discern what crimes have been experience in a given period
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How often is the NCV done?
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once a year and they follow up with people who stated that something happened
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what are the 3 problems with the NCV?
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underreporting to interviewers, response bias and time-in-sample bias
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Internet Crime Complaint Center (ICCC)
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collects data on internet fraud
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Unofficial Crime Data
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self reports, life course data, life history data, biographies, participant observation, comparative and historical research
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observation research
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a type of field study whereby researches focus on observing people in their natural settings
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participant observation
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researchers go \”underground\” and try to blend into or w/their subjects as unobstructively as possible
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comparative criminology
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an indispensable aspect of criminological inquiry and a rich source of data for it’s theories
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constructionist approach
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makes no inital assumptions about the legitamacy of the matter such as are implied by the words \”panic\”
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How many police stations send in crime data?
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17,000
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Donald Black
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did research in the 1970s on what happens when a police officer arrives to the crime scene and how they make the decision to report it or not
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Philip Jenkins
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best known writer on serial murder
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xenophobia
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fear of others, strangers

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