Criminologgy Del. Test 2 – Flashcards
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|What happens to rapists in the CJ system?|
-89% of those convicted will go to jail
-FBI: unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony
|Rape Shield Laws|
-Eliminated requirements of physical resistance
-A victim does not have to physically resist to prove the rape has occured.
-Eliminated the requirement of corroboration
-A witness is not necessary
-Limited evidence of the victim's sexual history
|Sutherland's definition of white collar crime|
-A crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the couse of his occupation
|Two broad classes of white collar crime|
-Organizational: committed by organization (often businesses) to advance the organization's interest
-Occupational: committed by individuals for their own personal gain.
|Occupational crimes (4 types)|
-Fraud in the professions
-usually doctors or lawyers
-govt officials misusing their office for political or economic gain. -watergate
|Organizational crime (4)|
-Firms that are competed conspire to set prices.
-Sherman Antitrust Act of 1980 bans this
-Selling unsafe products
-Corporate accounting fraud
-Knowingly submitting false accounting records
|Costs of WC crime? Financial and mortality?|
-Mortality: 113,000 deaths/yr
|Sherman Antitrust Act|
-Requires the federal govt. to investigate and pursue trusts, companies, and organizations suspected of violating the act.
-protects against price fixing
-protects public from organizational crime
|Circumstances of robberies?|
-Usually teams of 2+ offenders
|Do the victim and the offender know one another?|
-Usually not, 2/3rds the time they are strangers
|Is there extensive planning in robberies?|
-Majority of them are spontaneous
-60% of offenders test positive for drugs, and committ the offence to support the habbit
|Sequence of a typical armed robbery|
-Co presence: entering the victim's space.
-The announcement: offender announces the crime and shows gun.
-The transfer of goods: May force person to hang over their goods, or get it themselves to avoid being shortchanged or having a gun pulled.
-The Escape: Some will threaten or harm to provide more time to escape. Some will force the victim to leave.
-Chance of injury is unaffected whether or not the victim knows the offender.
|Unique timing of robbery events|
-Monthy: usually in winter months
-Weekly: Fridays and Saturdays
-Daily: Between 6pm - Midnight
|How often does a robbery victim get injured?|
-If the offender has a firearm, the chance of injury goes down.
-If the victim resists, the chance of injury increases.
|Characteristics of robbery victims|
-Usually male (2x higher when compared to females)
|Average property loss in a robbery|
|What happens to robbers? (%)|
-70% completed robberies are reported to police.
-20% result in arrest
-50% chance that an arrest will cause a conviction
-85% chance if convicted will go to jail (4+ years)
|theft FROM a car is classified as|
|how many auto thefts a year?|
-1,138,000 (421 per 100,000)
|different varieties of auto theft|
-car often recovered
-Short term or long term transportation
-To make money
chop (removing parts and selling)
retag (creating new documents and selling the car)
export (moving it to another country and selling)
|where are cars often stolen from?|
-45% on the street near home
-30% in public parking lot/parking garage
-Key point.. if you can park in your driveway, your insurance may go down because car theft rates will go down
|When are cars most often stolen?|
-60% at night
|What kind of cars get stolen?|
-Not usually the most expensive
-Consider absolute frequencies.. the most popular cars will make the criminal the most money (camry, accord, ext.)
-If you consider rates (per 1,000) the Cadillac Escalade is one of the most stolen cars, as long with other large expensive vehicles.
|What techniques are used for stealing cars?|
-30% the keys are left in the car
-There are some new systematic efforts to steal car keys
|Average property loss of auto theft?|
|how to prevent getting your car stolen|
-Common sense.. lock your car, protect your car keys.
|What percentage of auto thefts are opportunistic?|
|Are car alarms/steering wheel locks effective?|
-Yes, insurance usually give discounts for this.
-Will lead to recovery of car in nearly 100% of cases.. but this is usually after the car is stripped of it's parts
|Most effective option (tool in the car);for preventing car loss?|
-Auto immobilizers.. ignition kill switch
|What happens to auto thieves?|
-90% are reported to the police
-10% chance that a report will lead to arrest
-20% chance an arrest will result in a conviction
-75% chance that a conviction will result in jail
-Serve about 15 months
|-What do property offenders do with the properties they steal?|
-Often sold to a fence
|Some things to remember about fences..|
-Occur generally in conjunction with an actual business
-pawn shop or second hand store
-Fences buy stolen property for about 1/3 to 1/2 what they can sell it for.
-Fences are well-known by local thieves, but the police often know of them.
-Fences have a high status in the criminal world
|Average property loss of burglary? Where do they enter?|
-Often through door
|Definition of burglary|
|weak links of crimes|
-Getting someone who is raped to report it
-Tracking down those who commit burglaries and robberies