crim exam 2 online quiz question

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Which of the following statements would not be made by a biological​ theorist? A. A tendency toward crime may be inherited. B. The brain is the locus of personality. C. Some humans are further along the evolutionary ladder than others. D. Human behavior is controlled by free will.
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D. Human behavior is controlled by free will.
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Who developed phrenology and brought it to the United State and helped to spread its influence?
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Johann Gaspar Spurheim
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According to​ Gall, the shape of which body part can be used to predict​ criminality?
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the skull
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Which of the following is not one of Franz Joseph​ Gall’s main​ themes? A. The brain is the organ of the mind. B. Particular aspects of personality are associated with specific brain locations. C. The shape of the skull corresponds to the underlying shape of the brain. D. Criminal behavior is due to atavism.
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D. criminal behavior is due to atavism
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The term \”positivism\” came from the writings of who?
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Auguste Comte
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The term \”sociobiology\” was coined by who?
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Edward O. Wilson
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Atavism implies that criminals…
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are born as criminals
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According to​ Lombroso, ________ were occasional criminals who were pulled into breaking the law by virtue of environmental influences.
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criminaloids
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What is a term used to describe a male offender with XYY chromosome?
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supermale
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Who conducted a study of Lombroso’s theory and concluded that is was fundamentally unsound?
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Charles Goring
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A central critique in almost all biological theories focus on the concept of what?
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free-will
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According to William Sheldon, who has the greatest likelihood of becoming criminal offenders?
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mesomorphs
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Who was one of the first writers to firmly locate the roots of personality in the brain?
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Franz Joseph Gall
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Studies such as those focusing on the Jukes and Kallikak families suggest that criminal tendencies are​ ________ based.
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genetically
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In his study of the Kallikak​ family, Goddard concluded that a tendency toward​ ________ was inherited.
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feeblemindedness
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What did the eugenics movement call for?
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the sterilization of mentally handicapped women
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What did Buck v. Bell endorse?
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the development of a comprehensive biologically based crime prevention program
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What are the characteristics of an XYY male?
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-overrepresented in prisons and mental hospitals -less than average intelligence -suffers from acne or other skin disorders
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The unusual genetic makeup of​ ________ is known as​ Klinefelter’s syndrome.
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XXY
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In what field are twin studies commonly used?
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behavioral genetics
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If human behavior has a substantial heritable​ component, which of the following results would you expect from a study of​ twins? A. ​Non-twin siblings would display more similarity in behavioral characteristics than twins. B. Twins separated at birth would display more similarity in behavioral characteristics than those raised together. C. MZ twins would display more similarity in behavioral characteristics than DZ twins. D. DZ twins would display more similarity in behavioral characteristics than MZ twins.
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C. MZ twins would display more similarity in behavioral characteristics than DZ twins.
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Who was the first western scientist to study heredity?
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Francis Galton
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What is the systematic study of the biological basis of social behavior known as?
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sociobiology
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According to sociobiologists, what is much of the conflict among humans explained by?
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territoriality
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Which of the following statements would NOT be made by a biological theorist?
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human behavior is controlled by free will
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Franz Joseph Gall’s main themes:
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-Particular aspects of personality are associated with specific brain locations. -The shape of the skull corresponds to the underlying shape of the brain. -The brain is the organ of the mind.
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The​ ________ movement in the 1880-1900s was opposed by most members within the criminology field.
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eugenics
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Genes are made of _________ and carry coded instructions for making everything the body needs.
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DNA
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What are chromosomes?
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bundles of genes
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In ​ ________, only three years after the launch of the Human Genome Project​ (GP), Dutch criminologists caught worldwide attention with their claim that they had uncovered a specific gene with links to criminal behavior.
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1993
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In​ 2002, Avshalom Caspi and Terrie E. Moffitt and their colleagues offered a model of genelong dash environment ​interaction, which recognized that​ ________ appears to be a​ \”universal risk factor for antisocial​ behavior\” in adulthood.
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childhood maltreatment
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Which brain chemical has been called the behavior-regulating chemical?
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serotonin
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​________ are the chemicals that facilitate the flow of electrical impulses from one neuron to the next across nerve​ synapses; and the presence or absence of both serotonin and noradrenaline have been linked to aggressive behavior in human beings.
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genes
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The study of the chemical reactions that occur within a​ genome, and that switch parts of the genome on or off at strategic times and​ locations, is referred to as what?
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epogenetics
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Who said this?: \”In virtually every study ever​ conducted, males are much more likely than females to engage in​ violence, aggression, and serious crimes. As the seriousness of the​ offense/behavior increases, the gender gap also tends to​ increase, such that the most violent criminal acts are almost exclusively a male​ phenomenon.\”
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Kevin Beaver
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Researchers discovered aggressive behavior in men may be influenced by high testosterone levels combined with low brain levels of the neurotransmitter​ ________.
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serotonin
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During examinations of the brains of children as young as​ ________ years of​ age, criminologists could already see signs indicating the potential for troubled behavior in the future based on neurological links between the​ organism, social​ factors, and criminal behavior.
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three
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Researchers have termed the neuroanatomical findings from studies like these the​ ________.
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frontal brain hypothesis
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Which term is also referred to as brain plasticity or cortical plasticity?
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neuroplasticity
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In​ 1998, David Fergusson and​ colleagues, in a study of​ 1,022 New Zealand children who had been followed for 18​ years, found​ \”children whose mothers​ ________ during their pregnancy had mean rates of conduct disorder​ symptoms.\”
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smoked cigarettes
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One study of 781 men and women age 21 found a clear relationship between elevated blood levels of ​ ________ (which correspond to lower brain levels of the​ chemical) and violence in men.
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serotonin
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Biosocial criminologists suggest that the organic correlates of​ ________ provide the needed explanation.
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gender
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Terrie​ Moffitt, through a​ meta- analysis of more than 100 studies of genetic influences on anti​ – social​ behavior, was able to concluded​ \”genes influence​ ________ to​ ________ of population variation in antisocial​ behavior.\”
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40%-50%
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Childhood maltreatment appears to be a​ \”universal risk factor for​ ________ in​ adulthood.\”
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antisocial behavior
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What is believed to reduce an​ individual’s ability to reason effectively or judge the long-term consequences of behavior?
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hypoglycemia
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Is the evidence linking sugar consumption to behavior changes is definite and conclusive?
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No, it is not definite nor conclusive.
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True or False? There is no relationship between juvenile crime and high levels of manganese.
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False
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True/False? Research has found a significant correlation between juvenile crime and high levels of lead.
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True
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True/False? Increased levels of testosterone may be linked to aggressive behavior in women.
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True
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In the​ 1990s, Anthony Walsh of Boise State​ University, who is one of​ today’s best known proponents of​ ________.
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biological criminology
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​________ selection, which is a form of natural selection which influences an​ individual’s ability to attain or choose a​ mate, derives from Charles​ Darwin’s theory of evolution.
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Sexual
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Biological theories that focus on​ ________ and chemical precursors to​ crime, which cannot explain why certain kinds of crime are more likely to occur in certain parts of the​ country, in particular types of​ communities, and among members of specific subcultures rather than in others.
answer

conventional

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