Crim 105 final Essay

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According to Cohen, delinquent subcultures are rooted in all but which of the following?
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Acceptance of violence as normal
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Cohen argues that ? band together to form subcultures in which they can define status in ways that seem attainable to them.
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Delinquent boys
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? boys try to make the best of bad situations, according to Cohen.
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Corner boys
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Which of the following does Cohens theory explain?
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Why must delinquents become law abiding individuals even though their position in the class structure remains relatively.
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According to Cloward and Ohlin, which type of gang emerges in areas where conventional and illegitimate values and behavior are integrated by a close connection of illegitimate and legitimate business?
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Criminal gangs
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One of the main criticisms of differential opportunity theory is that?
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it is class oriented
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Who introduced the subculture of violence theory?
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Wolfgang and Ferracuti
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using nationwide data collected for the Presidents Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, Howard Erlanger found?
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No major differences in attitudes toward violence by class or gender
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Which of the following is not one of the focal concerns identified by Miller?
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Self confidence
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A lower class persons resentment of external controls, whether parents, teachers, or police, is related to what focal concern?
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Autonomy
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In studying attachment to lower-class focal concerns, Cernovich found that toughness, excitement, trouble, and ? were related to self reported delinquency in all classes.
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Pleasure seeking
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Stephen Cernovich concluded that it is ? rather than class that is/are associated with delinquency.
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Values
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Who published the first major work on the lifestyle of female gang members in New York?
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Anne Campbell
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Researchers have identified several types of suburban gangs, Which of the following is not one of these types of gangs?
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Drug Gangs
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Mobilization for Youth (MOBY) was based on what theory?
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Opportunity
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Which of the following would not be a focus of social control theorists?
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Individual modes of adaptation to environmental strains
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The concept of social control emerged in the early 1900’s in a volume by ?
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E.A Ross
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According to Ross ? rather than specific laws guide what people do and universally serve to control behavior.
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Belief systems
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Who has been the spokes person for the Microsociological perspective since 1969?
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Travis Hirschi
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Which if the following is not a form of Hirschi’s first bond, attachment?
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Attachment to church
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The preoccupation with activities that promote the interests of society would be an example of which type of Hirschi’s bonds?
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Involvement
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? is the assent to the society’s value system
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Belief
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One of differences that Michael Hindelang found between his research and Hirschi’s research is that there is ?
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No relationship between attachment to mother and peers.
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In testing Hirschi’s theory, Michael Hindelang found involvement in delinquency was positively related to ?
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Attachment to peers.
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According to Matza, when a bond between a person and the law is not in place a youth may enter a state of ? where he or she exists in limbo between convention and crime.
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Drift
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According to Reiss, delinquency is a result of all except the following factors?
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attachment to delinquent peers
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? theory assumes that for every individual there exists a containing external structure and a protective internal structure, both of which provide defense, protection, or insulation against delinquency.
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Containment
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According to Reckless, the primary containment factor is found in ?
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self concept
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Who developed the notion that multiple control factors determine human behavior?
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Francis Ivan Nye
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Gottfredson and Hirschi proposed a new model of personal and social control in A General Theory of Crime. Their model assumes that?
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offenders have little control over there own behavior and desires.
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Labeling theorists are interested in all but which of the following?
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Why people commit crimes in the first place.
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The intellectual roots of labeling theory can be traced to the work of all but which of the following theorists?
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Emile Durkheim
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In the 1940’s which of the following theorists formulated the basic assumptions of labeling theory?
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Edwin Lemert
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The work of Howard Becker suggests that is is the ? who make the rules that define deviant behavior.
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Moral entrepreneurs
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Labeling by adjudication was studied by?
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Richard Schwartz and Jerome Skolnick
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Which theoretical perspective claims that a struggle for power is a basic feature of human existence?
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Conflict
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The ? model of lawmaking assumes that members of society by large agree on what is right and wrong, and that law is the codification of these agreed upon social values.
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Consensus
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Conflict theorists argue that ?
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Laws represent the interests of specific groups that have the power to get them enacted.
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Who was the first theorists to relate conflict to criminology?
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George Vold
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When Freda Adler studied the importance of non-legal factors in the decision making of juries, she found that the ? of the defendants significantly influenced their judgment.
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socioeconomic level
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The leading American spokesperson for radical criminology is ?
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Richard Quinney
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Carl Klockars attacks Marxists for focusing exclusively on?
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Class interests
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Left realists recognize street crime as ?
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An inevitable outcome of social and political deprivation
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Radical feminists view the cause of crime in women to be ?
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Male aggression
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The peacemaking perspective is part of an intellectual and social movement toward ?
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Restorative justice

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