CPR Final Exam

question

Which injury or illness should you call 9-1-1 for?
answer

a person has trouble breathing
question

What should you do if the person does not give consent?
answer

Do not give care but instead call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number
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All of the following are indications that an emergency has occurred except:
answer

Children playing and laughing
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What are the steps to follow in an emergency?
answer

Check-Call-Care
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What is the purpose of Good Samaritan laws?
answer

To help protect people who voluntarily give care without accepting anything in return
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By following standard precautions to protect yourself and the injured or ill person, you can:
answer

Minimize the risk of disease transmission
question

You see a women collapse in front of you while entering the lobby of your office building. You check the scene and then check the person for consciousness, but she does not respond. What should you do next?
answer

Call or have someone else call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number
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Which method should be used to open the airway of an unresponsive victim?
answer

head-tilt/chin-lift
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Medical identification tags can help the first aider identify:
answer

1. allergies 2.medical history 3. medications
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(T, F) Something that the first aider sees, hears, or feels that is unusually is a sign that an emergency may have occurred.
answer

true
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When should an unresponsive victim be placed on the side?
answer

When the victim starts to vomit or when you have to leave the victim alone
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If the unresponsive victim is breathing and you are staying with the victim to monitor him/her the best position to put them in is:
answer

on the back
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About how many seconds should you check for breathing?
answer

no more than 10 seconds
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What should you do when checking a conscious person?
answer

1. ask questions 2. do not touch or move painful, injured areas on the body 3. get consent to give care
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(T, F) You do not give food or drink to a shock victim because they could have to go into surgery later on in the afternoon.
answer

True
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(T, F) If someone is in shock you do NOT have to call 911.
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False
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You determine that a person may be in shock. Do each of the following except:
answer

give the person water
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Shock refers to the failure of what system?
answer

circulatory
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What is the usual shock position?
answer

on the back with the legs flat
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Shock occurs when the body parts do not receive adequate:
answer

oxygenated blood
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(T, F) The number to the poison control number is 1-800-222-1222
answer

True
question

What age group is most likely to die from poisoning?
answer

20-76 year olds
question

In what situation would you have to use the acronym FAST?
answer

Stroke
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If a person is suffering from a Diabettic Emergency and you have given them a 4oz glass of orange juice and they still do not feel better in ___ minutes then you should take them to the hospital.
answer

5
question

If some one has a seizure you should call 911 if any of the following are involved except;
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they have epilepsy and it happens often
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If contact has been made with dry chemicals the victim should immediately:
answer

brush off the dry chemical with a gloved hand and avoid contaminating yourself or others
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A victim of a seizure is not allowed to have?
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anything to eat or drink
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Risk Factors for a stroke are?
answer

all answers given
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What are the two Types of Diabetes?
answer

Type I and II
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There are 4 types of poisoning, which one of the following is not one;
answer

visual poison
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Which place accounts for the largest amount of poisoning exposures?
answer

the home
question

If I victim is overtaken by sudden illness and goes unconscious and it is important to do what?
answer

lay them down flat and monitor their breathing, prepare to give CPR
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After obtaining critical information from a victim that has ingested poisoning, the first aider should: (assume that the poisoning is not acid or alkali and the victim is responsive)
answer

immediately call posion control center
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Signs of poisoning include which of the following?
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1. dizziness or nausea 2. Irregular pupil size 3. trouble breathing
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What age groups of people are more likely to suffer from Febrile Seizures?
answer

children younger than 5
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(T, F) Hypothermia results from indoor or outdoor exposure.
answer

True
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Care for a person with heat exhaustion includes the following:
answer

get the person out of the heat and into a cooler place
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Which of the following signals are not consistent with scorpion sting?
answer

the sting site turns a green spot
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Signs of frost bite are;
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the look of waxy skin and cold and discolored skin
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People that are at a higher risk for hypothermia are;
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1. elderly 2. homeless 3. children
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Heat related illnesses include the following:
answer

heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke
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(T, F) Some Insects leave their stinger behind in the victims skin and it is best to leave the stinger in the skin and not remove it.
answer

False
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What should be applied to a jelly fish sting?
answer

vinegar
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Which animal is a high-risk species for carrying rabies?
answer

1. skunk 2. raccoon 3. bat
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How should you care for a someone with minor frostbite on the fingers?
answer

get the person to a warm environment and then rewarm his or her hands using skin-to-skin contact
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What needs to keep covered in order for a person to retain body heat
answer

head
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What kind of heat emergency are you dealing with when you have to do this to the victim?
answer

Heat stroke
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If a child comes down with Rocky Mountain Fever the fever will appear;
answer

2-14 days after the bite
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Which type of dressing is used for minor wounds?
answer

adhesive strips
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The signs that a bandage is to tight are
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1. coldness of the extremity 2. inability to move the fingers or toes 3. blue or pale skin amp; loss of sensation in the extremities
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The most appropriate bandage for sprains and contusions would be:
answer

an elastic roller bandage
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Which answer best applies when applying an adhesive strip
answer

1. do not touch the pad on the band aid 2. for a snug fit press the ends and edges down
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Which wound results in significant bleeding?
answer

avulsion
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If an open wound continues to bleed after applying direct pressure
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1. Add additional dressing and contniue to apply direct pressure 2. Do not remove any blood-soaked dressings 3. Ensue the 9-1-1 or the local emergency number has been called
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A device used to stabilize a fracture or dislocation is called: a
answer

splint
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What is the purpose of splinting an extremity fracture?
answer

1. to prevent a closed fracture from becoming an open fracture 2. to reduce pain 3. to prevent damage to muscle, nerves, and blood vessels
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Which type of injury involves an open wound in which the bone has torn through the skin?
answer

open fracture
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What position should the hand be placed when splinting the wrist, hand, and fingers?
answer

position of function
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How do you care for a person with a possible head, neck or spinal injury?
answer

Support the head in the position you find it. Do not try to align it
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A ________ results in tearing of ligaments at a joint
answer

sprain
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The general care for a muscle, bone or joint injury includes the following?
answer

Rest, Immobilize, Cold and Elevate
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What should you do to keep swelling out of a sprained joint
answer

an ice pack
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An open triangular bandage can be used as a
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sling
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The two classifications for fractures are
answer

open or closed
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Always stabilize an injured knee in which position?
answer

in the position found
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To further stabilize an ankle after treating with the RICE procedure
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apply a splint with a pillow or blanket
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The recommended treatment for muscle strains is
answer

RICE
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What injury results when a joint comes apart and stays apart?
answer

dislocation
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If the victim has a possible spine injury as well as an extremity injury:
answer

splint the spine first
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_____________ is a type of child abuse in which the parent or guardian fails to provide the necessary age-appropriate care to a child.
answer

Child neglect
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(T, F) A temperature of 100.1 is considered a fever, this is according to the book
answer

False
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SIDS most likely occurs in child ______ of age and there is no know cause of it.
answer

4 weeks- 7 months
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Viral meningitis is more common than bacterial meningitis
answer

True
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If you come up on to a crime scene it is best that you do which of the following.
answer

Call 911
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Children younger than ___ account for half of all exposures to poisonous substances in the United States
answer

6
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Medicine that works quickly to releve sudden inflamation of the airway.
answer

Quick-relief medications
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A measured dose of medicine in a dry powder form.
answer

dry powder inhaler
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A method of delvery of medication that works the fastest and works the quickest
answer

Inhaler
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Medicine that works slow to prevent or reverse inflamation of the airway.
answer

Long-term control medications
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A mist that is delivered over several minutes. Used most often for the elderly and children under 5.
answer

small-volume Nebulizer
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A measured dose of medicine in a mist form that goes directly into the person’s mouth
answer

metered dose inhaler
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Asthma is the ____ leading cause of hospitalization for people 15 years old and young
answer

3rd
question

According to the book when administering the Epinephrine Auto-Injector you should use it on the victims ______?
answer

mid-outer thigh
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One signal of breathing emergency in an infant is
answer

making a wheezing or high-pitched sound
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You notice that a child looks panicked and cannot cough, speak or breathe. What life-threatening condition could the child be experiencing?
answer

choking
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A child is choking on a piece of hard candy. She is conscious and coughing forcefully. What should you do?
answer

stay with her and encourage her to continue coughing
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To give chest thrust to a infant, your fingers should be placed;
answer

just below the nipple line
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What should you do for a conscious infant who is choking and cannot cough, cry or breath.
answer

give back blows and chest thrusts to clear the airway
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Signals that indicate that an infant is choking includes
answer

both coughing forcefully or the infant cannot cough, cry or breathe
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What care should you give to a conscious adult or child who is choking and cannot cough, speak or breathe?
answer

give back blows and abdominal thrusts
question

When you give care to an adult who is conscious and choking, where should you position your fist to give abdominal thrusts?
answer

In the middle of the abdomen, just above the navel
question

In a child which of the following are signals of trouble breathing?
answer

1. agitation 2. flushed, pale, ashen (gray), or bluish skin color 3. slow or rapid breathing
question

Care for a person who is unconscious and has a blocked airway includes:
answer

give chest compressions & look for an object between compressions and breaths
question

When giving care to a child who is conscious and choking, where should you position your fist to give abdominal thrusts?
answer

In the middle of the abdomen, just above the navel
question

How should you position a conscious choking infant to give back blows?
answer

Face-down, with the infant’s head lower then his or her chest
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(T,F) The number of breaths and compressions for CPR for adults and children are the same, 30 and 2 . For infants it is 15 compressions and 1 breath.
answer

False
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Which of the following is a link in the Cardiac Chain of Survival?
answer

1. early recognition and early access to the EMS system 2. early defibrillation 3. early CPR
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Which of the following situations indicates that an infant needs CPR?
answer

the infant is not breathing
question

About how many cycles of CPR should you perform in 2 minutes on a child?
answer

5
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If a person is suffering from pain or discomfort in the chest that lasts more than 3-5 minutes or that goes away and comes back, this person is most likely having
answer

a heart- attack
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When would you stop giving CPR?
answer

1. when trained help arrives and relieves you 2.when you are completely exhausted 3.when the victim starts breathing on his or her own
question

About how many cycles of CPR should you perform in 2 minutes?
answer

5
question

When performing CPR, give chest compressions at the rate of:
answer

about 100 compressions per minute
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When performing CPR on a child:
answer

a. compress the chest straight down and fast, about 100 compressions per minute &give chest compressions that are smooth and regular
question

When giving CPR to an infant, about how deep should you compress the chest
answer

about 1 1/2 inches
question

Effective chest compressions
answer

1.are delivered fast, about 100 compressions per minute 2.are smooth, regular and given straight up and down 3.allow the chest to return to its normal position
question

What is the most prominent medical emergency in the United States?
answer

a heart- attack
question

Causes of cardiac arrest in children include
answer

1.traumatic injuries or accidents 2.SIDS 3.airway and breathing problems
question

When giving chest compressions to an unresponsive choking infants, place to fingers:
answer

one finger’s width below the nipple line
question

When giving rescue breaths to a child, how should you breathe into the child?
answer

give a breath lasting about 1 second
question

Early CPR is important in the Cardiac Chain of Survival because
answer

it helps circulate blood that contains oxygen to the vital organs until AED is ready to use or advanced medical personnel take over
question

When giving rescue breaths to an infant, you should
answer

form an airtight seal around the infant’s mouth and nose
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Where should you place your hands when giving chest compressions during CPR on an infant?
answer

one hand on the forehead and two or three fingers on the center of the chest
question

How many initial rescue breaths should the first aider give?
answer

2
question

If you do not see a child go unresponsive , the rescuer should
answer

perform first aid for 2 minutes, then activate EMS
question

Always check for signs of life for no more than-
answer

10 seconds
question

When performing CPR, how many compressions should be given?
answer

30
question

When giving rescuse breaths each breath should last approximately?
answer

1 second
question

The cycle of chest compressions and rescue breaths in CPR is
answer

30 chest compressions for every 2 rescue breath
question

It is important to follow the links of the Cardiac Chain of Survival because:
answer

It helps improve the chance of survival
question

Which is the third critical link in the chain of survival?
answer

early defibrillation
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(T, F) If a someone has a hairy chest and you can not get the AED pads to stick to the chest you will need to shave the chest.
answer

True
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(T, F) An AED is only to be used on a victim whose heart has stopped beating.
answer

False
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Place the AED pads
answer

below the nipple line on both sides of the chest
question

Which are good locations for AEDs?
answer

1.Stadiums 2.Airports and airplanes 3.Golf courses
question

Before using an AED
answer

1.turn the AED on 2.give CPR until the AED is ready to be used 3.postion it next to the victim
question

While the AED analyzes the victim’s heart rhythm
answer

Do NOT touch the victim
question

During ventricular fibrillation, the heart
answer

quivers and cannot pump blood
question

Which is the most common abnormal heart rhythm in cases of sudden cardiac arrest in adults?
answer

Ventricular fibrillation
question

An AED gives the victim a shock
answer

when the shock button is pushed
question

First aid is intended to:
answer

provide temporary help until proper medical care, if needed, is obtained.
question

The leading cause of death and disability in children and young adults is
answer

unintentional injuries
question

Consent to give first aid must be obtained from every victim who is:
answer

responsive, mentally competent of legal age.
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A first aider must stay with the victim until another equally or better trained person takes over. Failure to do so would be considered:
answer

abandonment
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Supplies in a first aid kit should be customized to include those items likely to be used:
answer

on a regular basis.
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Who usually recognizes a situation as an emergency and acts to help the victim?
answer

A bystander
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What is the first action a bystander should take in an emergency?
answer

Recognize the emergency.
question

Refusing to acknowledge an emergency is a strategy that can interfere with which emergency action?
answer

Deciding to help
question

When calling 9-1-1, which of the following information should be given to the EMS dispatch?
answer

The victim’s location and condition Number of persons involved Your name and the phone number you are calling from
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The most common type of personal protective equipment available for first aiders to protect against blood borne pathogens is
answer

gloves
question

Which three body systems include the most important and sensitive organs?
answer

Respiratory, circulatory, nervous
question

The passage of air into and out of the lungs is called ________.
answer

respiration
question

Which of the following statements is true concerning infants and children?
answer

*Infants and children have smaller respiratory structures than adults do. *Infants’ and children’s respiratory structures are more easily obstructed than are those of adults. *Cardiac arrest in children usually results from respiratory arrest.
question

The average rate of breathing in an adult at rest is ________ breaths per minute
answer

12 to 20
question

Which blood vessels carry blood back to the heart?
answer

Veins
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For an alert, responsive victim, you can evaluate his or her ability to remember by asking:
answer

person, place, time, and event.
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Which of the following indicates a breathing problem?
answer

1. Snoring 2.Gurgling 3.Wheezing
question

If the unresponsive victim is breathing, the best position for the victim is:
answer

on the side
question

Something that the first aider sees, hears, or feels is:
answer

a sign
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PEARL is a mnemonic used when assessing the:
answer

eyes
question

At the same time you check for responsiveness, you should look at the victim to see whether he or she ________.
answer

is breathing
question

The ratio of compressions to breaths when performing adult CPR is:
answer

30 compressions to 2 breaths.
question

When giving abdominal thrusts to a choking victim, where should you position your hands?
answer

In the middle of the abdomen, just above the navel
question

The most common cause of airway obstruction in an unresponsive victim is:
answer

the tongue
question

A victim’s chance of survival dramatically improves through:
answer

early CPR early defibrillation
question

When the heart stops beating
answer

blood carrying oxygen becomes unavailable to the entire body.
question

Before using an AED:
answer

1. give CPR until the AED is ready to be used 2. position it next to the victim. 3. turn on the AED
question

Verify no one is in contact with the victim:
answer

during analysis & during the shock.
question

Which of the following statements about AEDs is true?
answer

Remove patches containing medication (eg, nitroglycerin, nicotine, or pain medicine).
question

Shock occurs when body parts do not receive adequate:
answer

oxygenated blood
question

The three major cardiovascular causes of shock include all of the following EXCEPT which one?
answer

Respiratory insufficiency
question

Septic shock develops in some victims with:
answer

bacterial infection
question

Anaphylactic shock
answer

is a massive allergic reaction.
question

When treating a shock victim, the first aider should place blankets and/or coats:
answer

under and over the victim.
question

Rapid blood loss of ____ quart(s) or more in an adult can lead to shock and death
answer

1 quart
question

Which is the most serious type of bleeding?
answer

Arterial
question

If a dressing becomes blood-soaked, what should be done?
answer

Apply another dressing on top of the old one
question

Which of the following is a sign of internal bleeding?
answer

1. Bruises of the skin 2. Fractured ribs or bruises on the chest 3. Vomiting or coughing up blood
question

To treat bruises, the first aider should:
answer

apply an ice pack over the injury for 20 minutes
question

Which of the following are characteristics of open wounds?
answer

1. Break in the skin surface 2. External bleeding 3. Possible infection
question

Which wound is smooth-edged?
answer

Incision
question

Which wound involves the cutting or tearing off of a body part?
answer

Amputation
question

What can safely be put on shallow wounds?
answer

Antibiotic ointments, such as Neosporin
question

What are the signs and symptoms of an infected wound?
answer

Throbbing pain Pus discharge Fever
question

What is the purpose of a dressing?
answer

To control bleeding To prevent infection To absorb blood
question

Which of the following is used as a dressing?
answer

Gauze pads
question

What is the purpose of a bandage?
answer

To hold a dressing in place
question

Which bandage is most appropriate for use as a sling?
answer

Triangular bandage
question

When using a cravat bandage for an injured eye, cover ________ to prevent the injured eye from moving
answer

both eyes
question

An estimated 80% of all burn injuries occur
answer

in the home
question

Which of the following are possible causes of thermal burns?
answer

Contact with hot objects Flammable vapor Steam
question

An important fact related to chemical burns is
answer

tissue destruction will continue until the chemical agent is removed
question

Burns that penetrate all the skin layers and into the underlying fat and muscle are considered:
answer

third degree (full thickness).
question

The first step in caring for a burn victim with a first-degree or small second-degree burn is to:
answer

run cold tap water over the area as soon as possible
question

A severe scalp wound may have an accompanying concussion plus:
answer

skull fracture. an impaled object. a spinal injury
question

The first aider should place a victim with a scalp wound
answer

with head and shoulders slightly elevated.
question

Which type of brain injury occurs when a blow to the head alters the function of the brain?
answer

Concussion
question

A blow to the head strong enough to cause a contusion at the site of impact, as well as move the brain, causing it to hit the opposite side of the skull is a
answer

coup-contrecoup injury
question

Acquired brain injuries can be categorized as:
answer

anoxia hypoxia
question

The condition where air fills a portion of the chest cavity is called ________.
answer

pneumothorax
question

What is the primary symptom of fractured ribs?
answer

pain
question

Signs and symptoms of flail chest include:
answer

abnormal movement of part of the chest wall during breathing
question

What is the most important step in caring for a victim of an impaled object in the chest?
answer

Stabilizing the object in place
question

Which symptom commonly accompanies a pelvis injury?
answer

Severe pain Shock Massive internal blood loss
question

If the fracture results in the bone protruding through the skin, it is considered a(n)
answer

open fracture
question

A fracture in which the bone is fragmented into more than two pieces is called
answer

comminuted
question

What injury results when a joint comes apart and stays apart?
answer

dislocation
question

Which joints are most often sprained?
answer

Knees and ankles
question

Muscle contusions result from:
answer

a blow to the muscle
question

Which type of injury results when a joint is torn or stretched?
answer

sprain
question

Inflammation of a tendon from overuse is called ________.
answer

tendonitis
question

How long and how frequently should cold be applied to the injured area during the first 24 to 48 hours?
answer

20 to 30 minutes every 2 or 3 hours
question

When applying compression to an injured area, the first aider should use:
answer

an elastic roller bandage
question

Tendonitis usually results from:
answer

continuous overuse
question

What is the purpose of splinting an extremity fracture?
answer

To reduce pain To prevent damage to muscle, nerves, and blood vessels To prevent a closed fracture from becoming an open fracture
question

Before applying a splint, you should always:
answer

check CSM
question

If the victim has a possible spine injury as well as an extremity injury
answer

splint the spine first by stabilization
question

A shoulder dislocation is most comfortable for the victim when
answer

a pillow or blanket is placed between the injured arm and chest
question

The elbow must be splinted
answer

in the position in which it is found
question

When damage or death of part of the heart muscle occurs as a result of ischemia, it is called ________.
answer

a heart attack
question

Risk factors for heart disease that cannot be changed include which of the following?
answer

Heredity
question

Risk factors for heart disease that can be changed include which of the following?
answer

Diabetes High blood pressure Cigarette smoking
question

The chest discomfort of a heart attack may also be accompanied by:
answer

shortness of breath. sweating. nausea.
question

Chest pain accompanied by cough, fever, and production of sputum is a sign of:
answer

pneumonia
question

A ________ is anything that can harm someone if it is used in the wrong way, used by the wrong person, or used in the wrong amount.
answer

poison
question

Alcohol is a ________.
answer

depressant
question

The use of ________ may require the first aider to protect the victim from hurting him- or herself and others.
answer

hallucinogens
question

Opiates have what effect on the body?
answer

Relieve pain
question

If contact has been made with a poisonous plant, the victim should immediately:
answer

wash with soap and water or rubbing alcohol
question

About 80% of all animal-bite injuries in the United States are caused by:
answer

dogs
question

Deaths from animal attacks are almost always the result of:
answer

pet dogs.
question

The virus causing rabies is usually spread through:
answer

infected saliva
question

After dogs and cats, the animal most likely to bite a human is a ________.
answer

human
question

What shape of wound do nonpoisonous snakes leave?
answer

A horseshoe-shaped wound
question

The tightening of blood vessels in skin that is exposed to cold is called:
answer

vasoconstriction
question

How can susceptibility to cold injuries be minimized?
answer

Proper hydration and nutrition Avoiding alcohol Avoiding caffeine
question

Up to 50% of the body’s total heat production can be lost by radiation through the ________.
answer

head
question

Which of the following can affect an individual’s susceptibility to cold injury?
answer

Being physically unfit Dehydration Being very lean
question

When participating in outdoor activities during cold weather, you should wear ________ layers of carefully selected clothing.
answer

three
question

What is a common reason for behavior changes?
answer

Low blood glucose in a diabetic Excessive cold or heat Lack of oxygen
question

This type of depression typically follows a tragic event
answer

Reactive
question

Which of the following statements concerning depression is accurate?
answer

Do not discourage depressed persons from crying. A depressed person needs sympathetic silence. A depressed person needs empathetic reassurance.
question

Suicide is most common in men who are:
answer

divorced single. widowed
question

Who is most likely to attempt suicide?
answer

Persons who have made a previous suicide attempt Persons who have detailed suicide plans Persons who have a close relative who committed suicide
question

Wilderness first aid pertains to which of the following?
answer

Recreation in the “wilderness” Occupations in the “wilderness” Residences in the “wilderness”
question

In cases of severe hypothermia, the first aider should:
answer

not check the victim’s temperature. handle the victim gently. begin CPR and continue until the victim is evaluated by a healthcare provider
question

The main cause of death in a lightning strike victim is
answer

cardiac arrest
question

Altitude illness includes:
answer

acute mountain sickness (AMS). high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE).
question

Which natural disaster claims the most lives in the United States?
answer

Lightning
question

Reach-throw-go identifies the sequence for which type of rescue?
answer

Water rescue
question

Reaching for the victim requires:
answer

an object that can be extended to the victim
question

Most drowning victims are males who are less than ____ years old.
answer

30
question

If a near-drowning victim was diving:
answer

suspect a possible spine injury
question

Cold-water immersion is associated with which two potential medical emergencies?
answer

Drowning and hypothermia
question

If you are indoors during an earthquake, you should:
answer

take cover under a sturdy desk or table
question

If you are trapped in debris after an earthquake:
answer

tap on a pipe or wall so that rescuers can find you.
question

During a heat wave, you should:
answer

stay in the coolest available location
question

If trapped in a vehicle during a winter storm:
answer

exercise to maintain body heat
question

If you are unable to evacuate your home during a hazardous materials incident:
answer

use plastic sheeting and tape to secure doors and windows
question

Humans lose heat largely through their
answer

skin
question

You are getting enough water if you are producing clear urine at least ________ times a day.
answer

five
question

Water intoxication results from:
answer

drinking large amounts of water
question

Two types of heatstroke are
answer

classic and exertional
question

The first step in caring for a heatstroke victim is to
answer

move the victim to a cool place.
question

Another name for the placenta is the ________.
answer

afterbirth
question

If a woman in labor feels she has to move her bowels, delivery:
answer

is imminent.
question

During which stage of labor does the amniotic sac break?
answer

First
question

A newborn should begin to breathe:
answer

within 30 seconds
question

What is the risk in a prolapsed umbilical cord presentation?
answer

Suffocation of the baby

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