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Corrections test 1

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Conservatives and liberals tend to share the same ideas about how to deal with crime
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False
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The rate of incarceration in the US is one of the lowest in the world.
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False.
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The nonprofessional staff that work within prison systems normally possess a college education.
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False.
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The central purpose of corrections is to rehabilitate the offender.
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False.
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The Commonwealth of PA now houses more prisoners than any other state in the country.
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False.
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Attempts to reform prisons began in the 1500s with the disintegration of feudalism.
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True.
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Under the law of retaliation, lax talionis, vengeance was a duty to be carried out by the person wronged by a family member of the victim.
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True.
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In England by the year 1200, a system of wergild or payment of money as compensation, had developed as a way for the king to collect additional resources from the citizens.
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False.
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Another name for the medieval practice of banishment is “relocation.”
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False.
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The PA system focused on the isolation of inmates and serving penance.
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True.
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Social and political values greatly influence correctional thought and practices.
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True.
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The positivist school looked to free will and rational thought as the reason for crime.
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False.
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Correctional practices, especially the use of the penitentiary, developed similarly across the US.
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False.
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Incarceration, in the tradition of the early English workhouse, developed in the immediate aftermath of the American Revolutionary War
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True
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Until the early 1900s, Americans followed the European practice of relying on brutal forms of corporal punishment.
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False.
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According to the authors, rehabilitation is oriented solely toward the offender and does not imply any consistent relationship between the severity of the punishment and the gravity of the crime.
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True.
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The public must be constantly reminded about the punishment for deterrence to work.
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True
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Retribution is a goal of punishment designed to repair the damage done to the victim and community by an offenders criminal act.
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False.
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Most western democracies impose the death penalty.
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False
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Recent knowledge of the effectiveness of deterrence shows that social science is able to measure the effects of various punishment
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False
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All punishments inflicted upon offenders are visible.
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False.
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Incapacitation focuses on characteristic of the offenders instead of the victim.
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True.
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Community based punishments such a probation and intermediate sanctions are imposed far more often than prison sentences in the US.
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True.
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The concept of good time is provided to inmates in certain correctional facilities based on:
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Participation on vocational programs.
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Which of the following is NOT one of the four major goals of corrections in the US? a) Deterrence b) Incarceration c) Rehabilitation d) Retribution
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Incarceration
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According to the retributive justice model of punishment, those who commit a particular crime should be punished: a) Subjectively b) Alike c) Differently d) Mercifully
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Alike.
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Among the stated goals of the correctional process as mentioned by the authors, which of the following does not overlap with the objectives of the other purposes? a) rehabilitation b) deterrence c) incapacition d) Retribution
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Rehabilitation.
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The goal of rehabilitation is oriented solely toward the _________ and does not imply any consistent relationship between the severity of the punishment and the gravity of the crime. a) State b) Victim c)Offender d) Law
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Offender.
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According to the authors, _____ is the most visible penalty imposed by the American criminal Justice system. a) Imprisonment b) Probation c) Parole d) The death sentence
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Imprisonment.
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Probationary sentences emphasize guidance and _____ in the community. a) Employment b) Educational attainment c) Supervision d) Family connectivity
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Supervision.
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The most frequent applied set of sentencing guidelines used throughout the US is the: a) Minnesota Sentencing Guidelines b) New York Sentencing Guidelines c) Pennsylvania Sentencing Guidelines d) George Sentencing Guidelines
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Minnesota Sentencing guidelines
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____ asserts that a person who has infringed on the rights of others deserves to be penalized or punished. a) Deterrence b) Retribution c) Incapacitation d) Rehabilitation
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Retribution
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According to the concept of ____, offenders are returned to society once they are treated. a) Deterrence b) Retribution c) Incapacitation d) Rehabilitation
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Rehabilitation
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Depriving an offender of the ability to commit crimes against society, usually by detention in prison, is: a) Deterrence b) Retribution c) Incapacitation d) Rehabilitation
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Incapacititation
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Judges my deviate from the sentencing guidelines if aggravating or ____ circumstances exist. a) Mitigating b) Fixed c) Purposeful d) Exaggerating
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Mitigating
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In the famous US v Booker decision, the Supreme Court found that sentencing guidelines were: a) Mandatory b) Discretionary c) Necessary d) Binding
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Discretionary
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Restorative Justice sees crime as a violation against which of the following? a) Victim and community b) Offender and state c) Community and state d) Victim and offender
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Victim and community.
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The country that gave the word its first penitentiary is: a) England b) France c) Egypt d) US
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US
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Many ideas that arose from the Enlightenment fostered the thinking that crime is caused by: a) Human nature b) Forces in the environment c) Biology d) Sin
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Forces in the environment.
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The___ was a penitentiary system developed in PA in which each inmate was held in isolation from other inmates. a) Congregate system b) Assemble system c) Separate confinement system d) Segregated confinement system
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Segregated confinement system.
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The “congregate” system of prison discipline was first instituted at the : a) Walnut Street Jail b) Sin Sing Penitentiary c) Eastern Penitentiary d) Auburn penitentiary
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Auburn penitentiary
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The first institution to embody the principles of the Cincinnati Prison Congress was: a) Sing Sing Prison b) Auburn State Penitentiary c) Elmira Reformatory d) Cincinnati City Prison
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Elmira Reformatory
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With the rise of the medical model, the emphasis in corrections shifted to: a) Vocational programs for criminals b) Educational programs for offenders. c) The treatment and diagnosis of criminals d) Work release programs for criminals
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The treatment and diagnosis of criminals.
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According to the _____ model of corrections, criminals can be controlled appropriately through more direct use of incarceration and other forms of strict supervision. a) Due process b) Crime control c) Medical d) Reformatory
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Crime control.
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The purpose of punishment as a public spectacle was: a) Immediate deterrence b) Specific deterrence c) Exhibition of the sovereign’s power d) Both crime control and exhibition of the sovereign’s power
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Both crime control and exhibition of the sovereign’s power.
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Lex talionis embodies which of the following principles? a)Punishment should correspond in degree and kind to the offense b) An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth is legal punishment c) Punishment needs to be proportionate. d) All of the above
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All of the above.
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The founder of the Classical School of Criminology was: a) Cesare Beccaria b) John Howard c) Cesare Lombroso d) Jeremy Bentham
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Cesare Beccaria
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The dominant social institution during the Middle Ages in England and Europe was: a) The king b) The sheriff c)The penitentiary d) The church
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The church.
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______ was an English prison reformer whose research and writing led to the passage of the Penitentiary Act of 1779 by the House of Commons. a) Frank Shepard b) Jeremy Bentham c) Michael Rourke d) John Howard
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John Howard
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Probation and Parole Officers state that their original decision to become involved in this particular career field is based on their desire to: a) Become financially secure b) Help people c) Take criminals out of society d) Advance their careers
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Help people.
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What is the central purpose of corrections? a) To rehabilitate offenders b) To protect society c) To carry out the criminal sentence d) To correct behavior
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To carry out the criminal sentence.
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Approximately ______ of all people under correctional supervision are living in the community on probation or parole. a) 1/5 b) ½ c) 1/3 d) 2/3
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2/3
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Organizations develop ______ to keep operating with inmates having regular and predictable responses to the staff. a) Routines b) Policies c) Procedures d) All of the above
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All of the above.
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According to the text, every aspect of the corrections field raises questions that concern deeply held values about: a) Money b) Politics c) Social relations d) Punishment
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Social relations.