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Corrections Chapter 3

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The country that gave the world its first penitentiary is: a. England. b. France. c. Egypt. d. the United States.
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d. the United States.
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In New England, the Puritans maintained a society governed by what type of principles? a. Legal. b. Religious. c. Socialist. d. Capitalist.
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b. Religious.
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The concept of separate confinement was introduced in several locations, however one became the fullest expression of rehabilitation through separate confinement. a. Maryland b. NY State Penitentiary, Auburn c. New Jersey d. Eastern State Penitentiary d. Eastern State Penitentiary
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d. Eastern State Penitentiary
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Ideas of the Enlightenment fostered the thinking that crime is caused by: a. human nature. b. forces in the environment. c. biology. d. sin.
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b. forces in the environment.
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The __________ was a penitentiary system developed in Pennsylvania in which each inmate was held in isolation from other inmates. a. congregate system b. assemble system c. separate confinement system d. segregated confinement system
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c. separate confinement system
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The “congregate” system of prison discipline was first instituted at the: a. Walnut Street Jail. b. Sing Sing Penitentiary. c. Eastern Penitentiary. d. Auburn Penitentiary.
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d. Auburn Penitentiary.
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The first institution to embody the principles of the Cincinnati Prison Congress was: a. Sing Sing Prison. b. Auburn State Penitentiary c. Elmira Reformatory. d. Cincinnati City Prison.
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c. Elmira Reformatory.
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With the rise of the medical model, the emphasis in corrections shifted to: a. vocational programs for criminals. b. educational programs for offenders. c. the treatment and diagnosis of criminals. d. work release programs for criminals
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c. the treatment and diagnosis of criminals
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Between 1790 and 1830, the population in urban America had: a. sharply declined. b. sharply increased. c. stayed mostly the same. d. none of the above.
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b. sharply increased.
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During the 19th century, American society became increasingly: a. desperate. b. heterogeneous. c. homogeneous. d. rural.
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b. heterogeneous.
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Separate confinement was first implemented in: a. Eastern State Penitentiary. b. Western State Penitentiary. c. Auburn Penitentiary. d. Walnut Street Jail.
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d. Walnut Street Jail.
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The penitentiary was to be a place where: a. offenders were isolated from bad influences in society. b. offenders were isolated from one another. c. where offenders could reflect on their misdeeds. d. all of these.
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d. all of these.
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The opening of Eastern State Penitentiary in 1829 marked the full development of the: a. the congregate system. b. the labor system. c. the separate confinement system. d. the Howard system.
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c. the separate confinement system.
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According to the text, The medical model of corrections was beginning to be taken seriously through implementation in the ____________. a. 1910’s b. 1920’s c. 1930’s d. 1940’s
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c. 1930’s
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In the convict lease system, prisoners are: a. punished harshly. b. transported. c. used for labor by private interests. d. confined to work in their cells.
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c. used for labor by private interests.
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During the Progressive Reform Era, two main strategies were implemented. They included improving conditions in social environments and ______________. a. feeding inmates better food. b. ensuring prisoners were not in solitude. c. reintegrating inmates into society. d. rehabilitating individual offenders.
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d. rehabilitating individual offenders.
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An institution intended to isolate prisoners from society and each other so that they could reflect on their past misdeeds, repent, and undergo reformation is the: a. panopticon. b. gaol. c. reformatory. d. penitentiary.
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d. penitentiary.
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According to the text, Serious attempts made to implement what became known as the medical model of corrections began in the: a. 1890s. b. 1920s. c. 1940s. d. 1960s.
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c. 1940s.
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The __________ approach to criminology is based on the assumption that human behavior is a product of biological, economic, psychological, and social factors, and that the scientific method can be applied to ascertain the causes of individual behavior. a. Classical School b. Positivist School c. Progressive School d. Neoclassical School
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b. Positivist School
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The __________ was an institution for young offenders that emphasized training, a mark system of classification, indeterminate sentences, and parole. a. penitentiary b. jail c. juvenile detention center d. reformatory
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d. reformatory
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The leasing of convicts to private entrepreneurs took hold in the: a. North. b. West. c. South. d. East.
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c. South.
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Eastern State Penitentiary was designed by: a. John Howard b. John Haviland c. Jeremy Benthem d. Cessare Lombroso
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b. John Haviland
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By the mid-1800s, reformers were __________ with the penitentiary. a. satisfied b. delighted c. disillusioned d. distrustful
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c. disillusioned
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Within 40 years of being built, penitentiaries had become: a. understaffed. b. overcrowded. c. financially burdened. d. all of these.
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d. all of these.
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According to community based corrections, the goal of the criminal justice system is to: a. punish the offender. b. reintegrate the offender. c. focus on the victim. d. achieve justice.
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b. reintegrate the offender.
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The Pennsylvania System focused on the isolation of inmates and serving penance.
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True
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English trends and practices greatly influenced American corrections.
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True
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The Auburn System focused on a congregate system of operations.
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True
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Social and political values greatly influence correctional thought and practices.
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True
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The positivist school looked to free will and rational thought as the reason for crime.
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False
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The original penitentiary relied on penance and contemplation as the means for the criminal offender to move from sin toward perfection.
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true
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Within 40 years of their initiation, penitentiaries had become overcrowded, understaffed, and minimally financed.
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True
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Correctional practices developed similarly across the United States.
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False
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Corrections based on the assumption that criminal behavior can be treated is known as the crime control model.
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False
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An institution intended to isolate offenders from society and one another so they could reflect on their misdeeds, repent, and undergo reformation is called a _____________.
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penitentiary
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The Progressives looked to _________, ___________, ____________, and ___________ rather than religious or moral explanations for the causes of crime.
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social, economic, biological, and psychological
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In an increasingly heterogeneous urban and industrial society, responsibility for the criminal became the province of the ________ and its __________.
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state; institutions
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After the Civil War southern legislatures passed _____________ designed to control newly freed African Americans.
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Black Codes
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The medical model of corrections is based on the assumption that criminal behavior is caused by social, psychological, or biological deficiencies that require ____________.
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treatment
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Progressives implemented probation, _______________ and parole throughout the United States.
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indeterminate sentences
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Progressives wanted to know the life history of an offender so that they could devise an _______________ treatment program.
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individualized
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The first director of the Bureau of Prisons upon authorization from congress in 1929 was ______________________.
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Sanford Bates
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The 1980’s in corrections centered on crime control through ________________ and risk containment.
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incarceration
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The social and political climate of the 1960s gave rise to a _____________ model of corrections.
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crime control
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Lease system
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Contractors exchange food and clothing for convict labor
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Positivist school
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Sociological, biological, & psychological causes of crime
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congregate system
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Developed in Auburn NY
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contract labor system
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Done by inmate labor
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mark system
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Earned through behavior, education and labor
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penitentiary
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Isolates prisoners from society
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reformatory
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Designed for young offenders
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community corrections
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Reintegration is the goal
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“crime control model
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Incarceration and supervision control behavior
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medical model
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Treatment is required for offenders