Please enter something

Corrections AJC

question

parole
answer

conditional release of inmates by a parole board prior to the expiration of their sentence
question

alexander maconochie
answer

superintendent of the british penal colony on Norfolk Island from 1841 to 1844 who created a system of marks for good behavior and graduate from prison
question

mark system
answer

credits against a sentence that allowed for inmates to be released once they earned the required level of marks through work and good behavior
question

ticket of leave
answer

a form of release used by Maconochie: once prisoners earning required level of marks received a conditional pardon and released back into the community
question

Sir walter Crofton
answer

director of the irish prison system in 1854 which implemented many of the ideas of Maconochies work
question

Zebulon Brockway
answer

leading u.s. penologist who was a proponent of adopting the Irish system.First superintendent of the Elmira Reformatory
question

Elmira Reformatory
answer

first reformatory in the U.S. opened in 1876 and used the principles of the Irish system, indeterminate sentences and parole
question

justice model
answer

the model for sentencing proposed by Fogel that would use flat, determinate sentences, eliminate parole boards, and make all treatment voluntary
question

Just dessert model
answer

model for sentencing proposed by von Hirsch that had fixed sentences for each crime so that the punishment fit the crime
question

Discretionary parole
answer

release of inmates in which the decision to release is made by a parole board
question

supervised mandatory release
answer

type of release in which inmates serve a determinate sentence and are the released, but with a period of supervision to follow
question

unconditional mandatory release
answer

type of release which inmates serve full portion of their sentence and have no supervision after release from prison
question

parole guidelines
answer

similar to sentencing guidelines, these use predictive factors to determine the offenders risk to the community and chance for success. guidelines prescribe presumptive time to serve based on the seriousness of the crime and factors predictive of success for each inmate.
question

salient factor score
answer

point determination for each inmate for use with parole guidelines, the score is based on factors predictive of success on parole
question

hearing officer
answer

officers who are not appointed parole board members yet they hold parole hearings and make recommendations to the parole board regarding inmates’ release.
question

presumptive parole date
answer

a date the inmates can expect to be released on parole, even if it is 5 or 10 years later than the hearing
question

positive contact
answer

face to face contact between a parole officer and an offender
question

violation
answer

failure to follow conditions of parole supervision
question

Morrissey v. Brewer
answer

1972 U.S. supreme court decision that once parole is granted, a liberty interest is created and offenders must have certain due process to revoke that liberty
question

prisoner reentry
answer

process of an inmate leaving prison and returning to the community
question

racial disparity
answer

the fact that minorities make up a greater percentage of those under correctional supervision than their makeup in the U.S. population
question

drug offenders
answer

those convicted of crimes regarding the pocession or sale of drugs
question

male offenders
answer

men who are convicted and sentenced; they constitute over 93% of all prison inmates
question

general population
answer

inmates in prison who do not have any specific designation as a special type of offender
question

female offenders
answer

women whoa re convicted and sentenced; just over 7% of prison inmates are female
question

parenting programs
answer

prison programs to assist inmates to improve their parenting skills, even while in prison
question

Girl Scouts Behind Bars
answer

Girl Scout troops that have their chapter based in a prison so inmates with children can participate as Scout parents
question

substance abuse programs
answer

programs for offenders to reduce their likelyhood of further abuse of alcohol or drugs
question

Barefield v. Leach
answer

1974 federal court decision that a disparity of programs for female inmates could not be justified b/c the small # of female inmates made it more costly to provide program parity
question

Pargo v. Elliot
answer

1985 eighth circuit court case that allowed that differences in programs between male and female prisons does not necessarily violate the equal protection clause of the constitution
question

status offense
answer

activity that is considered a crime only because the offender is under 18 yrs old and would not be a crime if committed by an adult; including activities such as running away from home, ungovernability, truancy, or underage drinking
question

Refuge period
answer

1824-1899when delinquents or neglected children were placed in a home for training and discipline
question

Juvenile Justice system
answer

handle juveniles separate from adult offenders, based on the concept of Parens patriace, which was used as the basis for giving the court the authority to take over supervision of children when parents fail to provide care and guidance
question

parens patriace
answer

“parents of the nation” established to allow officials to take charge of delinquent children and place them in poor houses or orphanages to gain control of them; in more modern times, this doctrine was expanded and is basis for juvenile court. emphasis on reform and rehabilitation
question

deinstitutionalize
answer

the move to remove juveniles from correctional institutions and place them in community alternatives
question

Superpredator
answer

term created by Dilalio to describe a generation of violent youths who practiced almost indiscriminant violence on the street
question

wavier to adult courts
answer

because the serious nature of a juvenile offender’s crime, statutory exceptions were granted to allow the movement from juvenile to adult courts for criminal processing
question

dependent children
answer

children who, although committing no legal offense, may be without a parent or guardian, possibly b/c the parent is physically or mentally unable to act in that capacity
question

neglected children
answer

children who have a family or guardian but are not receiving proper care or the situation in the home is harmful to them and their upbringing
question

delinquent children
answer

children who have committed an act that would be considered criminal if committed by an adult
question

age of original jurisdiction
answer

upper or oldest age that a juvenile court will have jurisdiction over categories of offenders
question

juvenile detention
answer

temporary care of children in physically restricted facilities pending court disposition or transfer to another jurisdiction or agency
question

intake
answer

determination if a juvenile case should be dismissed, handled informally, or referred to the juvenile court
question

consent degree
answer

informal handling of a juvenile justice case, in which the delinquent juvenile admits to wrongdoing and agrees to specific conditions of behaviors, informal probation
question

referral
answer

formal processing of a juvenile offense through the juvenile court
question

delinquency petition
answer

statement of the delinquent acts a juvenile is alleged to have committed; similar to an indictment for adults
question

adjudicate
answer

to find a juvenile guilty of a delinquent act
question

order
answer

sanction for a juvenile found delinquent by juvenile court; similar to the sentence for an adult
question

aftercare
answer

supervision of a juvenile in the community after serving time in a juvenile correctional institution; similar to parole for adults
question

In re Gault
answer

1967 U.S. supreme court case requiring that in hearings which a juvenile may be committed to an institution, they must have the right to counsel, to notice of the charges against them, question witness, protection against self-incrimination
question

Juvenile gangs
answer

group of adolescents or young adults who see themselves as a group and have been involved in enough crimes to be of considerable concern to law enforcement and community
question

special offenders
answer

offenders whose circumstances, conditions, or behavior requires management or treatment outside of the normal approach to supervision
question

blended sentencing
answer

middle ground between juvenile and adult sentences that allows judges to choose from a broad array of both juvenile and adult sanctions
question

straight adult incarceration
answer

form of incarceration in which juveniles handled by adult courts are placed in adult prisons with no separate housing or differentation in programming or job assignments
question

graduated incarceration
answer

system in which juveniles handled by adult courts are placed in juvenile facilities until they turn 18; they are transferred to an adult prison to complete the sentence
question

segregated incarceration
answer

form of incarceration which juveniles handled by adult courts are assigned to adult prisons, yet housed separately and are put in programs to meet their age and needs
question

drug use forcasting
answer

surveys of jailed inmates by the U.S. Department of Justice to determine the extent of drug use related to criminality
question

anti-psychotic drugs
answer

used to counteract symptoms of their mental illness, often allowing them to live successfully in the community rather than needing to be institutionalized
question

supermax prison
answer

either freestanding or distinct units within other prisons that provide for the management and secure control of inmates designated as violent or seriously disruptive in other prisons
question

Bruscino v. carlson
answer

1985 federal court decision that the lock down of inmates at the U.S. penitentiary in Marion, Illinois, was not a violation of the Constitution
question

Sex offenders
answer

offenders who have committed a legally prohibited sex act
question

Containment Model
answer

approach to manage sex offenders includes treatment to control deviant thoughts supervision and surveillance to control behavior
question

Director
answer

chief executive officer of a state or federal department of corrections
question

Inspector
answer

a person in a department of corrections who investigates allegations by inmates against staff
question

custody
answer

the functions within a prison that come under the security activities and includes all “uniformed”employees such as correctional officers and correctional supervisors
question

treatment
answer

the creation of an environment and provision of rehabilitative programs that encourage inmates to accept responsibility and to address personal disorders that make success in the community more difficult
question

services
answer

functions required to operate a prison such as budget and financial, maintenance,human resource management, food and health services, work programs, commissary functions and laundry operation
question

employee awards program
answer

program to recognize and reward staff who perform beyond their expected level
question

unit management
answer

organizing a prison into smaller components by decentralizing the authority to manage the inmate population while making staff more accessible to inmates
question

unit manager
answer

the staff person who is in charge of the unit, including housing security and treatment issues
question

case manager
answer

sometimes called social worker or case worker; responsible for developing the program of work and rehabilitation for inmates assigned to him or her
question

correctional counselor
answer

former correctional officer who works with inmates on prison issues such as creating a visiting or telephone list or getting a prison job assignment
question

American Correctional Association
answer

largest professional organization for corrections in the U.S.
question

policy audit
answer

a review to ascertain whether board agency policy is in place at the prison
question

policy implementation audit
answer

a review to identify whether the procedures prescribed by policy are consistently being carried out by staff in their daily duties
question

ACA Accreditation
answer

a process to promote and recognize improvement in the management of correctional agencies through the administration of voluntary standards
question

internal classification system
answer

instruments used to assign inmates to housing or programs after they are placed in a particular prison
question

inmate disciplinary system
answer

a policy that clearly prescribes the process required to find that an inmate committed a proscribed act and identifies allowable punishment for each act. key to controlling inmate behaviors
question

Administrative appeals process
answer

informal process for inmates to appeal a disciplinary sanction or to seek remedy of any other injustice they feel they have received at the hands of correctional officials
question

integrity interview
answer

interviews of candidates for correctional employment used to determine if the candidate has issues or conditions that could put them in a compromising situation or make them more likely to accept bribes to show favored treatment to an inmate
question

collective bargaining
answer

formal recognition of employee organizations and their right to negotiate with management regarding workplace issues
question

seniority
answer

the use of the length of employment to determine an employee’s assignment, days off, or other job-related functions