Comperative Study of Antony Cleapetra and All for Love Essay
This is a list of modern literary movements: that is, movements after the Renaissance.
These terms, helpful for curricula or anthologies, evolved over time to group certain writers who are often loosely related. Some of these movements (such as Dada and Beat) were defined by the members themselves, while other terms (the metaphysical poets, for example) emerged decades or centuries after the periods in question. Ordering is approximate, as there is considerable overlap.These are movements either drawn from or influential for literature in the English language. Amatory fiction •Romantic fiction written in the 18th and 19th centuries.
oNotable authors: Eliza Haywood, Delarivier Manley Cavalier Poets •17th-century English royalist poets, writing primarily about courtly love, called Sons of Ben (after Ben Jonson). oNotable authors: Richard Lovelace, William Davenant Metaphysical poets •17th-century English movement using extended conceit, often (though not always) about religion. Notable authors: John Donne, George Herbert, Andrew Marvell The Augustans •18th century literary movement based chiefly on classical ideals, satire and skepticism. oNotable authors: Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift Romanticism •19th century (1800 to 1860) movement emphasizing emotion and imagination, rather than logic and scientific thought. Response to the Enlightenment. oNotable authors: Victor Hugo, Lord Byron and Camilo Castelo Branco Gothic novel •Fiction in which Romantic ideals are combined with an interest in the supernatural and in violence.
Notable authors: Ann Radcliffe, Bram Stoker Lake Poets •A group of Romantic poets from the English Lake District who wrote about nature and the sublime. oNotable authors: William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge American Romanticism •Distinct from European Romanticism, the American form emerged somewhat later, was based more in fiction than in poetry, and incorporated a (sometimes almost suffocating) awareness of history, particularly the darkest aspects of American history. oNotable authors: Washington Irving, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Pre-Raphaelitism 19th century, primarily English movement based ostensibly on undoing innovations by the painter Raphael. Many were both painters and poets. oNotable authors: Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Christina Rossetti Transcendentalism •19th-century American movement: poetry and philosophy concerned with self-reliance, independence from modern technology.
oNotable authors: Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau Dark romanticism •19th-century American movement in reaction to Transcendentalism.Finds man inherently sinful and self-destructive and nature a dark, mysterious force. Notable authors: Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, George Lippard Realism •Late-19th century movement based on a simplification of style and image and an interest in poverty and everyday concerns. oNotable authors: Gustave Flaubert, William Dean Howells, Stendhal, Honore de Balzac, Leo Tolstoy, Frank Norris and Eca de Queiroz Naturalism •Also late 19th century. Proponents of this movement believe heredity and environment control people.
oNotable authors: Emile Zola, Stephen Crane Symbolism Principally French movement of the fin de siecle based on the structure of thought rather than poetic form or image; influential for English language poets from Edgar Allan Poe to James Merrill. oNotable authors: Stephane Mallarme, Arthur Rimbaud, Paul Valery Stream of consciousness •Early-20th century fiction consisting of literary representations of quotidian thought, without authorial presence. oNotable authors: Virginia Woolf, James Joyce Modernism •Variegated movement of the early 20th century, encompassing primitivism, formal innovation, or reaction to science and technology. Notable authors: Ezra Pound, T.
S. Eliot, H. D. , James Joyce, Gertrude Stein and Fernando Pessoa The Lost Generation •It was traditionally attributed to Gertrude Stein and was then popularized by Ernest Hemingway in the epigraph to his novel The Sun Also Rises, and his memoir A Moveable Feast. It refers to a group of American literary notables who lived in Paris and other parts of Europe from the time period which saw the end of World War I to the beginning of the Great Depression. oNotable Authors: F.
Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, Ezra Pound, Waldo Pierce Dada Touted by its proponents as anti-art, dada focused on going against artistic norms and conventions. oNotable authors: Guillaume Apollinaire, Kurt Schwitters First World War Poets•British poets who documented both the idealism and the horrors of the war and the period in which it took place. oNotable authors: Siegfried Sassoon, Rupert Brooke, Wilfred Owen Stridentism •Mexican artistic avant-garde movement. They exalted modern urban life and social revolution.
oNotable authors: Manuel Maples Arce, Arqueles Vela, German List Arzubide Los Contemporaneos A Mexican vanguardist group, active in the late 1920s and early 1930s; published an eponymous literary magazine which served as the group’s mouthpiece and artistic vehicle from 1928-1931. oNotable authors: Xavier Villaurrutia, Salvador Novo Imagism •Poetry based on description rather than theme, and on the motto, “the natural object is always the adequate symbol. ” oNotable authors: Ezra Pound, H. D.
, Richard Aldington Harlem Renaissance •African American poets, novelists, and thinkers, often employing elements of blues and folklore, based in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City in the 1920s. Notable authors: Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston Surrealism •Originally a French movement, influenced by Surrealist painting, that uses surprising images and transitions to play off of formal expectations and depict the unconscious rather than conscious mind. oNotable authors: Jean Cocteau, Jose Maria Hinojosa, Andre Breton Southern Agrarians •A group of Southern American poets, based originally at Vanderbilt University, who expressly repudiated many modernist developments in favor of metrical verse and narrative. Some Southern Agrarians were also associated with the New Criticism. Notable authors: John Crowe Ransom, Robert Penn Warren Oulipo •Mid-20th century poetry and prose based on seemingly arbitrary rules for the sake of added challenge. oNotable authors: Raymond Queneau, Walter Abish Postmodernism •Postwar movement skeptical of absolutes and embracing diversity, irony, and word play.
oNotable authors: Jorge Luis Borges, Thomas Pynchon, Alasdair Gray Black Mountain Poets •A self-identified group of poets, originally based at Black Mountain College, who eschewed patterned form in favor of the rhythms and inflections of the human voice. oNotable authors: Charles Olson, Denise Levertov, Robert Creeley Beat poets