Communication Chapter 12

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style
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The distinctive way a speech is presented that makes it memorable, which is achieved primarily through the speaker’s use of language. Described by Roman orator, Cicero.
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delivery
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The actual presentation of the speech to the audience. Described by Roman orator, Cicero. A skillful ________ involves effective use of the voice and all the nonverbal cues that are incorporated into a presentation.
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Speaker credibility
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The impression listeners form of a speaker in a given public-speaking context and at a given time. The introduction of a speech needs to establish this.
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Derived credibility
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Credibility based on what you say and how you behave. It develops as the audience listens to you speak. The credibility of your information and your presentation skills affect this.
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terminal credibility
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The long-term impression you leave behind–what happens after the listeners go how and think about your speech. As they reflect on what you said, their impressions of your credibility and competence as a speaker will change and solidify.
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5 presentation skills that assist in effective delivery of speeches
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1. Use language and words that are clear, vivid and appropriate 2. Vary the rate, pitch and volume of the voice 3. Apply correct and appropriate pronunciation, articulation and grammar. 4. Incorporate a variety of nonverbal cues in the presentation: appearance, posture, body movement and gestures, facial expression and eye contact 5. Develop and use presentation aids to enhance the speech.
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Competent language
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Enhances the listeners’ understanding and enthusiasm for a speech by the use f words that are clear, vivid and appropriate.
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Clear language
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Uses words in such a way that listeners understand and can easily comprehend the meaning of the speaker’s message. Achieve this by being sensitive to how the meanings of words and phrases vary from one person to another and by using words that are concrete and familiar to your listeners.
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vivid language
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Promotes enthusiasm for a speech by bringing the speaker’s message to life, and by moving the audience emotionally. Makes a speech and its main points memorable, engaging and real for the listeners. It can be achieved through the use of: 1. Imagery 2. Figures of speech 3. Other techniques
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Imagery
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The creation of mental pictures and imagine sensory experiences through description. One way to achieve vivid language.
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Figures of speech
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Include simile, metaphor, analogy, the rhetorical question, alliteration and repetition. One way to achieve vivid language.
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simile
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An explicit comparison that compares two unlike things using the words like or as. A type of figure of speech that can be used to carry out vivid language.
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metaphor
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Implies a comparison between two unlike things, but it does so without using the words like or as. It is a type of figure of speech that can be used to carry out vivid language.
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Analogy
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An extended simile or metaphor that asks the listeners to accept that things that seem alike in most respects will be alike in the respect being discussed. A type of figure of speech that can be used to carry out vivid language.
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Rhetorical question
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These are asked for effect rather than to get a real answer from the listeners. A type of rhetorical device that can be used to carry out vivid language.
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Alliteration
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Involves the repetition of the same consonant sound in a series of words or phrases to draw attention to certain ideas, and help listeners remember what is said. A type of rhetorical device that can be used to carry out vivid language.
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repetition
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Occurs when the speaker repeats the same word or phrase several times in a section of a speech. A type of rhetorical device that can be used to carry out vivid language.
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appropriate language
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Presents information in a way that respects and treats all audience members as equals without being condescending or using biased language and stereotypes.
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condescending language
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Language that speaks down to your audience and may be offensive. Avoid the use of this language in order to be respectful and treat your audience members as equals.
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biased language
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Language that uses words or phrases that derive their meaning from stereotypes based on gender, race, ethnic group, age, sexual orientation or disability.
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vocal variety
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heightens and maintains audience attention and interest in your speech by varying the rate (fast vs. slow), pitch (high vs. low), and volume (loud vs. soft) of your voice.
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rate
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The speed at which a speaker delivers a speech. Good public speakers vary their speed. Some public speakers talk too fast (due to nervousness) or talk too slow (bores listeners). Ways to fix this is: 1. Slow down to gain control of your speech 2. Pause silently to allow listeners a moment to think about it.
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Pitch
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The highness or lowness of the speaking voice. Competent speakers try to achieve a more effective _____ by adjusting it to a slightly lower or higher timbre. Varying your ____ can keep audience’s attention and can emphasize important points in your speech.
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Volume
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The intensity, the loudness or softness, of the speaker’s voice. Effective speakers vary their ____ based on the size of the audience, the size of the room, and the amount of background noise they may be speaking against.
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public voice
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Makes use of increased variety in volume, rate and pitch, so that your words are easily heard and understood by the entire audience.
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articulation
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Forming individual speech sounds correctly with your mouth, so they combine to product an understandable word.
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Pronunciation
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Focuses on stressing and accenting the right syllables in a word.
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Grammar
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Includes the rules and structure for putting words together in sentences.
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appearance
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Includes your clothing, shoes, jewelry, hairstyle and even hair adornments. You should modify your _______ so it is appropriate for the occasion.
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Posture
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Defined as a position or attitude of body parts that communicates your attitude. During your speech, move about purposefully within the speaking area.
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gestures
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The large and small movements of the hands and arms that communicate meaning. They reinforce what you say, emphasize important points, and make presentations more interesting to watch as well as more natural and relaxed. They communicate openness to the audience and a sense of involvement. You want to move in a way that is natural to you and matches the content of what you are saying.
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facial expression
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The vehicle you use to communicate how you feel about what you are saying to the audience. Match your ________ to the content of what you are saying at the moment.
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Eye contact
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A tool you can use to promote a sense of involvement with audience members that can make you seem credible, dynamic, believable, likeable and persuasive.
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transparent delivery
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Presenting a speech in such a way that the audience does not focus on the elements of delivery, but instead pays full attention to the message. To do this, rehearse your speech several times (try practicing with an audience and start practicing earlier).
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Presentation aids
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Any materials you show to or share with the audience that assist in illustrating or supporting the content of ypur speech, and add interest and excitement to it.
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Types of presentation aids
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1. Objects and models 2. diagrams and drawings 3. pictures, photographs and maps 4. Charts and graphs 5. Tables and lists
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Public speaking anxiety (stage fright)
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Refers to a person’s fear or anxiety associated with an expected or actual public-speaking event. The more formal and unfamiliar the occasion, the larger the audience, and the more important the goals, the more nervous people become about giving a speech.
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Causes of public speaking anxiety
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1. Previous negative experience with public speaking 2. Identification with the wrong public-speaking models 3. Unrealistic attitudes and expectations about public speaking
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Webcast presentations
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Involve information and data transmission over the web that is one way and does not allow for interaction between the presenter and the audience. Typically are informative or persuasive presentations or a combo of both
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Web conferencing
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Involves information and data transmission over the web that is two way and does allow for interaction between the presenter and the audience. Typically are informative or persuasive presentations or a combo of both.
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Webinars
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Web based seminars, workshops or trainings transmitted over the web. They are typically instructional and focused on education and training.
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body of speech
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the bulk of your speech. It is the important information you want to share with your audience.
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organizational pattern
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Figuring out what order your main points will be in in the body of your speech.Different patterns are appropriate depending on the type of presentation you are delivering.
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Oral citations
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Must include 1. Author 2. Source 3. Date
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words/phrases
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these include transitions such as first, second, third, next, in addition to, on the other hand, at the same time
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preview
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a type of transition that is a statement indicating to your audience that you are about to shift to a new topic.
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restate-forecast
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A type of transition where you restate your last main point and then state the main point you will discuss next. For example, if you were discussing Type I diabetes first and then you were going to discuss Type II diabetes, you would say, “now that you know what Type I diabetes is, we can move on to Type II diabetes.”
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Internal summary
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A type of transition that provides a concise review of material covered during the body of the speech. For example, you could say, “so far we have discussed two types of transitions, words and phrases and restate/forecast, now the third type is an internal summary.”
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Signposts
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Transitions that tell your audience exactly where you are in your presentation. Examples of this include “In conclusion”, “In summary”, and “To begin.”
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Goals of the introduction
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1. Get your audience to listen (attention grabber) 2. Establish your expertise (You can establish your credibility by including a statement about your qualifications.) 3. Reveal to your audience the topic of your presentation. 4. Set the appropriate tone for your presentation 5. Create a bond of goodwill (let the audience know that you have their best interest in mind)
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Types of attention getters
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1. Startling statement 2. Actual/rhetorical question (chunk a few rhetorical questions together) 3. Actual/hypothetical story 4. Quote 5. Brief demonstration (show a movie clip or piece of music) 6. Joke/humorous story 7. Examples
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motivation step
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The step in the introduction where you convince your audience that the information in your presentation is something they personally need to hear. You are motivating your audience to listen to you by explaining to them what relevance the topic has to their lives. Reference the audience with a personal pronoun! Eg. “You may not personally have diabetes, but there is a good chance that someone in your life does currently or will in the near future. If someone close to you contracts this disease, you are going to want to be knowledgeable so that you can support them in their time of need. “
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purpose statement
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The step in the introduction where you give away your topic.
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Preview statement
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The step in the introduction where you list your main points you will be discussing in the body of your speech.
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Parts of the conclusion
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1. Summary 2. Closure
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call to action
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A type of closure that is only used in persuasive speeches. Your final chance to state what you want your audience to do or believe after listening to your presentation.
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initial credibility
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credibility based on what the audience knows about you before hearing you speak. Introduction of speech needs to help to establish this.
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systematic desensitization
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Assumes that anxiety results from becoming overly emotional and nervous. So it desensitizes a speaker’s feelings and emotional reactions to public speaking by using positive visualization.
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cognitive modification
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assumes that negative thoughts are the root of anxiety. It changes and modifies any unrealistic belief about public speaking. Before giving a speech, you work on changing your negative thoughts to positive ones.
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skills training
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assumes that anxiety stems from a speaker’s inadequate public skills repertoire. Targets the improvement of speaking behaviors.

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